CAV2

Gene Summary

Gene:CAV2; caveolin 2
Aliases: CAV
Location:7q31.2
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a major component of the inner surface of caveolae, small invaginations of the plasma membrane, and is involved in essential cellular functions, including signal transduction, lipid metabolism, cellular growth control and apoptosis. This protein may function as a tumor suppressor. This gene and related family member (CAV1) are located next to each other on chromosome 7, and express colocalizing proteins that form a stable hetero-oligomeric complex. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified for this gene. Additional isoforms resulting from the use of alternate in-frame translation initiation codons have also been described, and shown to have preferential localization in the cell (PMID:11238462). [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:caveolin-2
Source:NCBIAccessed: 15 March, 2017

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 15 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 15 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CAV2 (cancer-related)

Shi D, Liu Y, Xi R, et al.
Caveolin-1 contributes to realgar nanoparticle therapy in human chronic myelogenous leukemia K562 cells.
Int J Nanomedicine. 2016; 11:5823-5835 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is characterized by the t(9;22) (q34;q11)-associated Bcr-Abl fusion gene, which is an essential element of clinical diagnosis. As a traditional Chinese medicine, realgar has been widely used for the treatment of various diseases for >1,500 years. Inspired by nano-drug, realgar nanoparticles (NPs) have been prepared with an average particle size of <100 nm in a previous work. Compared with coarse realgar, the realgar NPs have higher bioavailability. As a principal constituent protein of caveolae, caveolin-1 (Cav-1) participates in regulating various cellular physiological and pathological processes including tumorigenesis and tumor development. In previous studies, it was found that realgar NPs can inhibit several types of tumor cell proliferation. However, the therapeutic effect of realgar NPs on CML has not been fully elucidated. In the present paper, it was demonstrated that realgar NPs can inhibit the proliferation of K562 cells and degrade Bcr-Abl fusion protein effectively. Both apoptosis and autophagy were activated in a dose-dependent manner in realgar NPs treated cells, and the induction of autophagy was associated with class I phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway. Morphological analysis indicated that realgar NPs induced differentiation effectively in CML cells. Furthermore, it was identified that Cav-1 might play a crucial role in realgar NP therapy. In order to study the effects of Cav-1 on K562 cells during realgar NP treatment, a Cav-1 overexpression cell model was established by using transient transfection. The results indicated that Cav-1 overexpression inhibited K562 cell proliferation, promoted endogenic autophagy, and increased the sensitivity of K562 cells to realgar NPs. Therefore, the results demonstrated that realgar NPs degraded Bcr-Abl oncoprotein, while the underlying mechanism might be related to apoptosis and autophagy, and Cav-1 might be considered as a potential target for clinical comprehensive therapy of CML.

Yuan S, Wang L, Chen X, et al.
Triptolide inhibits the migration and invasion of human prostate cancer cells via Caveolin-1/CD147/MMPs pathway.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2016; 84:1776-1782 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most common type of carcinoma and the 5th leading cause of cancer-related death in males. Triptolide, is a main and effective component of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F, which exerts an broad-spectrum anti-malignant tumor function. However, the effect of triptolide on migration and invasion of human prostate cancer cells is still poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrated that triptolide significantly inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion of prostate cancer cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is regarded as a major structural protein of caveolae and participated in lipid transport, signal transduction and tumor progression. Triptolide treatment inhibited the expression of tumor promoter Cav-1 and reduced CD147 and MMPs activities at both mRNA and protein levels. Meanwhile, triptolide treatment combined with Cav-1 knockdown in PCa cells enhanced the effects of anti-migration and anti-invasion, and those effects were restored following Cav-1-rescued. Together, our research indicates that triptolide represses the migration and invasion through Cav-1/CD147/MMPs pathway in PCa cells, which gives a better understanding of triptolide in clinical aggressive prostate cancer therapy.

Buchanan PJ, McCloskey KD
CaV channels and cancer: canonical functions indicate benefits of repurposed drugs as cancer therapeutics.
Eur Biophys J. 2016; 45(7):621-633 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The importance of ion channels in the hallmarks of many cancers is increasingly recognised. This article reviews current knowledge of the expression of members of the voltage-gated calcium channel family (CaV) in cancer at the gene and protein level and discusses their potential functional roles. The ten members of the CaV channel family are classified according to expression of their pore-forming α-subunit; moreover, co-expression of accessory α2δ, β and γ confers a spectrum of biophysical characteristics including voltage dependence of activation and inactivation, current amplitude and activation/inactivation kinetics. CaV channels have traditionally been studied in excitable cells including neurones, smooth muscle, skeletal muscle and cardiac cells, and drugs targeting the channels are used in the treatment of hypertension and epilepsy. There is emerging evidence that several CaV channels are differentially expressed in cancer cells compared to their normal counterparts. Interestingly, a number of CaV channels also have non-canonical functions and are involved in transcriptional regulation of the expression of other proteins including potassium channels. Pharmacological studies show that CaV canonical function contributes to the fundamental biology of proliferation, cell-cycle progression and apoptosis. This raises the intriguing possibility that calcium channel blockers, approved for the treatment of other conditions, could be repurposed to treat particular cancers. Further research will reveal the full extent of both the canonical and non-canonical functions of CaV channels in cancer and whether calcium channel blockers are beneficial in cancer treatment.

Kowalska K, Nowakowska M, Domińska K, Piastowska-Ciesielska AW
Coexpression of CAV-1, AT1-R and FOXM1 in prostate and breast cancer and normal cell lines and their influence on metastatic properties.
Acta Biochim Pol. 2016; 63(3):493-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study was to evaluate the coexpression of caveolin-1 (CAV-1), angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1-R) and forkhead box Ml (FOXM1) in prostate and breast cancer cell lines, in comparison with normal cell lines. CAV-1, AT1-R and FOXM1 expression was determined by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis in the prostate cancer cell lines PC3, DU145 and LNCaP; prostate normal cell line PNT1A; breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231; and the normal breast cell line 184A1. A correlation between the expression levels of the investigated genes and their metastatic properties was determined by the Spearman's rank test (P<0.05) and Aspin-Welsch t-test, respectively. In prostate cell lines, a significant correlation was noted between CAV-1 and AT1-R expression and between FOXM1 and CAV-1 expression. A correlation between the expression levels of the investigated genes and their metastatic potential was also observed, with relatively high expression of all the investigated genes in the normal prostate cell line PNT1A. In comparison to prostate cancer cell lines, an adverse dependency between CAV-1, AT1-R, FOXM1 expression and metastatic potential was observed in the breast cancer cell lines. Relatively high expression of all tested genes was observed in the normal breast cell line 184A1, which was decreasing respectively with increasing metastatic potential of breast cancer cell lines. The results obtained here indicate that CAV-1, FOXM1 and AT1-R may be potential markers of tumorigenesis in certain types of cancer in vitro.

Lee EJ, Park MK, Kim HJ, et al.
Epithelial membrane protein 2 regulates sphingosylphosphorylcholine-induced keratin 8 phosphorylation and reorganization: Changes of PP2A expression by interaction with alpha4 and caveolin-1 in lung cancer cells.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016; 1863(6 Pt A):1157-69 [PubMed] Related Publications
Sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC) is found at increased in the malignant ascites of tumor patients and induces perinuclear reorganization of keratin 8 (K8) filaments that contribute to the viscoelasticity of metastatic cancer cells. However, the detailed mechanism of SPC-induced K8 phosphorylation and reorganization is not clear. We observed that SPC dose-dependently reduced the expression of epithelial membrane protein 2 (EMP2) in lung cancer cells. Then, we examined the role of EMP2 in SPC-induced phosphorylation and reorganization of K8 in lung cancer cells. We found that SPC concentration-dependently reduced EMP2 in A549, H1299, and other lung cancer cells. This was verified at the mRNA level by RT-PCR and real-time PCR (qPCR), and intracellular variation through confocal microscopy. EMP2 gene silencing and stable lung cancer cell lines established using EMP2 lentiviral shRNA induced K8 phosphorylation and reorganization. EMP2 overexpression reduced K8 phosphorylation and reorganization. We also observed that SPC-induced loss of EMP2 induces phosphorylation of JNK and ERK via reduced expression of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). Loss of EMP2 induces ubiquitination of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). SPC induced caveolin-1 (cav-1) expression and EEA1 endosome marker protein but not cav-2. SPC treatment enhanced the binding of cav-1 and PP2A and lowered binding of PP2A and alpha4. Gene silencing of EMP2 increased and gene silencing of cav-1 reduced migration of A549 lung cancer cells. Overall, these results suggest that SPC induces EMP2 down-regulation which reduces the PP2A via ubiquitination induced by cav-1, which sequestered alpha4, leading to the activation of ERK and JNK.

Zhang K, Yang G, Wu W, et al.
Decreased Expression of Caveolin-1 and E-Cadherin Correlates with the Clinicopathologic Features of Gastric Cancer and the EMT Process.
Recent Pat Anticancer Drug Discov. 2016; 11(2):236-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Recent researches and relevant patents have been reported to prove the significant value of Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) in cancer diagnosis and treatment.
OBJECTIVE: Our study aimed to study the role of Cav-1 in gastric cancer progression and investigate the relationship between Cav-1/E-cadherin expression and the clinical status of gastric cancer.
METHOD: Immunohistochemistry was applied to detect the expression of Cav-1 and E-cadherin in gastric cancer in a tissue microarray. Real-time PCR was used to further detect the mRNA expression of Cav-1 and E-cadherin in tumor-derived and peritumoral tissues and in different gastric cancer cell lines. The expression of E-cadherin was analyzed by Western Blot and the cell migration ability was examined by Transwell migration assays after downregulation of Cav-1 using siRNA.
RESULTS: The staining of Cav-1 and E-cadherin were both strong in all 5 of the normal gastric tissues, while in gastric cancer tissues the staining of Cav-1 and E-cadherin were downregulated (44&33 negative, 21&22weak and 5&15 strong). And their level was correlated with tumor clinical stage, pathological grade, and metastasis status. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between Cav-1 expression and E-cadherin expression in gastric cancer tissues(r = 0.42, P < 0.05). Knockdown of Cav-1 resulted in decreased expression of E-cadherin, cell morphology changes and elevated migration ability of gastric cancer cells.
CONCLUSION: Decreased expression of Cav-1 and E-cadherin may play an important role in the progression of gastric cancer; Knockdown of Cav-1 may promote EMT of gastric cancer by targeting E-cadherin.

Sugie S, Mukai S, Yamasaki K, et al.
Significant Association of Caveolin-1 and Caveolin-2 with Prostate Cancer Progression.
Cancer Genomics Proteomics. 2015 Nov-Dec; 12(6):391-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Up-regulation of caveolin (CAV)-1 is associated with aggressive prostate cancer. Recently, it has been inferred that CAV2, a co-factor sub-type of CAV1, cross-talks with CAV1 and promotes tumor growth. We previously reported that plasma CAV1 levels are elevated in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), but not in hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (non-CRPC), implying that CAV1 may be a therapeutic target for CRPC. However, a correlation of CAV1 and CAV2 expression in PC has not yet been reported. Herein, we analyzed associations between PC progression and plasma CAV1 and -2 in Japanese men, and expression of CAV1 and -2 in PC3 (CRPC) and LNCaP (non-CRPC) cell lines.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated plasma samples from 36 patients with CRPC and 22 with non-CRPC. We used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to determine plasma levels of CAV1 and -2, and examined correlations with clinicopathological characteristics such as Gleason grade and clinical T stage. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to evaluate CAV1 and CAV2 mRNA in PC cell lines. We also introduced CAV1- and CAV2-specific small interfering (siRNA) into PC3 cells to knock-down (KD) both molecules, and examined its influence on the expression of these genes between PC3 CAV1 and -2 KD cells and control cells.
RESULTS: Plasma CAV1 and -2 levels in patients with CRPC were significantly higher than in those with non-CRPC (CAV1, p=0.003; CAV2, p<0.001). Plasma levels of CAV1 and -2 were significantly correlated (p<0.001). However, we did not find any significant relationship between CAV1 or CAV2 expression and clinicopathological factors. ELISA and real-time qRT-PCR showed that both proteins and mRNAs in PC3 cells were significantly over-expressed compared to LNCaP cells (p<0.001). In PC3 CAV1 KD cells, expression of CAV2 was suppressed and confirmed the linkage of CAV2 KD and suppression of CAV1 expression.
CONCLUSION: There was a significant correlation between plasma CAV-1 and -2 levels and progression of PC. CAV1 and -2 were highly expressed in the PC3 compared to the LNCaP cell line. Our findings support the potential of these molecules as therapeutic targets for CRPC.

Zou W, Ma X, Hua W, et al.
Caveolin-1 mediates chemoresistance in cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cells by targeting apoptosis through the Notch-1/Akt/NF-κB pathway.
Oncol Rep. 2015; 34(6):3256-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
Caveolin-1 (Cav-1), a family of ubiquitously expressed oligomeric structural proteins in many mammalian cells, has been shown to be an effective regulator of tumorigenesis. Recent studies have indicated that Cav-1 can promote resistance to chemotherapy in a variety of tumors. However, the regulation of Cav-1 on chemoresistance in ovarian cancer is still unknown. In the present study, the mRNA and protein expression level was investigated by RT-PCR and western blot analysis, respectively, and the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) value was measured by MTT assay. The protein expression level of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), Notch-1, p-Akt and p-NF-κB p65 were detected using western blot analysis and the apoptotic ratio was determined using the Annexin V-FITC/PI detection kit. The results showed that the mRNA and protein expression levels of Cav-1 were significantly higher in SKOV3/DDP and A2780/DDP than in SKOV3 and A2780, respectively. Knockdown of Cav-1 significantly decreased the IC50 value in cisplatin-resistant cells. The protein expression level of P-gp in SKOV3/DDP and A2780/DDP was significant higher than SKOV3 and A2780, respectively, and had no correlation with the Cav-1 siRNA transfection. The apoptotic ratio induced by cisplatin in normal ovarian cancer cells was higher than cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cells, and knockdown of Cav-1 could significantly enhance cisplatin induced cell apoptosis. Furthermore, knockdown of Cav-1 was also able to significantly downregulate the protein expression level of Notch-1, p-Akt and p-NF-κB p65 in cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cells. Overexpression of Cav-1 upregulated the IC50 value, but under the effect of Notch-1 siRNA or LY294002 or PDTC, the IC50 value was markedly decreased. Our results suggested that Cav-1 can promote the chemoresistance of ovarian cancer by targeting apoptosis through the Notch-1/Akt/NF-κB pathway.

Totta P, Gionfra F, Busonero C, Acconcia F
Modulation of 17β-Estradiol Signaling on Cellular Proliferation by Caveolin-2.
J Cell Physiol. 2016; 231(6):1219-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
The sex hormone 17β-estradiol (E2) exerts pleiotropic effects by binding to the ligand-activated transcription factor estrogen receptor α (ERα). The E2:ERα complex regulates several physiological processes, including cell survival and proliferation, through transcriptional effects (i.e., estrogen responsive element [ERE]-based gene transcription) and non-transcriptional membrane-initiated effects (i.e., the activation of extra-nuclear signaling cascades), which derive from the activation of the pool of ERα that is localized to plasma membrane caveolae. Caveolae are ω-shaped membrane sub-domains that are composed of scaffold proteins named caveolins (i.e., caveolin-1, caveolin-2, and caveolin-3). Although caveolin-3 is exclusively expressed in muscles, caveolin-1 and caveolin-2 are co-expressed in all human tissues. From a functional point of view, caveolin-2 can operate both dependently on and independently of caveolin-1, which is the main coat component of caveolae. Interestingly, while a functional interplay between caveolin-1 and ERα has been reported in the control of E2-induced physiological effects, the role of caveolin-2 in E2:ERα signaling within the cell remains poorly understood. This study shows that siRNA-mediated caveolin-2 depletion in breast ductal carcinoma cells (MCF-7) reduces E2-induced ERα phosphorylation at serine residue 118 (S118), controls intracellular receptor levels, precludes ERα-mediated extra-nuclear activation of signaling pathways, reduces ERα transcriptional activity, and prevents cellular proliferation. Meanwhile, the impact of caveolin-1 depletion on ERα signaling in MCF-7 cells is shown to be similar to that elicited by siRNA-mediated caveolin-2 depletion. Altogether, these data demonstrate that caveolin-2 expression is necessary for the control of E2-dependent cellular proliferation.

Ebisawa M, Iwano H, Nishikawa M, et al.
Significance of caveolin-1 and matrix metalloproteinase 14 gene expression in canine mammary tumours.
Vet J. 2015; 206(2):191-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Canine mammary tumours (CMTs) are the most common neoplasms affecting female dogs. There is an urgent need for molecular biomarkers that can detect early stages of the disease in order to improve accuracy of CMT diagnosis. The aim of this study was to examine whether caveolin-1 (Cav-1) and matrix metalloproteinase 14 (MMP14) are associated with CMT histological malignancy and invasion. Sixty-five benign and malignant CMT samples and six normal canine mammary glands were analysed using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Cav-1 and MMP14 genes were highly expressed in CMT tissues compared to normal tissues. Cav-1 especially was overexpressed in malignant and invasive CMT tissues. When a CMT cell line was cultured on fluorescent gelatin-coated coverslips, localisation of Cav-1 was observed at invadopodia-mediated degradation sites of the gelatin matrix. These findings suggest that Cav-1 may be involved in CMT invasion and that the markers may be useful for estimating CMT malignancy.

Caiola E, Marrazzo E, Alesci S, et al.
∆Np73beta induces caveolin-1 in human non-small cell lung cancer cell line H1299.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(2):2015-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
Caveolins have recently attracted attention for their possible involvement in signal transduction. Their role in cancer is debated, being reported both a suppressive and oncogenic role in different experimental conditions. Caveolin-1 is regulated by the tumor suppressor p53 which is able to bind its promoter and activate transcription. We had previous evidences indicating that a specific p73 isoform, namely ∆Np73β, when overexpressed in NCI-H1299 induced growth arrest and cell death. By gene expression analysis in cell transiently overexpressed with ∆Np73β, a strong induction of caveolin-1 was found. Caveolin was induced both at mRNA and protein level, and we characterised the promoter sequence of the gene encoding for caveolin-1 and found that the promoter region containing the putative p53 (and hence p73) binding sequence was responsive to ∆Np73β, but not to ∆Np73α and ∆Np73γ which do not induce growth arrest as ∆Np73β does. A reduction in cell adhesion was observed in ∆Np73β overexpressing cells, again supporting a possible role of caveolins in determining these effects. By using specific siRNA directed against human caveolin-1, we could not however antagonize the effects induced by ∆Np73β. Although caveolin-1 represents one of the genes whose expression is strongly activated by ∆Np73β, we could not define a role of caveolin-1 as a mediator of ∆Np73β associated growth arrest. It could well be that the expression of caveolin-1 is able to mediate other activities of ∆Np73β, and studies are in progress to determine whether its expression is mainly associated to metastatic spread.

Yu F, Xie D, Ng SS, et al.
IFITM1 promotes the metastasis of human colorectal cancer via CAV-1.
Cancer Lett. 2015; 368(1):135-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
Interferon-induced transmembrane protein 1 (IFITM1) is one of the interferon-induced transmembrane protein family members. In this study, we reported that the elevated IFITM1 expression in human colorectal cancer (CRC) significantly correlated with CRC lymph node and distance metastasis as well as a more advanced clinical stage. Importantly, elevated IFITM1 expression is an independent prognostic factor for poor survival. To investigate the molecular mechanisms, we showed that over-expression of IFITM1 in CRC cells promoted, whereas knockdown of IFITM1 expression inhibited, cell migration/invasion and tumorigenicity in vitro. Furthermore, we identified Caveolin-1 (CAV1) as a downstream target of IFITM1-induced cell invasion, as knockdown of CAV1 abrogated siIFITM1 mediated inhibition of cell invasion in CRC cells. In addition, in a CRC cohort of 229 patients, the expression of IFITM1 inversely correlated with the expression of CAV1. These results suggested that IFITM1 promotes the aggressiveness of CRC cells, and it is a potential prognostic marker and therapeutic target for CRC.

Sayhan S, Diniz G, Karadeniz T, et al.
Expression of caveolin-1 in peritumoral stroma is associated with histological grade in ovarian serous tumors.
Ginekol Pol. 2015; 86(6):424-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated that Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) can ambiguously behave as tumor suppressor or tumor promoter in different neoplasms, depending on cancer type. Some findings have also revealed that cell proliferation, migration and invasion were attenuated by the knockdown of Caveolin-1 expressions. However, the functional and prognostic significance of Caveolin-1 in most tumors remains to be fully elucidated.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate a possible association between tissue Caveolin-1 expression and the clinicopathologic features of ovarian serous tumors.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Caveolin-1 expression was studied in a total of 82 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens of ovarian serous tumors and its association with different clinicopathologic parameters was evaluated.
RESULTS: The study included 36 (43.9%) benign, 12 (14.6%) borderline and 34 (41.5%) malignant serous tumors. Mean patient age was 43.9 ± 14.4 years (17-72 years). Statistical analysis revealed that if the tumor becomes more aggressive and invasive, it losses the stromal Caveolin-1 expression (p = 0.001). Also, parallel changes between stromal and perivascular Caveolin-1 expressions were observed.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrated a link between Caveolin-1 expression and the aggressiveness of ovarian cancer. Therefore, it seems safe to suggest that Cav-1 may act as a differential diagnostic biomarker in ovarian serous tumors.

Auzair LB, Vincent-Chong VK, Ghani WM, et al.
Caveolin 1 (Cav-1) and actin-related protein 2/3 complex, subunit 1B (ARPC1B) expressions as prognostic indicators for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2016; 273(7):1885-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) and Actin-Related Protein 2/3 Complex, Subunit 1B (ARPC1B) have been implicated in various human cancers, yet its role in tumorigenesis remains controversial. Therefore, this study aims to determine the protein expression of these two genes in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) and to evaluate the clinical and prognostic impact of these genes in OSCC. Protein expressions of these two genes were determined by immunohistochemistry technique. The association between Cav-1 and ARPC1B with clinico-pathological parameters was evaluated by Chi-square test (or Fisher exact test where appropriate). Correlation between the protein expressions of these 2 genes with survival was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression models. Cav-1 and ARPC1B were found to be significantly over-expressed in OSCC compared to normal oral mucosa (p = 0.002 and p = 0.033, respectively). Low level of ARPC1B protein expression showed a significant correlation with lymph node metastasis (LNM) (p = 0.010) and advanced tumor staging (p = 0.003). Kaplan-Meier survival analyses demonstrated that patients with over-expression of Cav-1 protein were associated with poor prognosis (p = 0.030). Adjusted multivariate Cox regression model revealed that over-expression of Cav-1 remained as an independent significant prognostic factor for OSCC (HRR = 2.700, 95 % CI 1.013-7.198, p = 0.047). This study demonstrated that low-expression of ARPC1B is significantly associated with LNM and advanced tumor staging whereas high expression of Cav-1 can be a prognostic indicator for poor prognosis in OSCC patients.

Luan TY, Zhu TN, Cui YJ, et al.
Expression of caveolin-1 is correlated with lung adenocarcinoma proliferation, migration, and invasion.
Med Oncol. 2015; 32(7):207 [PubMed] Related Publications
Both tumor suppressor and tumor promoter roles, which are dependent on the tumor type, have been described for caveolin-1 (CAV-1). Because CAV-1 can modulate cell signaling, we tested the hypothesis that it regulates lung adenocarcinoma cell proliferation and metastasis via modulation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activity. The lung adenocarcinoma cell line, GLC-82, was transfected with pcDNA3.1CAV-1 plasmid, before cell proliferation, migration, and invasion were analyzed. In the in vivo xenograft model, the relationship between the CAV-1 expression and EGFR phosphorylation and signaling was assessed by western blot analysis. The relationship between the CAV-1 as well as Ki67 expression and the clinicopathological characteristics of 68 lung adenocarcinoma patients was also examined using immunohistochemistry. Overexpression of CAV-1 significantly increased GLC-82 proliferation (p < 0.001), migration (p < 0.001), and invasion (p = 0.002) as well as EGFR and ERK phosphorylation (p < 0.05). The GLC-82/CAV-1 cell tumors were also significantly larger than those of control cells (all p ≤ 0.05). In lung adenocarcinoma patients, CAV-1 expression was positively correlated with lymph node metastasis and cancer stage. Finally, CAV-1 expression was associated with the expression of Ki-67, a marker of cell proliferation. CAV-1 enhanced GLC-82 cell proliferation, migration, and invasion possibly through EGFR and ERK signaling. Furthermore, the relationship of CAV-1 with Ki67 expression, a marker of proliferative capacity, in lung adenocarcinoma samples is suggestive of its role in disease progression. Further studies are required to confirm the role of CAV-1 in the metastasis of lung adenocarcinoma as well as its potential prognostic and therapeutic value.

Faggi F, Codenotti S, Poliani PL, et al.
MURC/cavin-4 Is Co-Expressed with Caveolin-3 in Rhabdomyosarcoma Tumors and Its Silencing Prevents Myogenic Differentiation in the Human Embryonal RD Cell Line.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(6):e0130287 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether MURC/cavin-4, a plasma membrane and Z-line associated protein exhibiting an overlapping distribution with Caveolin-3 (Cav-3) in heart and muscle tissues, may be expressed and play a role in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), an aggressive myogenic tumor affecting childhood. We found MURC/cavin-4 to be expressed, often concurrently with Cav-3, in mouse and human RMS, as demonstrated through in silico analysis of gene datasets and immunohistochemical analysis of tumor samples. In vitro expression studies carried out using human cell lines and primary mouse tumor cultures showed that expression levels of both MURC/cavin-4 and Cav-3, while being low or undetectable during cell proliferation, became robustly increased during myogenic differentiation, as detected via semi-quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblotting analysis. Furthermore, confocal microscopy analysis performed on human RD and RH30 cell lines confirmed that MURC/cavin-4 mostly marks differentiated cell elements, colocalizing at the cell surface with Cav-3 and labeling myosin heavy chain (MHC) expressing cells. Finally, MURC/cavin-4 silencing prevented the differentiation in the RD cell line, leading to morphological cell impairment characterized by depletion of myogenin, Cav-3 and MHC protein levels. Overall, our data suggest that MURC/cavin-4, especially in combination with Cav-3, may play a consistent role in the differentiation process of RMS.

Zhao R, Liu K, Huang Z, et al.
Genetic Variants in Caveolin-1 and RhoA/ROCK1 Are Associated with Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma Risk in a Chinese Population.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(6):e0128771 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The RhoA/ROCK pathway and Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) participate in the process of tumorigenesis in numerous types of cancer. Up-regulation of RhoA/ROCK and Cav-1 expression is considered to be associated with the development and progression of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). We investigated the association between genetic variations of RhoA/ROCK and Cav-1 and the risk of ccRCC in the Chinese population.
METHODS: Between May 2004 and March 2014, a total of 1,248 clear cell renal cell carcinoma cases and 1,440 cancer-free controls were enrolled in this hospital-based case-control study. Nine SNPs in RhoA/ROCK and Cav-1 were genotyped using the TaqMan assay.
RESULT: We found two SNPs (Cav-1 rs1049334 and ROCK1 rs35996865) were significantly associated with the increasing risk of ccRCC (P = 0.002 and P < 0.001 respectively). The analysis of combined risk alleles revealed that patients with 2-4 risk alleles showed a more remarkable growth of ccRCC risk than the patients with 0-1 risk alleles(OR = 1.66, 95%CI = 1.31-2.11, P < 0.001). Younger subjects (P = 0.001, OR = 1.83, 95%CI = 1.30-2.57), higher weight subjects (P = 0.001, OR = 1.76, 95%CI = 1.25-2.47), female subjects (P = 0.007, OR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.17-2.62), nonsmokers (P < 0.001, OR = 1.67, 95%CI = 1.26-2.23), drinkers (P = 0.025, OR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.07-2.85), subjects with hypertension (P = 0.025, OR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.07-2.85) and diabetes (P = 0.026, OR = 4.31, 95% CI = 1.19-15.62) showed a stronger association between the combined risk alleles and the risk of ccRCC by using the stratification analysis. Furthermore, we observed higher Cav-1 mRNA levels in the presence of the rs1049334 A allele in normal renal tissues.
CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that the two SNPs (Cav-1 rs1049334 and ROCK1 rs35996865) and genotypes with a combination of 2-4 risk alleles were associated with the risk of ccRCC. The functional SNP rs1049334 may affect the risk of ccRCC by altering the expression of Cav-1 and the relevance between the risk effects and the functional impact of this polymorphism needs further validation.

Chatterjee M, Ben-Josef E, Thomas DG, et al.
Caveolin-1 is Associated with Tumor Progression and Confers a Multi-Modality Resistance Phenotype in Pancreatic Cancer.
Sci Rep. 2015; 5:10867 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is a 21 kDa protein enriched in caveolae, and has been implicated in oncogenic cell transformation, tumorigenesis, and metastasis. We explored roles for Cav-1 in pancreatic cancer (PC) prognostication, tumor progression, resistance to therapy, and whether targeted downregulation could lead to therapeutic sensitization. Cav-1 expression was assessed in cell lines, mouse models, and patient samples, and knocked down in order to compare changes in proliferation, invasion, migration, response to chemotherapy and radiation, and tumor growth. We found Cav-1 is overexpressed in human PC cell lines, mouse models, and human pancreatic tumors, and is associated with worse tumor grade and clinical outcomes. In PC cell lines, disruption/depletion of caveolae/Cav-1 reduces proliferation, colony formation, and invasion. Radiation and chemotherapy up-regulate Cav-1 expression, while Cav-1 depletion induces both chemosensitization and radiosensitization through altered apoptotic and DNA repair signaling. In vivo, Cav-1 depletion significantly attenuates tumor initiation and growth. Finally, Cav-1 depletion leads to altered JAK/STAT, JNK, and Src signaling in PC cells. Together, higher Cav-1 expression is correlated with worse outcomes, is essential for tumor growth and invasion (both in vitro and in vivo), is responsible for promoting resistance to therapies, and may serve as a prognostic/predictive biomarker and target in PC.

Wala SJ, Karamchandani JR, Saleeb R, et al.
An integrated genomic analysis of papillary renal cell carcinoma type 1 uncovers the role of focal adhesion and extracellular matrix pathways.
Mol Oncol. 2015; 9(8):1667-77 [PubMed] Related Publications
Papillary renal cell carcinoma (pRCC) is the second most common RCC subtype and can be further classified as type 1 (pRCC1) or 2 (pRCC2). There is currently minimal understanding of pRCC1 pathogenesis, and treatment decisions are mostly empirical. The aim of this study was to identify biological pathways that are involved in pRCC1 pathogenesis using an integrated genomic approach. By microarray analysis, we identified a number of significantly dysregulated genes and microRNAs (miRNAs) that were unique to pRCC1. Integrated bioinformatics analyses showed enrichment of the focal adhesion and extracellular matrix (ECM) pathways. We experimentally validated that many members of these pathways are dysregulated in pRCC1. We identified and experimentally validated the downregulation of miR-199a-3p in pRCC1. Using cell line models, we showed that miR-199a-3p plays an important role in pRCC1 pathogenesis. Gain of function experiments showed that miR-199a-3p overexpression significantly decreased cell proliferation (p = 0.013). We also provide evidence that miR-199a-3p regulates the expression of genes linked to the focal adhesion and ECM pathways, such as caveolin 2 (CAV2), integrin beta 8 (ITGB8), MET proto-oncogene and mammalian target of rapamycin (MTOR). Using a luciferase reporter assay, we further provide evidence that miR-199a-3p overexpression decreases the expression of MET and MTOR. Using an integrated gene/miRNA approach, we provide evidence linking miRNAs to the focal adhesion and ECM pathways in pRCC1 pathogenesis. This novel information can contribute to the development of effective targeted therapies for pRCC1, for which there is none currently available in the clinic.

Liu X, Wang J, Sun G
Identification of key genes and pathways in renal cell carcinoma through expression profiling data.
Kidney Blood Press Res. 2015; 40(3):288-97 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To isolate key genes and pathways in renal cell carcinoma (RCC), which might reveal more evidences on the regulation network and contribute to pathogenic mechanisms of RCC.
METHODS: Microarray data of GSE34676, GSE23926 and GSE48008 were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and differentially expressed miRNAs were respectively screened using Limma package, followed by the selection of CNV associated genes and miRNAs. A multi-molecular regulation interaction network was constructed, and significant modules were subsequently isolated from the network by Molecular Complex Detection (Mcode) of Cytoscape. Finally, GO terms and KEGG pathways of these genes and miRNAs in significant modules were enriched using DAVID.
RESULTS: Total 403 DEGs and 231 differentially expressed miRNAs were screened in RCC samples and normal group. Moreover, 1369 genes and 68 miRNAs were isolated by CNV analysis. Besides, a total of 59 miRNAs and 209 genes that related to 340 interaction pairs were analyzed and used to construct the network and 2 significant modules were identified. In the modules, CAV1 and CAV2 were shown to correlate with RCC. GNAI1, GPSM2 and GNAO1 were likely involved in the regulation of RCC through G protein signal transduction. Besides, G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway, focal adhesion, MAPK signaling pathway and neuroactive ligand receptor interaction were enriched.
CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that several crucial genes including CAV1,CAV2, GNAI1, GPSM2, and GNAO1 and pathways may play key roles in RCC progression.

Wang YP, Lin CF, Tsai SC, et al.
Upregulation of Caveolin-1 correlate with Akt expression and poor prognosis in NPC patients.
Laryngoscope. 2015; 125(7):E231-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to investigate the role of Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) progression and correlated with clinical outcomes.
METHODS: We used quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) to detect the difference in the expression of mRNA level of Cav-1 mRNA in NPC, non-NPC cell lines, and 74 NPC and 29 nontumorous nasopharyngeal mucosa biopsies. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry staining were used to detect the protein expression of Cav-1 in cell lines and biopsy tissues. We collected clinical follow-up data to investigate the association with expression of Cav-1 mRNA. Also, transfection of Cav-1 and suppression by delivery of shRNA against Cav-1 into NPC derived cell lines to analyze its influence in Akt signaling.
RESULTS: By use of qPCR, immunohistochemical staining, and western blotting, we found that not only is Cav-1 overexpressed in human NPC tumor cells and NPC-derived cell lines but high Cav-1 mRNA expression is associated with poor overall survival time of NPC patients. Furthermore, phosphorylated Akt expression was enhanced by Cav-1 transfection and suppressed by delivery of shRNA against Cav-1. These data suggested a possible regulatory mechanism of Cav-1 on Akt signaling pathway. We also transfected the Cav-1 construct and shRNA in TW01 cells to prove the effect on Akt protein expression.
CONCLUSIONS: Overexpression of Cav-1 is related to poor prognosis in NPC patients, which correlated with Akt signaling pathway. Abrogation of Akt signaling by shRNA-mediated knockdown of Cav-1 decreased malignant properties of tumor cells. These data suggest the potential for Cav-1 as a possible novel therapeutic target in NPC treatment.

Faggi F, Chiarelli N, Colombi M, et al.
Cavin-1 and Caveolin-1 are both required to support cell proliferation, migration and anchorage-independent cell growth in rhabdomyosarcoma.
Lab Invest. 2015; 95(6):585-602 [PubMed] Related Publications
Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a childhood soft tissue tumor with broad expression of markers that are typically found in skeletal muscle. Cavin-1 is a recently discovered protein actively cooperating with Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) in the morphogenesis of caveolae and whose role in cancer is drawing increasing attention. Using a combined in silico and in vitro analysis here we show that Cavin-1 is expressed in myogenic RMS tumors as well as in human and primary mouse RMS cultures, exhibiting a broad subcellular localization, ranging from nuclei and cytosol to plasma membrane. In particular, the coexpression and plasma membrane interaction between Cavin-1 and Cav-1 characterized the proliferation of human and mouse RMS cell cultures, while a downregulation of their expression levels was observed during the myogenic differentiation. Knockdown of Cavin-1 or Cav-1 in the human RD and RH30 cells led to impairment of cell proliferation and migration. Moreover, loss of Cavin-1 in RD cells impaired the anchorage-independent cell growth in soft agar. While the loss of Cavin-1 did not affect the Cav-1 protein levels in RMS cells, Cav-1 overexpression and knockdown triggered a rise or depletion of Cavin-1 protein levels in RD cells, respectively, in turn reflecting on increased or decreased cell proliferation, migration and anchorage-independent cell growth. Collectively, these data indicate that the interaction between Cavin-1 and Cav-1 underlies the cell growth and migration in myogenic tumors.

Singh PK, Tiwari AK, Rajmani RS, et al.
Apoptin as a potential viral gene oncotherapeutic agent.
Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2015; 176(1):196-212 [PubMed] Related Publications
The use of viruses for treatment of cancer overcomes the bottlenecks of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Several viruses and their proteins have been evaluated for oncolytic effect. The VP3 protein (apoptin) of chicken anemia virus is one such protein with an inherent ability to lyse cancer and transformed cells while leaving normal cells unharmed. In the present study, the apoptosis inducing potential of VP3 protein of CAV was evaluated in human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa). It was found that in VP3-induced apoptosis, caspase-dependent intrinsic pathway plays an important role with the cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and there was no evidence of involvement of death receptor-mediated extrinsic pathway. The results of this study provide intuitive information and strengthen the candidacy of apoptin as a viral oncotherapeutic agent.

Shen XJ, Zhang H, Tang GS, et al.
Caveolin-1 is a modulator of fibroblast activation and a potential biomarker for gastric cancer.
Int J Biol Sci. 2015; 11(4):370-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Stromal fibroblasts play an important role in chronic cancer-related inflammation and the development as well as progression of malignant diseases. However, the difference and relationship between inflammation-associated fibroblasts (IAFs) and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are poorly understood. In this study, gastric cancer-associated fibroblasts (GCAFs) and their corresponding inflammation-associated fibroblasts (GIAFs) were isolated from gastric cancer (GC) with chronic gastritis and cultured in vitro. These activated fibroblasts exhibited distinct secretion and tumor-promoting behaviors in vitro. Using proteomics and bioinformatics techniques, caveolin-1 (Cav-1) was identified as a major network-centric protein of a sub-network consisting of 121 differentially expressed proteins between GIAFs and GCAFs. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry in a GC cohort showed significant difference in Cav-1 expression score between GIAFs and GCAFs and among patients with different grades of chronic gastritis. Moreover, silencing of Cav-1 in GIAFs and GCAFs using small interfering RNA increased the production of pro-inflammatory and tumor-enhancing cytokines and chemokines in conditioned mediums that elevated cell proliferation and migration when added to GC cell lines AGS and MKN45 in vitro. In addition, Cav-1 status in GIAFs and GCAFs independently predicted the prognosis of GC. Our findings indicate that Cav-1 loss contributes to the distinct activation statuses of fibroblasts in GC microenvironment and gastritis mucosa, and Cav-1 expression in both GCAFs and GIAFs may serve as a potential biomarker for GC progression.

Kobayashi K, Sakurai K, Hiramatsu H, et al.
The miR-199a/Brm/EGR1 axis is a determinant of anchorage-independent growth in epithelial tumor cell lines.
Sci Rep. 2015; 5:8428 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In epithelial cells, miRNA-199a-5p/-3p and Brm, a catalytic subunit of the SWI/SNF complex were previously shown to form a double-negative feedback loop through EGR1, by which human cancer cell lines tend to fall into either of the steady states, types 1 [miR-199a(-)/Brm(+)/EGR1(-)] and 2 [miR-199a(+)/Brm (-)/EGR1(+)]. We show here, that type 2 cells, unlike type 1, failed to form colonies in soft agar, and that CD44, MET, CAV1 and CAV2 (miR-199a targets), all of which function as plasma membrane sensors and can co-localize in caveolae, are expressed specifically in type 1 cells. Single knockdown of any of them suppressed anchorage-independent growth of type 1 cells, indicating that the miR-199a/Brm/EGR1 axis is a determinant of anchorage-independent growth. Importantly, two coherent feedforward loops are integrated into this axis, supporting the robustness of type 1-specific gene expression and exemplifying how the miRNA-target gene relationship can be stably sustained in a variety of epithelial tumors.

Hirsch GE, Parisi MM, Martins LA, et al.
γ-Oryzanol reduces caveolin-1 and PCGEM1 expression, markers of aggressiveness in prostate cancer cell lines.
Prostate. 2015; 75(8):783-97 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is a leading cause of death among men due to the limited number of treatment strategies available for advanced disease. γ-oryzanol is a component of rice bran, rich in phytosterols, known for its antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic and endocrinological effects. It is known that γ-oryzanol may affect prostate cancer cells through the down regulation of the antioxidant genes and that phytosterols have anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects. There are evidences showing that some of the components of γ-oryzanol can modulate genes involved in the development and progression of prostate cancer, as caveolin-1 (Cav-1) and prostate specific androgen-regulated gene (PCGEM1).
METHODS: To determine the effects of γ-oryzanol on prostate cancer cell survival we evaluated the cell viability and biomass by MTT and sulforhodamine B assays, respectively. Cell death, cell cycle and pERK1/2 activity were assessed by flow cytometry. The changes in gene expression involved in the survival and progression of prostate cancer cav-1 and PCGEM1 genes were evaluated by quantitative real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and cav-1 protein by immunofluorescence followed by confocal microscopy analysis.
RESULTS: We found that γ-oryzanol decreases cell viability and culture biomass by apoptosis and/or necrosis death in androgen unresponsive (PC3 and DU145) and responsive (LNCaP) cell lines, and signals through pERK1/2 in LNCaP and DU145 cells. γ-oryzanol also appears to block cell cycle progression at the G2/M in PC3 and LNCaP cells and at G0/G1 in DU145 cells. These effects were accompanied by a down regulation in the expression of the cav-1 in both androgen unresponsive cell lines and PCGEM1 gene in DU145 and LNCaP cells.
CONCLUSION: In summary, we used biochemical and genetics approaches to demonstrate that γ-oryzanol show a promising adjuvant role in the treatment of prostate cancer.

Zhang Y, Qu X, Li C, et al.
miR-103/107 modulates multidrug resistance in human gastric carcinoma by downregulating Cav-1.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(4):2277-85 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-protein-coding small RNAs with the capacity to regulate fundamental biological processes essential for cancer initiation and progression. In the present study, we analyzed miRNA expression levels between multidrug-resistant gastric carcinoma cell line SGC7901/ADR and its parent cell line SGC7901 using a miRNA microarray. MiR-103/107 was downregulated compared with parental SGC7901 cells. Overexpression of miR-103/107 sensitized SGC7901/ADR cells to doxorubicin (DOX), as demonstrated by in vitro and in vivo drug sensitivity assay. We further confirmed that miR-103/107 inhibited P-gp function in gastric cancer SGC7901/ADR cells. Finally, we verified that caveolin-1 (Cav-1), a critical component of lipid rafts, was a target of miR-103/107.

Chang WS, Tsai CW, Wang SM, et al.
Association of caveolin-1 genotypes with renal cell carcinoma risk in Taiwan.
Chin J Physiol. 2014; 57(4):220-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
The alteration of caveolin-1 (Cav-1) during carcinogenesis is of great interest and its over-expression in the tumor cell cytoplasm can predict a poor prognosis of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, whether the over-expression in RCC is associated with inherited polymorphism is not clear. In this hospital-based case-control study, the association of Cav-1 genotypes with RCC risk in a central Taiwanese population was investigated. Ninety-two patients with RCC and five hundred and eighty of age/gender-matched healthy controls were recruited and genotyped for six polymorphic sites at Cav-1, C521A (rs1997623), G14713A (rs3807987), G21985A (rs12672038), T28608A (rs3757733), T29107A (rs7804372), and G32124A (rs3807992). The results showed that there were statistically different distributions of the genotypic (P = 0.0170 and 0.0011) and allelic (P = 0.0033 and 0.0352) frequencies for the Cav-1 G14713A and T29107A polymorphisms among RCC patients and control subjects, respectively. As for the haplotype analysis, subjects carrying "GG/AT or GG/AA" at Cav-1 G14713A/T29107A showed a 2.06-fold increased odds ratio of RCC compared to those with GG/TT, while those of any other combinations were of unaltered odds ratios. In conclusion, this is the first report providing evidence showing that Cav-1 genotype is associated with RCC. The results showed that the G allele of the Cav-1 G14713A and the A allele of the Cav-1 T29107A are risky genetic factors for RCC susceptibility and the combinative GG/AT or GG/AA haplotype at Cav-1 G14713A/T29107A can serve as one of the RCC predictors for Taiwanese.

Mohammad N, Malvi P, Meena AS, et al.
Cholesterol depletion by methyl-β-cyclodextrin augments tamoxifen induced cell death by enhancing its uptake in melanoma.
Mol Cancer. 2014; 13:204 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Despite modern advances in treatment, skin cancer is still one of the most common causes of death in the western countries. Chemotherapy plays an important role in melanoma management. Tamoxifen has been used either alone or in- combination with other chemotherapeutic agents to treat melanoma. However, response rate of tamoxifen as a single agent has been comparatively low. In the present study, we investigated whether treatment with methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MCD), a cholesterol depleting agent, increases the efficacy of tamoxifen in melanoma cells.
METHODS: This was a two-part study that incorporated in vitro effects of tamoxifen and MCD combination by analyzing cell survival, apoptosis and cell cycle analysis and in vivo antitumor efficacy on tumor isografts in C57BL/6J mice.
RESULTS: MCD potentiated tamoxifen induced anticancer effects by causing cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis. Sensitization to tamoxifen was associated with down regulation of antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2, up-regulation of proapoptotic protein Bax, reduced caveolin-1 (Cav-1) and decreased pAkt/pERK levels. Co-administration of tamoxifen and MCD caused significant reduction in tumor volume and tumor weight in mice due to enhancement of drug uptake in the tumor. Supplementation with cholesterol abrogated combined effect of tamoxifen and MCD.
CONCLUSION: Our results emphasize a potential synergistic effect of tamoxifen with MCD, and therefore, may provide a unique therapeutic window for improvement in melanoma treatment.

Durante S, Orienti I, Teti G, et al.
Anti-tumor activity of fenretinide complexed with human serum albumin in lung cancer xenograft mouse model.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(13):4811-20 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Sufficient knowledge regarding cellular and molecular basis of lung cancer progression and metastasis would help in the development of novel and effective strategies for the treatment of lung cancer. 4HPR is a synthetic retinoid with potential anti-tumor activity but is still limited because of its poor bioavailability. The use of albumin as a complexing agent for a hydrophobic drug is expected to improve the water solubility and consequently their bioavailability.This study investigated the antitumor activity of a novel complex between albumin and 4-HPR in a mouse model of human lung cancer and focuses on role and mechanism of Cav-1 mainly involved in regulating cancer and ACSVL3 mainly connected with tumor growth. Their expressions were assayed by immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR, to demonstrate the reduction of the tumor growth following the drug treatment. Our results showed a high antitumor activity of 4HPR-HSA by reduction of the volume of tumor mass and the presence of a high level of apoptotic cell by TUNEL assay. The downregulation of Cav-1 and ACSVL3 suggested a reduction of tumor growth. In conclusion, we demonstrated the great potential of 4HPR-HSA in the treatment of lung cancer. More data about the mechanism of drug delivery the 4HPR-HSA are necessary.

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