Research IndicatorsGraph generated 12 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 11 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (4)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
Search the Epigenomics database and view relevant gene tracks of samples.
Latest Publications: CBLB (cancer-related)
Kwak SY, Kim BY, Ahn HJ, et al.Ionizing radiation-inducible miR-30e promotes glioma cell invasion through EGFR stabilization by directly targeting CBL-B.
FEBS J. 2015; 282(8):1512-25 [PubMed
] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Here we show that miR-30e, which was previously identified as an ionizing radiation-inducible miRNA, enhances cellular invasion by promoting secretion of the matrix metalloproteinase MMP-2. The enhancement of cellular invasion by miR-30e involved up-regulation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and subsequent activation of its downstream signaling mediators, AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinase. EGFR up-regulation by miR-30e occurred due to stabilization of the EGFR protein. The E3 ubiquitin ligase casitas B-lineage lymphoma B (CBL-B) was down-regulated by miR-30e, and this led to increased EGFR abundance. A 3' UTR reporter assay confirmed that CBL-B is a direct target of miR-30e. Knocking down CBL-B expression phenocopied the effects of miR-30e, whereas ectopic expression of CBL-B suppressed miR-30e-induced EGFR up-regulation and invasion. Collectively, our results suggest that targeting miR-30e may limit the invasiveness induced during glioma radiotherapy.
Huang C, Sheng Y, Jia J, Chen LIdentification of melanoma biomarkers based on network modules by integrating the human signaling network with microarrays.
J Cancer Res Ther. 2014; 10 Suppl:C114-24 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: Melanoma is a leading cause of cancer death. Thus, accurate prognostic biomarkers that will assist rational treatment planning need to be identified.
METHODS: Microarray analysis of melanoma and normal tissue samples was performed to identify differentially expressed modules (DEMs) from the signaling network and ultimately detect molecular markers to support histological examination. Network motifs were extracted from the human signaling network. Then, significant expression-correlation differential modules were identified by comparing the network module expression-correlation differential scores under normal and disease conditions using the gene expression datasets. Finally, we obtained DEMs by the Wilcoxon rank test and considered the average gene expression level in these modules as the classification features for diagnosing melanoma.
RESULTS: In total, 99 functional DEMs were identified from the signaling network and gene expression profiles. The area under the curve scores for cancer module genes, melanoma module genes, and whole network modules are 92.4%, 90.44%, and 88.45%, respectively. The classification efficiency rates for nonmodule features are 71.04% and 79.38%, which correspond to the features of cancer genes and melanoma cancer genes, respectively. Finally, we acquired six significant molecular biomarkers, namely, module 10 (CALM3, Ca 2+ , PKC, PDGFRA, phospholipase-g, PIB5PA, and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase), module 14 (SRC, Src homology 2 domain-containing [SHC], SAM68, GIT1, transcription factor-4, CBLB, GRB2, VAV2, LCK, YES, PTCH2, downstream of tyrosine kinase [DOK], and KIT), module 16 (ELK3, p85beta, SHC, ZFYVE9, TGFBR1, TGFBR2, CITED1, SH3KBP1, HCK, DOK, and KIT), module 45 (RB, CCND3, CCNA2, CDK4, and CDK6), module 75 (PCNA, CDK4, and CCND1), and module 114 (PSD93, NMDAR, and FYN).
CONCLUSION: We explored the gene expression profile and signaling network in a global view and identified DEMs that can be used as diagnostic or prognostic markers for melanoma.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between DNA methylation and multidrug resistance (MDR) in glioma and identify novel effectors responsible for MDR in human gliomas. An MDR glioma cell line, SGH-44/ADM, was developed using adriamycin (ADM) impulse treatment. Cryopreservation, recovery and withdrawal were performed to evaluate the stability of SGH-44/ADM cells. The adherence rate and cellular morphology were observed by microscopy, and the cell growth curve and doubling time were determined. DNA methylation was analyzed using a methylated DNA immunoprecipitation microarray chip (MeDIP-Chip). The cell cycle, Rh123 ingestion and exudation, and SGH-44/ADM apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. SGH-44/ADM cells showed little difference as compared with parental cells, except that SGH-44/ADM cells were bigger in size with a wizened nucleus. Compared to SGH-44 cells, a larger proportion of SGH-44/ADM cells remained in G1 and S phase, as measured by flow cytometry. The MDR of SGH-44/ADM was associated with the upregulation of multi-drug resistance 1, prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (COX-2); protein kinase C α (PKCα); however, the expression of these genes was not associated with DNA methylation. In the MeDIP-Chip analysis, 74 functions were markedly enhanced, and seven significant pathways were observed. Genes including SNAP47, ARRB2, PARD6B, TGFB1, VPS4B and CBLB were identified by gene ontology analysis. The predominant molecular mechanism of MDR in SGH-44/ADM cells was identified as exocytosis and efflux. The expression of COX-2, PKCα and P-glycoprotein (Pgp) was not found to be associated with DNA methylation. Genes including SNAP47, VAMP4 and VAMP3 may serve as the downstream effectors of Pgp, COX-2 or PKCα; however, further experiments are required to verify these observations.
BACKGROUND: Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) can induce epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) in many epithelial tumors; however, the molecular mechanism by which this occurs is not clearly understood. Additionally, little is known about the involvement of IGF-I in gastric cancer.
METHODS: Two gastric cancer cell lines were treated with IGF-I to induce EMT and levels of transcription factor ZEB2 and microRNA-200c (miR-200c) were measured. Cells were treated with Akt/ERK inhibitors to investigate the role of these pathways in IGF-I-mediated EMT. Transfection of shRNA plasmids was used to silence the ubiquitin ligase Cbl-b to assess its involvement in this process. The relationship between IGF-IR and Cbl-b expression, and the effect of IGF-IR and Cbl-b on metastasis were analyzed in primary gastric adenocarcinoma patients.
RESULTS: IGF-I-induced gastric cancer cell EMT was accompanied by ZEB2 up-regulation. Furthermore, both Akt/ERK inhibitors and knockdown of Akt/ERK gene reversed IGF-I-induced ZEB2 up-regulation and EMT through up-regulation of miR-200c, suggesting the involvement of an Akt/ERK-miR-200c-ZEB2 axis in IGF-I-induced EMT. The ubiquitin ligase Cbl-b also ubiquitinated and degraded IGF-IR and inhibited the Akt/ERK-miR-200c-ZEB2 axis, leading to the repression of IGF-I-induced EMT. There was a significant negative correlation between the expression of IGF-IR and Cbl-b in gastric cancer patient tissues (r = -0.265, p < 0.05). More of patients with IGF-IR-positive expression and Cbl-b-negative expression were with lymph node metastasis (p < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Together, these findings demonstrate that the ubiquitin ligase Cbl-b represses IGF-I-induced EMT, likely through targeting IGF-IR for degradation and further inhibiting the Akt/ERK-miR-200c-ZEB2 axis in gastric cancer cells.
Hsu TI, Lin SC, Lu PS, et al.MMP7-mediated cleavage of nucleolin at Asp255 induces MMP9 expression to promote tumor malignancy.
Oncogene. 2015; 34(7):826-37 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Nucleolin (NCL) participates in DNA transcription, ribosomal biogenesis and the regulation of RNA stability. However, the contribution of NCL to tumor development is still not clear. Herein, we found that NCL expression correlated with poor prognosis in lung cancer patients. Overexpressed NCL was predominantly cleaved to C-terminal truncated NCL (TNCL). In lung cancer formation, activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor pathway induced NCL expression, and also the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 7, which then cleaved NCL at Asp255 to generate TNCL of 55 kDa. TNCL increased the expression of several oncogenes, including MMP9, anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), HIF1a and CBLB, and decreased the expression of tumor suppressors including BRD4, PCM1, TFG and KLF6 by modulating mRNA stability through binding to the 3'-untranslated regions of their transcripts, thus ultimately enhancing metastasis activity. In conclusion, this study identified a novel role of the cleavage form of NCL generated by MMP7 in stabilizing MMP9 mRNA. We also provide a new insight that MMP7 not only cleaves the extracellular matrix to promote tumor invasion but also cleaves NCL, which augment oncogenesis. Blocking NCL cleavage may provide a useful new strategy for lung cancer therapy.
Tumor dormancy is a highly prevalent stage in cancer progression. We have previously generated and characterized in vivo experimental models of human tumor dormancy in which micro-tumors remain occult until they spontaneously shift into rapid tumor growth. We showed that the dormant micro-tumors undergo a stable microRNA (miRNA) switch during their transition from dormancy to a fast-growing phenotype and reported the identification of a consensus signature of human tumor dormancy-associated miRNAs (DmiRs). miRNA-190 (miR-190) is among the most upregulated DmiRs in all dormant tumors analyzed. Upregulation of miR-190 led to prolonged tumor dormancy in otherwise fast-growing glioblastomas and osteosarcomas. Here we investigate the transcriptional changes induced by miR-190 expression in cancer cells and show similar patterns of miR-190 mediated transcriptional reprogramming in both glioblastoma and osteosarcoma cells. The data suggests that miR-190 mediated effects rely on an extensive network of molecular changes in tumor cells and that miR-190 affects several transcriptional factors, tumor suppressor genes and interferon response pathways. The molecular mechanisms governing tumor dormancy described in this work may provide promising targets for early prevention of cancer and may lead to novel treatments to convert the malignant tumor phenotype into an asymptomatic dormant state.
Mu X, Zhang Y, Qu X, et al.Ubiquitin ligase Cbl-b is involved in icotinib (BPI-2009H)-induced apoptosis and G1 phase arrest of EGFR mutation-positive non-small-cell lung cancer.
Biomed Res Int. 2013; 2013:726375 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is one of the most promising targets for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Icotinib, a highly selective EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI), has shown promising clinical efficacy and safety in patients with NSCLC. The exact molecular mechanism of icotinib remains unclear. In this study, we first investigated the antiproliferative effect of icotinib on NSCLC cells. Icotinib significantly inhibited proliferation of the EGFR-mutated lung cancer HCC827 cells. The IC50 values at 48 and 72 h were 0.67 and 0.07 μ M, respectively. Flow cytometric analysis showed that icotinib caused the G1 phase arrest and increased the rate of apoptosis in HCC827 cells. The levels of cyclin D1 and cyclin A2 were decreased. The apoptotic process was associated with activation of caspase-3, -8, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Further study revealed that icotinib inhibited phosphorylation of EGFR, Akt, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase. In addition, icotinib upregulated ubiquitin ligase Cbl-b expression. These observations suggest that icotinib-induced upregulation of Cbl-b is responsible, at least in part, for the antitumor effect of icotinib via the inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in EGFR-mutated NSCLC cells.
The ubiquitin ligase Cbl-b is an established regulator of T cell immune response thresholds. We recently showed that adoptive cell transfer (ACT) of cblb(-/-) CD8(+) T cells enhances dendritic cell (DC) immunization-mediated anti-tumor effects in immune-competent recipients. However, translation of cblb targeting to clinically applicable concepts requires that inhibition of cblb activity be transient and reversible. Here we provide experimental evidence that inhibition of cblb using chemically synthesized siRNA has such potential. Silencing cblb expression by ex vivo siRNA transfection of polyclonal CD8(+) T cells prior to ACT increased T cell tumor infiltration, significantly delayed tumor outgrowth, and increased survival rates of tumor-bearing mice. As shown by ex vivo recall assays, cblb silencing resulted in significant augmentation of intratumoral T cell cytokine response. ACT of cblb-silenced polyclonal CD8(+) T cells combined with DC-based tumor vaccines predominantly mediated anti-tumor immune responses, whereas no signs of autoimmunity could be detected. Importantly, CBLB silencing in human CD8(+) T cells mirrored the effects observed for cblb-silenced and cblb-deficient murine T cells. Our data validate the concept of enhanced anti-tumor immunity by repetitive ACT of ex vivo cblb siRNA-silenced hyper-reactive CD8(+) T cells as add-on adjuvant therapy to augment the efficacy of existing cancer immunotherapy regimens in clinical practice.
Kang JM, Park S, Kim SJ, et al.CBL enhances breast tumor formation by inhibiting tumor suppressive activity of TGF-β signaling.
Oncogene. 2012; 31(50):5123-31 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Casitas B-lineage lymphoma (CBL) protein family functions as multifunctional adaptor proteins and E3 ubiquitin ligases that are implicated as regulators of signaling in various cell types. Recent discovery revealed mutations of proto-oncogenic CBL in the linker region and RING finger domain in human acute myeloid neoplasm, and these transforming mutations induced carcinogenesis. However, the adaptor function of CBL mediated signaling pathway during tumorigenesis has not been well characterized. Here, we show that CBL is highly expressed in breast cancer cells and significantly inhibits transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) tumor suppressive activity. Knockdown of CBL expression resulted in the increased expression of TGF-β target genes, PAI-I and CDK inhibitors such as p15(INK4b) and p21(Cip1). Furthermore, we demonstrate that CBL is frequently overexpressed in human breast cancer tissues, and the loss of CBL decreases the tumorigenic activity of breast cancer cells in vivo. CBL directly binds to Smad3 through its proline-rich motif, thereby preventing Smad3 from interacting with Smad4 and blocking nuclear translocation of Smad3. CBL-b, one of CBL protein family, also interacted with Smad3 and knockdown of both CBL and CBL-b further enhanced TGF-β transcriptional activity. Our findings provide evidence for a previously undescribed mechanism by which oncogenic CBL can block TGF-β tumor suppressor activity.
Kobashigawa Y, Tomitaka A, Kumeta H, et al.Autoinhibition and phosphorylation-induced activation mechanisms of human cancer and autoimmune disease-related E3 protein Cbl-b.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011; 108(51):20579-84 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cbl-b is a RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligase that functions as a negative regulator of T-cell activation and growth factor receptor and nonreceptor-type tyrosine kinase signaling. Cbl-b dysfunction is related to autoimmune diseases and cancers in humans. However, the molecular mechanism regulating its E3 activity is largely unknown. NMR and small-angle X-ray scattering analyses revealed that the unphosphorylated N-terminal region of Cbl-b forms a compact structure by an intramolecular interaction, which masks the interaction surface of the RING domain with an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Phosphorylation of Y363, located in the helix-linker region between the tyrosine kinase binding and the RING domains, disrupts the interdomain interaction to expose the E2 binding surface of the RING domain. Structural analysis revealed that the phosphorylated helix-RING region forms a compact structure in solution. Moreover, the phosphate group of pY363 is located in the vicinity of the interaction surface with UbcH5B to increase affinity by reducing their electrostatic repulsion. Thus, the phosphorylation of Y363 regulates the E3 activity of Cbl-b by two mechanisms: one is to remove the masking of the RING domain from the tyrosine kinase binding domain and the other is to form a surface to enhance binding affinity to E2.
Nicholson L, Knight T, Matheson E, et al.Casitas B lymphoma mutations in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2012; 51(3):250-6 [PubMed
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Casitas B-lineage lymphoma (CBL) proteins are RING finger ubiquitin E3 ligases that attenuate the signaling of receptor tyrosine kinases and are mutated in a number of myeloid disorders. In this study, mutational screening of the linker-RING domains of CBL and CBLB was performed by denaturing high performance liquid chromatography in a cohort of diagnostic (n = 180) or relapse (n = 46) samples from children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Somatic mutations were identified in three children, giving an overall incidence of 1.7% and involved small deletions affecting the intron/exon boundaries of exon 8, leading to skipping of exon 8 and abolishing E3 ligase function. Mutated primary samples were associated with constitutive activation of the RAS pathway and sensitivity to MEK inhibitors was shown. Thus, mutation of CBL is an alternative route to activate the RAS pathway and may identify children who are candidates for MEK inhibitor clinical trials.
Oshikawa G, Nagao T, Wu N, et al.c-Cbl and Cbl-b ligases mediate 17-allylaminodemethoxygeldanamycin-induced degradation of autophosphorylated Flt3 kinase with internal tandem duplication through the ubiquitin proteasome pathway.
J Biol Chem. 2011; 286(35):30263-73 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The class III receptor-tyrosine kinase Flt3 regulates normal hematopoiesis. An internal tandem duplication (ITD) in the juxtamembrane domain of Flt3 (Flt3-ITD) contributes to transformation and is associated with poor prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia. Here, we demonstrate that, as compared with wild-type Flt3 (Flt3-WT), Flt3-ITD more rapidly undergoes degradation through the proteasomal and lysosomal pathways in model hematopoietic 32D cells and in human leukemic MV4-11 cells. The Hsp90 inhibitor 17-allylaminodemethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) preferentially induced the polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of Flt3-ITD autophosphorylated on Tyr-591 in these cells. The E3 ubiquitin ligases c-Cbl and to a lesser extent Cbl-b facilitated at least partly Lys-48-linked polyubiquitination of autophosphorylated Flt3-ITD when coexpressed in 293T cells. Moreover, c-Cbl and Cbl-b facilitated degradation of Flt3-ITD in 293T cells and significantly enhanced the 17-AAG-induced decline in autophosphorylated Flt3-ITD. The enhancement of Flt3-ITD degradation was also observed in 32D cells inducibly overexpressing c-Cbl or Cbl-b. Furthermore, overexpression of loss-of-function mutants of both c-Cbl (c-Cbl-R420Q) and Cbl-b (Cbl-b-C373A) together in 32D cells retarded the degradation of autophosphorylated Flt3-ITD and significantly inhibited the 17-AAG-induced degradation of Flt3-ITD to confer the resistance to cytotoxicity of 17-AAG on these cells. These results suggest that c-Cbl as well as Cbl-b may play important roles in Hsp90 inhibitor-induced degradation of Flt3-ITD through the ubiquitin proteasome system and in regulation of the basal expression level of Flt3-ITD in leukemic cells.
T cell receptor (TCR) down-modulation after antigen presentation is a fundamental process that regulates TCR signal transduction. Current understanding of this process is that intrinsic TCR/CD28 signal transduction leads to TCR down-modulation. Here, we show that the interaction between programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) on dendritic cells (DCs) and programmed death 1 (PD-1) on CD8 T cells contributes to ligand-induced TCR down-modulation. We provide evidence that this occurs via Casitas B-lymphoma (Cbl)-b E3 ubiquitin ligase up-regulation in CD8 T cells. Interference with PD-L1/PD-1 signalling markedly inhibits TCR down-modulation leading to hyper-activated, proliferative CD8 T cells as assessed in vitro and in vivo in an arthritis model. PD-L1 silencing accelerates anti-tumour immune responses and strongly potentiates DC anti-tumour capacities, when combined with mitogen-activated kinase (MAPK) modulators that promote DC activation.
Makishima H, Jankowska AM, McDevitt MA, et al.CBL, CBLB, TET2, ASXL1, and IDH1/2 mutations and additional chromosomal aberrations constitute molecular events in chronic myelogenous leukemia.
Blood. 2011; 117(21):e198-206 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Progression of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) to accelerated (AP) and blast phase (BP) is because of secondary molecular events, as well as additional cytogenetic abnormalities. On the basis of the detection of JAK2, CBL, CBLB, TET2, ASXL1, and IDH1/2 mutations in myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms, we hypothesized that they may also contribute to progression in CML. We screened these genes for mutations in 54 cases with CML (14 with chronic phase, 14 with AP, 20 with myeloid, and 6 with nonmyeloid BP). We identified 1 CBLB and 2 TET2 mutations in AP, and 1 CBL, 1 CBLB, 4 TET2, 2 ASXL1, and 2 IDH family mutations in myeloid BP. However, none of these mutations were found in chronic phase. No cases with JAK2V617F mutations were found. In 2 cases, TET2 mutations were found concomitant with CBLB mutations. By single nucleotide polymorphism arrays, uniparental disomy on chromosome 5q, 8q, 11p, and 17p was found in AP and BP but not involving 4q24 (TET2) or 11q23 (CBL). Microdeletions on chromosomes 17q11.2 and 21q22.12 involved tumor associated genes NF1 and RUNX1, respectively. Our results indicate that CBL family, TET2, ASXL1, and IDH family mutations and additional cryptic karyotypic abnormalities can occur in advanced phase CML.
Qu JL, Qu XJ, Qu JL, et al.The role of cbl family of ubiquitin ligases in gastric cancer exosome-induced apoptosis of Jurkat T cells.
Acta Oncol. 2009; 48(8):1173-80 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND. Exosomes are nanometer-sized vesicles with immunomodulatory functions, which are released by a diverse range of living cells. Although recent studies have shown that tumor-derived exosomes can suppress the function of T cells, the molecular mechanisms are not well understood. In the present study, we investigated the role of the Casitas B lineage lymphoma (cbl) family of ubiquitin ligases in gastric cancer exosome-induced apoptosis of Jurkat T cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS. By serial centrifugation and sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation, we isolated and purified the exosomes from gastric cancer SGC7901 cells, and identified them by electron microscopy and Western blotting. Cell apoptosis was detected using propidium iodide staining. Western blotting and RT-PCR was exploited to evaluate the expression of proteins and mRNA, respectively. RESULTS. Gastric cancer exosomes induced Jurkat T cell apoptosis in a time- and dose-dependent manner and activated caspases 3, 8 and 9. The expression of Cbl-b and c-Cbl was up-regulated during exosome-induced apoptosis of cells. Meanwhile, exosomes induced ubiquitination of the p85 subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and reduced downstream Akt activity. Inhibition of proteasome led to partial restoration of Akt activity and cell apoptosis. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS. The Cbl family of ubiquitin ligases might be involved in regulation of exosome-induced apoptosis of Jurkat T cells by increasing PI3K proteasome degradation, inactivation of PI3K/Akt signaling, thus mediating some effects of caspase activation.
Sanada M, Suzuki T, Shih LY, et al.Gain-of-function of mutated C-CBL tumour suppressor in myeloid neoplasms.
Nature. 2009; 460(7257):904-8 [PubMed
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Acquired uniparental disomy (aUPD) is a common feature of cancer genomes, leading to loss of heterozygosity. aUPD is associated not only with loss-of-function mutations of tumour suppressor genes, but also with gain-of-function mutations of proto-oncogenes. Here we show unique gain-of-function mutations of the C-CBL (also known as CBL) tumour suppressor that are tightly associated with aUPD of the 11q arm in myeloid neoplasms showing myeloproliferative features. The C-CBL proto-oncogene, a cellular homologue of v-Cbl, encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase and negatively regulates signal transduction of tyrosine kinases. Homozygous C-CBL mutations were found in most 11q-aUPD-positive myeloid malignancies. Although the C-CBL mutations were oncogenic in NIH3T3 cells, c-Cbl was shown to functionally and genetically act as a tumour suppressor. C-CBL mutants did not have E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, but inhibited that of wild-type C-CBL and CBL-B (also known as CBLB), leading to prolonged activation of tyrosine kinases after cytokine stimulation. c-Cbl(-/-) haematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) showed enhanced sensitivity to a variety of cytokines compared to c-Cbl(+/+) HSPCs, and transduction of C-CBL mutants into c-Cbl(-/-) HSPCs further augmented their sensitivities to a broader spectrum of cytokines, including stem-cell factor (SCF, also known as KITLG), thrombopoietin (TPO, also known as THPO), IL3 and FLT3 ligand (FLT3LG), indicating the presence of a gain-of-function that could not be attributed to a simple loss-of-function. The gain-of-function effects of C-CBL mutants on cytokine sensitivity of HSPCs largely disappeared in a c-Cbl(+/+) background or by co-transduction of wild-type C-CBL, which suggests the pathogenic importance of loss of wild-type C-CBL alleles found in most cases of C-CBL-mutated myeloid neoplasms. Our findings provide a new insight into a role of gain-of-function mutations of a tumour suppressor associated with aUPD in the pathogenesis of some myeloid cancer subsets.
Zhang Y, Qu X, Hu X, et al.Reversal of P-glycoprotein-mediated multi-drug resistance by the E3 ubiquitin ligase Cbl-b in human gastric adenocarcinoma cells.
J Pathol. 2009; 218(2):248-55 [PubMed
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P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated multi-drug resistance (MDR) is a major barrier to the effective chemotherapy of many cancers. Recent studies have shown that inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway can reverse P-gp-mediated MDR. We investigated the expression of activated Akt (p-Akt) in 124 human gastric carcinoma tissue samples. Ubiquitous p-Akt expression was recorded in the majority (88/124). There was a significant correlation between p-Akt expression and the expression of P-gp. In the adriamycin-resistant MDR gastric carcinoma cell line SGC7901/ADR, p-Akt expression was increased in comparison with the parental cell line SGC7901. Treatment of SGC7901/ADR cells with the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 reduced the expression of both p-Akt and P-gp. To explore the role of ubiquitin ligase Cbl-b in this regulatory pathway, SGC7901/ADR cells were transfected with a plasmid overexpressing wild-type Cbl-b. This down-regulated the expression of both p-Akt and P-gp. Furthermore, resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs was partially reversed. These results demonstrate an important role for Cbl-b in reversing P-gp-mediated gastric cancer MDR through suppression of the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway and the down-regulation of P-gp expression.
The CBL ubiquitin ligase targets a variety of activated tyrosine kinases (TKs) for degradation. Many TKs are mutationally or autocrine activated and/or often overexpressed at the mRNA and protein levels in acute leukemias. We hypothesized that CBL is mutated in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Four of 12 patients and the MOLM-13 cell line harbored c-CBL mutations, either RNA splicing mutations, missense mutations, or a nucleotide insertion. Additionally, 1 of the 12 patients harbored a missense mutation in the related CBL-b gene. Each c-CBL mutation involves the structurally important alpha-helix within the linker region, while the mutation in CBL-b was located in the Ub-E2 protein-binding RING finger. Short-interfering RNA knockdown of mutant c-CBL present in MOLM-13 cells was growth inhibitory. In summary, novel mutations in c-CBL and CBL-b have been identified in human AML and may represent potential targets for novel therapeutics.
Sattler M, Pride YB, Quinnan LR, et al.Differential expression and signaling of CBL and CBL-B in BCR/ABL transformed cells.
Oncogene. 2002; 21(9):1423-33 [PubMed
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CBL and the related CBL-B protein are two members of a family of RING finger type ubiquitin E3 ligases that are believed to function as negative regulators of signal transduction in hematopoietic and immune cells. In mice, expression of v-Cbl causes lymphomas, and targeted disruption of either the CBL gene or the CBL-B gene can result in a lymphoproliferative disorder or hypersensitivity of lymphocytes. CBL is one of the most prominent targets of the BCR/ABL tyrosine kinase oncogene. We compared the role of CBL and CBL-B in signal transduction of BCR/ABL using pairs of cell lines before and after expression of BCR/ABL. In contrast to CBL, BCR/ABL was found to rapidly downregulate the expression of CBL-B protein. The decrease in CBL-B protein induced by BCR/ABL was associated with downregulation of CBL-B mRNA. Downregulation and tyrosine phosphorylation of CBL-B required BCR/ABL kinase activity. However, despite their known similarities in structure and function, we found CBL and CBL-B proteins to be involved in distinct signaling complexes. CBL was predominantly in a complex with phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase and CRKL, while CBL-B was not associated with any significant phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase activity. A major CBL-B associated protein was identified as mono-ubiquitinated Vav, a nucleotide exchange factor for Rac1. These results demonstrate that BCR/ABL signals differentially through CBL and CBL-B, with downregulation of the CBL-B protein potentially contributing to BCR/ABL-mediated transformation.
This review summarizes the current knowledge about the structure, expression, and signaling function of Cbl. A mutant Cbl form (v-Cbl) was first identified as the product of the Cas-NS-1 murine retrovirus that induces lymphomas and leukemias. Two members of the Cbl family have since been defined in mammals (c-Cbl and Cbl-b), one in C. elegans (Sli-1) and one in Drosophila (D-Cbl). There is high conservation between Cbl species in the amino-terminal region that contains a putative phosphotyrosine binding domain and a Ring finger motif. In the carboxy-terminal region, mammalian Cbl forms share a proline-rich stretch, conserved tyrosine residues, and a leucine zipper. Cbl participates in signaling by receptor protein tyrosine kinases, as well as antigen and cytokine receptors that signal via associated cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinases. Cbl is recruited to the tyrosine kinase module of these receptors and tyrosine phosphorylated after cellular activation. It functions as a scaffold protein and associates with SH2 and SH3 domain containing molecules, including the Crk adaptor family and Vav. By analogy with the C. elegans homologue Sli-1, Cbl is proposed to be a negative regulator of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling. After deletion mutation in a region close to the Ring finger, c-Cbl becomes oncogenic. Such mutations are suggested to result in a structural alteration, allowing oncogenic mutants to displace wild-type c-Cbl from the receptor complex and to abrogate its negative regulatory function.