Gene Summary

Gene:CD276; CD276 molecule
Aliases: B7H3, B7-H3, B7RP-2, 4Ig-B7-H3
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily, and thought to participate in the regulation of T-cell-mediated immune response. Studies show that while the transcript of this gene is ubiquitously expressed in normal tissues and solid tumors, the protein is preferentially expressed only in tumor tissues. Additionally, it was observed that the 3' UTR of this transcript contains a target site for miR29 microRNA, and there is an inverse correlation between the expression of this protein and miR29 levels, suggesting regulation of expression of this gene product by miR29. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:CD276 antigen
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Latest Publications: CD276 (cancer-related)

He CS, Liu YC, Xu ZP, et al.
Astragaloside IV Enhances Cisplatin Chemosensitivity in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells Through Inhibition of B7-H3.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2016; 40(5):1221-1229 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Chemoresistance is a major obstacle to successful chemotherapy for human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Astragaloside IV, the component of Astragalus membranaceus, has been reported to exhibit anti-inflammation, anti-cancer and immunoregulatory properties. In the present study, we investigated the role of astragaloside IV in the chemoresistance to cisplatin in NSCLC cells.
METHODS: We established astragaloside IV-suppressed NSCLC cell lines including A549, HCC827, and NCI-H1299 and evaluated their sensitivity to cisplatin in vitro. In addition, we examined the mRNA and protein levels of B7-H3 in response to cisplatin-based chemotherapy.
RESULTS: We showed that high doses of astragaloside IV (10, 20, 40 ng/ml) inhibited NSCLC cell growth, whereas low concentrations of astragaloside IV (1, 2.5, 5 ng/ml) had no obvious cytotoxicity on cell viability. Moreover, combined treatment with astragaloside IV significantly increased chemosensitivity to cisplatin in NSCLC cells. On the molecular level, astragaloside IV co-treatment significantly inhibited the mRNA and protein levels of B7-H3 in the presence of cisplatin. In addition, ectopic expression of B7-H3 diminished the sensitization role of astragaloside IV in cellular responses to cisplatin in NSCLC cells.
CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that astragaloside IV enhances chemosensitivity to cisplatin via inhibition of B7-H3 and that treatment with astragaloside IV and inhibition of B7-H3 serve as potential therapeutic approach for lung cancer patients.

Wang L, Kang FB, Sun N, et al.
The tumor suppressor miR-124 inhibits cell proliferation and invasion by targeting B7-H3 in osteosarcoma.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(11):14939-14947 [PubMed] Related Publications
Our previous studies have shown that the expression level of B7 homolog 3 (B7-H3) was correlated with clinical staging and prognosis of osteosarcoma (OS) patients, and its silencing inhibited the proliferation and invasion of OS cells in vitro. However, its overexpression mechanism behind was far from elucidated. On the basis of bioinformatics and the preliminary screening data, we hypothesized that miR-124 might play an important role in OS development and as a lead candidate for modulating B7-H3 expression. In this study, we found that miR-124 was downregulated significantly in OS tumor tissue, compared to normal adjacent tissues (NATs). Lower miR-124 expression levels were associated with advanced Ennecking stage, lower tumor differentiation, and common pulmonary metastasis. The 5-year overall survival rate in the miR-124 upregulated group was 61.5 %, while with low miR-124 expression, only 11.8 % survived. Further studies in vitro showed that B7-H3 was a direct target of miR-124. Overexpression of miR-124 decreased B7-H3 mRNA and protein level and inhibited B7-H3 3'-UTR reporter activity. Treatment of OS cells with miR-124 mimics induced the inhibition of cell growth and invasion in vitro, which could be abrogated by transfected by B7-H3 expression vector. Our findings highlight the potential application of miR-124 as a novel onco-miRNA in OS, and its oncogenic effects are mediated chiefly through downregulation of B7-H3, thus suggesting a model for identifying miR-124 that can be exploited to improve the therapeutic potential efficacy of mAb targeting to B7-H3.

Ye Z, Zheng Z, Li X, et al.
B7-H3 Overexpression Predicts Poor Survival of Cancer Patients: A Meta-Analysis.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2016; 39(4):1568-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: B7-H3 exhibits altered expression in various cancers. However, the correlation between B7-H3 expression and prognosis of cancer patients remains controversial. Therefore, we elicit a meta-analysis to investigate the potential value of B7-H3 in the prognostic prediction in human cancers.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched PubMed (last update by June 15th, 2016) to identify studies assessing the effect of B7-H3 on survival of cancer patients. Hazard ratios (HRs) for overall survival (OS), recurrence free survival (RFS) and progression-free survival (PFS) from individual studies were calculated and pooled by using a random-effect or fix-effect model, and heterogeneity and publication bias analyses were also performed.
RESULTS: Data from 24 observational studies consisting of 4141 patients were summarized. An elevated baseline B7-H3 was significantly correlated with poor OS (pooled HR = 2.09; 95% CI =1.60-2.74; P < 0.001). Differences across subgroups of tumor type (P = 0.324), year of publication (P = 0.431), ethnicity (P = 0.940), source of HR (P = 0.145), analysis type (P = 0.178) and sample size (P = 0.909) were not significant. Furthermore, high B7-H3 expression also predicted a significantly poor RFS (pooled HR = 1.39; 95% CI = 1.11-1.75; P = 0.004) but not PFS.
CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis clarifies that elevated B7-H3 expression is significantly associated with poor survival in cancer patients.

Lim S, Liu H, Madeira da Silva L, et al.
Immunoregulatory Protein B7-H3 Reprograms Glucose Metabolism in Cancer Cells by ROS-Mediated Stabilization of HIF1α.
Cancer Res. 2016; 76(8):2231-42 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/04/2017 Related Publications
B7-H3 is a member of B7 family of immunoregulatory transmembrane glycoproteins expressed by T cells. While B7-H3 overexpression is associated with poor outcomes in multiple cancers, it also has immune-independent roles outside T cells and its precise mechanistic contributions to cancer are unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of B7-H3 in metabolic reprogramming of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo We found that B7-H3 promoted the Warburg effect, evidenced by increased glucose uptake and lactate production in B7-H3-expressing cells. B7-H3 also increased the protein levels of HIF1α and its downstream targets, LDHA and PDK1, key enzymes in the glycolytic pathway. Furthermore, B7-H3 promoted reactive oxygen species-dependent stabilization of HIF1α by suppressing the activity of the stress-activated transcription factor Nrf2 and its target genes, including the antioxidants SOD1, SOD2, and PRX3. Metabolic imaging of human breast cancer xenografts in mice confirmed that B7-H3 enhanced tumor glucose uptake and tumor growth. Together, our results illuminate the critical immune-independent contributions of B7-H3 to cancer metabolism, presenting a radically new perspective on B7 family immunoregulatory proteins in malignant progression. Cancer Res; 76(8); 2231-42. ©2016 AACR.

Sun ZZ, Zhang T, Ning K, et al.
B7-H3 upregulates BRCC3 expression, antagonizing DNA damage caused by 5-Fu.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(1):231-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) is still recognized as the mainstay in colorectal cancer chemotherapy, but the response rate of 5-Fu in colorectal cancer is less than 50%. Our previous mRNA microarray data revealed that BRCC3, a component of the BRCA1-BRCA2-BRCC3 DNA repair complex, had a direct relationship with B7-H3, an immunoglobulin that is upregulated in tumor tissue and associated with metastasis and poor prognosis. Real-time PCR and western blot analysis confirmed that the expression of both BRCC3 mRNA and protein, respectively, were elevated following B7-H3 overexpression in SW480 cells; likewise, BRCC3 expression decreased after B7-H3 was knocked down in HCT-8 cells. DNA comet assay results indicate an inverse correlation between the extent of 5-Fu-induced DNA damage and the expression level of B7-H3 in both SW480- and HCT-8-based cell lines. In SW480 cells that overexpress B7-H3, knockdown of BRCC3 similarly permitted greater 5-Fu-induced DNA damage. Altogether, results suggest that BRCC3 may play a role in B7-H3-induced 5-Fu resistance, such that B7-H3 upregulates BRCC3 expression, enhancing DNA repair in colorectal cancer cells.

Huang C, Zhou L, Chang X, et al.
B7-H3, B7-H4, Foxp3 and IL-2 expression in cervical cancer: Associations with patient outcome and clinical significance.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 35(4):2183-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study was to determine the expression of B7-H3, B7-H4, Foxp3 and IL-2 in cervical cancer tissues, and evaluate the corresponding clinical significance. The expression of B7-H3, B7-H4, Foxp3 and IL-2 in 108 cervical cancer specimens was detected using immunohistochemistry, and their relationship with clinicopathologic parameters was determined. B7-H3, B7-H4 and Foxp3 had high levels of expression in cervical cancer cells (72.22, 80.56, and 91.56%, respectively). B7-H3 levels were only significantly associated with tumor size (P=0.013), while B7-H4, Foxp3 and IL-2 levels were significantly associated with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage (P=0.023, 0.014 and 0.036, respectively) and tumor size (P=0.045, 0.010 and 0.021, respectively). Their expression levels were not correlated with age, histologic type, differentiation and lymph node metastasis (all P>0.05). Cox regression multivariate analysis confirmed that B7-H3 or B7-H4 overexpression was an independent prognostic factor. In addition, there were significant positive relationships between the expression of B7-H3 and B7-H4 with Foxp3 (P<0.001). In contrast, the expression of B7-H3 and B7-H4 was negatively correlated with IL-2 (P<0.05). B7-H3, B7-H4 and Foxp3 may be useful biomarkers in patients with cervical cancer for predicting treatment.

Jiang B, Liu F, Liu Z, et al.
B7-H3 increases thymidylate synthase expression via the PI3k-Akt pathway.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(7):9465-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
B7-H3, a member of the B7 family, has been reported to be highly expressed in colorectal cancer and is associated with poor prognosis and overall survival. In this study, we found that overexpression of B7-H3 protected SW80 and HCT8 cells from 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) using CCK-8 assays by inducing resistance to 5-FU chemotherapy. Further investigation has revealed elevated expression of thymidylate synthase (TS) and upregulation of the PI3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway in B7-H3 overexpressing cells. The effects of B7-H3 on activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway and elevation of TS expression could be blocked by LY294002, a specific inhibitor of the PI3K signaling pathway. These results implied that B7-H3 can induce colorectal cancer cell resistance to 5-FU by increasing TS expression and PI3K/Akt/TS signaling and plays an important role during these processes. This study provides more proof concerning the non-immunology effect of B7 molecules, a reminder that both co-stimulatory or inhibitory effects and non-immunology effects should be devoted equal attention.

Guery T, Roumier C, Berthon C, et al.
B7-H3 protein expression in acute myeloid leukemia.
Cancer Med. 2015; 4(12):1879-83 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/04/2017 Related Publications
Costimulatory molecules are essential regulators of the immunological synapse and enable the fine-tuning of the immune response. These mechanisms are subverted by cancer cells to evade immunosurveillance. The B7 family of costimulatory molecules comprises several ligands that may contribute to immunoescape. B7-H3 [B7-homolog 3 or CD276] remains poorly investigated in hematological malignancies. To determine the role B7-H3, we analyzed the expression of this molecule in blast cells from a cohort of 111 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. B7-H3 was expressed in blast cells with a mean fluorescence intensity ratio >3 in 30 (27%) of the 111 patients. B7-H3 expression was higher in the M3 and M5 FAB subtypes and in cases with mutated NPM1 and wild type CEBPA. There were no significant differences found for the FLT3-ITD or cytogenetic risk groups. The complete remission (CR) rate between the 17 B7-H3-positive and 58 negative patients who were treated intensively was not different. The event free survival was longer in B7-H3-positive patients (P = 0.014), and there was a trend toward better overall survival. However, this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.053). In conclusion, B7-H3 is one of the most strongly expressed B7-family molecules in AML and merits further investigation.

Liu F, Zhang T, Zou S, et al.
B7‑H3 promotes cell migration and invasion through the Jak2/Stat3/MMP9 signaling pathway in colorectal cancer.
Mol Med Rep. 2015; 12(4):5455-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
B7‑H3, a newly identified co‑stimulatory molecule, has been reported to be highly expressed in a number of types of cancer and is associated with a poor prognosis. Transwell experiments and a wound-healing assay were used to detect the role of over‑expressed B7‑H3 on cell migration and invasion in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. The expression level of matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP‑9) was further investigated by zymography experiments and western blot analysis, and involvement of the Janus kinase 2 (Jak2) signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway was determined using AG490, a Jak2 selective inhibitor. Data showed that overexpression of B7‑H3 promoted cell migration and invasion in CRC. Further investigation certified that enhanced expression of B7‑H3 elevated MMP‑9 through upregulation of the Jak2‑Stat3 signaling pathway. Due to its pro‑migratory and pro‑invasive function, B7‑H3 may serve as a therapeutic target in the treatment of CRC.

Zhang P, Yu S, Li H, et al.
ILT4 drives B7-H3 expression via PI3K/AKT/mTOR signalling and ILT4/B7-H3 co-expression correlates with poor prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer.
FEBS Lett. 2015; 589(17):2248-56 [PubMed] Related Publications
Immunoglobulin-like transcript (ILT) 4 is critical for the inhibitory function of certain immune cells. We previously demonstrated that ILT4 is over-expressed in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and is involved in tumour evasion via an unknown mechanism. In this report, we demonstrate that ILT4 increases the expression of the co-inhibitory molecule B7-H3 through PI3K/AKT/mTOR signalling. In primary human NSCLC tissues, a significant positive relationship is observed between ILT4 and B7-H3 expression. ILT4/B7-H3 co-expression is significantly associated with a reduction in T infiltrating lymphoid cells and lower overall survival. In summary, ILT4 increases B7-H3 expression and ILT4/B7-H3 co-expression may be involved in NSCLC progression.

Kreymborg K, Haak S, Murali R, et al.
Ablation of B7-H3 but Not B7-H4 Results in Highly Increased Tumor Burden in a Murine Model of Spontaneous Prostate Cancer.
Cancer Immunol Res. 2015; 3(8):849-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
The costimulatory molecules B7-H3 and B7-H4 are overexpressed in a variety of human tumors and have been hypothesized as possible biomarkers and immunotherapeutic targets. Despite this potential, the predominating uncertainty about their functional implication in tumor-host interaction hampers their evaluation as a target for cancer therapy. By means of a highly physiologic, spontaneous tumor model in mice, we establish a causal link between B7-H3 and host tumor control and found B7-H4 to be redundant.

Zhang W, Wang Y, Wang J, et al.
B7-H3 silencing inhibits tumor progression of mantle cell lymphoma and enhances chemosensitivity.
Int J Oncol. 2015; 46(6):2562-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
B7-H3 (CD276), known as a member of B7 immunoregulatory family, is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein aberrantly expressed in numerous types of cancer and associated with poor prognosis. However, the role of B7-H3 in oncogenesis and chemosensitivity of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) remains unknown. We determined the effects of downregulating B7-H3 expression on tumor progression and the sensitivity of chemotherapeutic drug in mantle cell lymphoma. B7-H3 knockdown was performed using lentivirus transduction in the Maver and Z138 mantle cell lymphoma cell lines, respectively. The effects of B7-H3 on cell proliferation, cycle, migration and invasion were investigated by CCK-8 assay, methyl cellulose colony forming assay, PI staining, and Transwell assays in vitro. By establishing Maver and Z138 xenograft models, the effects of B7-H3 on tumorigenicity were observed, and Ki-67 and PCNA was detected by immunohistochemistry. The downregulation of B7-H3 significantly decreased tumor proliferation in MCL in vitro and in vivo. In the B7-H3 knockdown groups of Maver and Z138 xenograft models, the mean inhibition rate of tumor growth was 59.1 and 65.0% (p=0.010 and 0.003), and the expression of both Ki-67 and PCNA were significantly lower, respectively. After B7-H3 silencing, the cell cycles of Maver and Z138 were both arrested at G0/G1 phase, and the cell migration rates and invasion capacity were decreased as well. Moreover, the impacts of B7-H3 RNAi on the antitumor effect of chemotherapy drugs were determined with CCK-8 and Annexin V-FITC/PI assays in vitro and with xenograft models in vivo. The silencing of B7-H3 increased the sensitivity of Maver and Z138 cells to rituximab and bendamustine and enhanced the drug-induced apoptosis, respectively. Our study demonstrates for the first time that B7-H3 promotes mantle cell lymphoma progression and B7-H3 knockdown significantly enhances the chemosensitivity. This may provide a new therapeutic approach to mantle cell lymphoma.

Zhang T, Jiang B, Zou ST, et al.
Overexpression of B7-H3 augments anti-apoptosis of colorectal cancer cells by Jak2-STAT3.
World J Gastroenterol. 2015; 21(6):1804-13 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/04/2017 Related Publications
AIM: To investigate the role of the overexpression of B7-H3 in apoptosis in colorectal cancer cell lines and the underlying molecular mechanisms.
METHODS: SW620 cells that highly overexpressed B7-H3 (SW620-B7-H3-EGFP) and HCT8 cells stably transfected with B7-H3 shRNA (HCT8-shB7-H3) were previously constructed in our laboratory. Cells transfected with pIRES2-EGFP were used as negative controls (SW620-NC and HCT8-NC). Real-time PCR and western blotting analysis were used to detect the mRNA and protein expressions of the apoptosis regulator proteins Bcl-2, Bcl-xl and Bax. A cell proliferation assay was used to evaluate the survival rate and drug sensitivity of the cells. The effect of drug resistance was detected by a cell cycle assay. Active caspase-3 western blotting was used to reflect the anti-apoptotic ability of cells. Western blotting was also performed to determine the expression of proteins associated with the Jak2-STAT3 signaling pathway and the apoptosis regulator proteins after the treatment with AG490, a Jak2 specific inhibitor, in B7-H3 overexpressing cells. The data were analyzed by GraphPad Prism 6 using a non-paired t-test.
RESULTS: Whether by overexpression in SW620 cells or downregulation in HCT8, B7-H3 significantly affected the expression of anti- and pro-apoptotic proteins, at both the transcriptional and translational levels, compared with the negative control (P < 0.05). A cell proliferation assay revealed that B7-H3 overexpression increased the drug resistance of cells and resulted in a higher survival rate (P < 0.05). In addition, the results of cell cycle and active caspase-3 western blotting proved that B7-H3 overexpression inhibited apoptosis in colorectal cancer cell lines (P < 0.05). B7-H3 overexpression improved Jak2 and STAT3 phosphorylation and, in turn, increased the expression of the downstream anti-apoptotic proteins B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and Bcl-xl, based on western blotting (P < 0.05). After treating B7-H3 overexpressing cells with the Jak2-specific inhibitor AG490, the phosphorylation of Jak2 and STAT3, and the expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl, decreased accordingly (P < 0.05). This finding suggested that the Jak2-STAT3 pathway is involved in the mechanism mediating the anti-apoptotic ability of B7-H3.
CONCLUSION: The overexpression of B7-H3 induces resistance to apoptosis in colorectal cancer cell lines by upregulating the Jak2-STAT3 signaling pathway, potentially providing new approaches to the treatment of colorectal cancer.

Mao Y, Li W, Chen K, et al.
B7-H1 and B7-H3 are independent predictors of poor prognosis in patients with non-small cell lung cancer.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(5):3452-61 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/04/2017 Related Publications
B7-H1 and B7-H3, two members of the B7 family that are thought to regulate T-cell activation, are expressed in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, their prognostic significance is poorly understood. In the present study we reported that B7-H1 and B7-H3 were expressed in 96/128 (72.7%) and 89/128 (69.5%) samples, respectively. B7-H1 and B7-H3 expression and the number of infiltrating T-cell intracellular antigen-1+ and interferon-γ+ cells in NSCLC tissues were significantly higher than those in the adjacent tissues (p<0.01). High B7-H1 or B7-H3 expression was associated with lymph node metastasis and TNM stage (p<0.05, respectively). Sex, TNM stage, B7-H1, B7-H3, and T-cell intracellular antigen-1 expression remained significant prognostic factors after adjusting for other prognostic factors in a multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression model. In vitro studies revealed that knockdown of B7-H3 on tumor cells enhanced T-cell growth and interferon-γ secretion when stimulated by anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 monoclonal antibodies. Interferon-γ reduced CXCR4 expression on cancer cells and inhibited the CXCL12-induced cell migration.B7-H1 and B7-H3 are independent predictors of poorer survival in patients with NSCLC. Interference of the signal pathways of these negative regulatory molecules might be a new strategy for treating NSCLC.

Ingebrigtsen VA, Boye K, Nesland JM, et al.
B7-H3 expression in colorectal cancer: associations with clinicopathological parameters and patient outcome.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:602 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/04/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We have previously reported overexpression of the immunoregulatory protein B7-H3 in colorectal cancer and that nuclear expression predicted poor outcome in colon cancer patients. The present study was performed to examine the prognostic role of B7-H3 in an independent colorectal cancer cohort.
METHODS: Using tissue microarrays from 731 colorectal cancer patients, tumour B7-H3 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Associations with clinicopathological parameters and patient outcome were investigated.
RESULTS: Nuclear expression of B7-H3 in cancer cells was present in 27% of the samples in the total study cohort, while cytoplasmic/membrane and stromal expression was seen in 86% and 77% of the samples, respectively. Nuclear B7-H3 had no prognostic relevance in the complete outcome cohort, neither in colon cancer patients. However, nuclear B7-H3 was significantly associated with reduced recurrence-free survival in TNM stage I colorectal cancer patients.
CONCLUSIONS: Overexpression of B7-H3 in colorectal cancer was confirmed, but in contrast to previous results, nuclear B7-H3 was not a strong prognostic biomarker in this cohort. The discrepancy might be related to the use of single-core tissue microarrays for detection of the heterogeneously expressed B7-H3, and the role of B7-H3 in colorectal cancer still needs further examination.

Hu Y, Lv X, Wu Y, et al.
Expression of costimulatory molecule B7-H3 and its prognostic implications in human acute leukemia.
Hematology. 2015; 20(4):187-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: This study focused on the expression pattern and clinical significance of B7-H3 expression in human acute leukemia.
METHODS: We systematically analyzed 134 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (101 cases) and acute lymphocytic leukemia (33 cases) by flow cytometry.
RESULTS: The frequency of B7-H3(+) cases was 44.8% in total. The B7-H3 expression rate differed from 0% to 74.8% in individual cases. The correlation between B7-H3 expression and traditional prognostic factors, such as age and gender, the white blood cell count was not confirmed. However, B7-H3 had a significant higher expression in CD34(+) cases and high risk karyotypes.
CONCLUSIONS: Owing to the expression of B7-H3 being statistically relevant in predicting disease progression and a shorter life survival, our results demonstrated that B7-H3 expression in acute leukemia predicts an unfavorable outcome.

Dai W, Shen G, Qiu J, et al.
Aberrant expression of B7-H3 in gastric adenocarcinoma promotes cancer cell metastasis.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 32(5):2086-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
B7-H3 belongs to the B7 superfamily, a group of molecules that costimulate or downmodulate T cell responses. Although it has been shown that B7-H3 can inhibit T cell responses, several studies, most of them performed in murine systems, found B7-H3 to act in a co-stimulatory manner. In addition, B7-H3 is also expressed in various human cancers and is correlated with the poor outcome of cancer patients. The functional role of B7-H3 in cancer is still controversially discussed. In the present study, we compared B7-H3 expression in normal gastric tissues and gastric cancer tissue specimens and determined the effects of low B7-H3 expression on the human gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901 by using RNAi. B7-H3 expression in gastric specimens was determined by tissue qPCR and immunohistochemisty. A SGC-7901 cell line with low B7-H3 expression was established by lentiviral-mediated RNA interference to investigate the effect of B7-H3 on cancer cell migration and invasion in vitro. By establishing an orthotopic transplantation gastric cancer mouse model, the effect of B7-H3 on cell migration and invasion was studied in vivo. B7-H3 expression was significantly higher in the gastric cancer group than that in the normal gaster group. B7-H3 knockdown by RNA interference decreased cell migration and Transwell invasion up to 50% in vitro. In the orthotopic transplantation gastric cancer mouse model, the effect of inhibiting metastasis by knockdown of B7-H3 was assessed in terms of the average postmortem abdominal visceral metastatic tumor weight. The results revealed that inhibition of B7-H3 expression reduced gastric cancer metastasis in vivo. In conclusion, B7-H3 is aberrantly expressed in gastric cancer. In addition to modulating tumor immunity, B7-H3 may have a novel role in regulating SGC-7901 cell metastasis.

Masuda A, Arai K, Nishihara D, et al.
Clinical significance of serum soluble T cell regulatory molecules in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
Biomed Res Int. 2014; 2014:396064 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/04/2017 Related Publications
To clarify the role of serum soluble T cell regulatory molecules in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC), we measured the serum levels of soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R), soluble B7-H3 (sB7-H3), and soluble cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated antigen-4 (sCTLA-4) in 70 CCRCC patients and 35 healthy controls. We investigated correlations between the serum levels of these soluble T cell regulatory molecules and the pathological grade, clinical stage, and prognosis of CCRCC. We also assessed the relations among each of these soluble molecules. As a result, the serum level of sIL-2R was significantly higher in CCRCC patients than in healthy controls (P < 0.05). In addition, elevation of serum sIL-2R was significantly correlated with the clinical stage (P < 0.001), and the survival of patients with high sIL-2R levels was shorter than that of patients with low sIL-2R levels (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the serum level of sB7-H3 was also significantly correlated with the clinical stage (P < 0.05), while the sIL-2R and sB7-H3 levels showed a positive correlation with each other (R = 0.550, P < 0.0001). These results indicate that the serum level of sIL-2R reflects tumor progression in CCRCC patients. In addition, the possibility was suggested that the IL-2/IL-2R and B7-H3 pathways may be involved in the progression of CCRCC.

Cheung IY, Farazi TA, Ostrovnaya I, et al.
Deep MicroRNA sequencing reveals downregulation of miR-29a in neuroblastoma central nervous system metastasis.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2014; 53(10):803-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
Central nervous system (CNS) is an increasingly common site of isolated metastasis for patients with Stage 4 neuroblastoma. To explore the microRNA (miRNA) profile of this metastatic process, miRNA sequencing was performed to identify miRNA sequence families with differential expression between tumor pairs (pre-CNS primary and CNS metastasis) from 13 patients with Stage 4 neuroblastoma. Seven miRNA sequence families had distinct expression in CNS metastases when compared with their corresponding pre-CNS primaries. MiR-7 was upregulated (3.75-fold), and miR-21, miR-22, miR-29a, miR-143, miR-199a-1-3p, and miR-199a-1-5p were downregulated (3.5-6.1-fold), all confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. MiR-29a, previously shown to be downregulated in a broad spectrum of solid tumors including neuroblastoma, had the most significant decrease in all 13 CNS metastases (P = 0.001). Its known onco-targets CDC6, CDK6, and DNMT3A, as well as B7-H3, an inhibitory ligand for T cells, and natural killer cells, were found to have higher differential expression in these 13 CNS metastases when compared with their paired primaries. Additionally, miR-29a expression in primary tumors was significantly lower among patients who eventually relapsed in the CNS. Irrespective of the amplification status of MYCN, which is known to be associated with metastasis, pre-CNS primaries, and CNS metastases had significantly lower miR-29a expression than non-CNS primary tumors. Among MYCN amplified cell lines, those from CNS relapse also had lower miR-29a expression than non-CNS relapse. These findings raised the hypothesis that miR-29a could be a biomarker for neuroblastoma CNS metastasis, and its downregulation may play a pivotal role in CNS progression.

Quandt D, Jasinski-Bergner S, Müller U, et al.
Synergistic effects of IL-4 and TNFα on the induction of B7-H1 in renal cell carcinoma cells inhibiting allogeneic T cell proliferation.
J Transl Med. 2014; 12:151 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/04/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The importance of B7-H molecules for the T cell/tumor communication and its impact on renal cell carcinoma (RCC) progression and prognosis has been recently described. Cytokine treatment of RCC has earlier been shown to be beneficial in preclinical settings, but its clinical implementation has not proven to be as effective. This might be partially explained by the yet incomplete picture of cellular alterations in tumor cells upon cytokine treatment investigated in detail in this study.
METHODS: RCC tumor cell lines were treated with different cytokines alone or in combination. The constitutive and/or cytokine-induced expression of cytokine receptors signaling components and B7-H molecules in RCC cells were analysed by qPCR and flow cytometry. A mcherry reporter gene construct containing B7-H1 promoter was cloned and its activity was determined upon transfection in cytokine-stimulated cells. Cytokine pretreated tumor cells were co-cultured with allogeneic CD8+ T cells from healthy donors and T cell proliferation as well as cytokine secretion was determined.
RESULTS: A heterogeneous, but constitutive B7-H1,-H2,-H3 and H4 expression was found on human RCC cell lines. IL-4 and TNFα treatment led to strong synergistic induction of B7-H1 in RCC cells, whereas B7-H2 was only increased by TNFα. In contrast, B7-H3 and B7-H4 expression were not altered by these cytokines. Treatment of RCC cells with TNFα and IL-4 was accompanied by an activation of signaling molecules like NF-κB, IκB and STAT6. The cytokine-mediated up-regulation of B7-H1 was due to transcriptional control as determined by an increased B7-H1 promoter activity in the presence of IL-4 and TNFα. Despite HLA class I and LFA-1 were also increased, the cytokine-mediated up-regulation of B7-H1 was more pronounced and caused an inhibition of allospecifc CD8+ T cell proliferation.
CONCLUSION: Thus, IL-4 and TNFα, which could be released by immune cells of the tumor microenvironment, are able to control the B7-H1 expression in RCC thereby altering T cell responses. These data are of importance for understanding the complex interplay of tumor cells with immune cells orchestrated by a number of different soluble and membrane bound mediators and for the implementation of check point antibodies directed against B7-H1.

Liao Y, Guo S, Chen Y, et al.
VSIG4 expression on macrophages facilitates lung cancer development.
Lab Invest. 2014; 94(7):706-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tumor-associated macrophages are a prominent component of lung cancer stroma and contribute to tumor progression. The protein V-set and Ig domain-containing 4 (VSIG4), a novel B7 family-related macrophage protein that has the capacity to inhibit T-cell activation, has a potential role in the development of lung cancer. In this study, 10 human non-small-cell lung cancer specimens were collected and immunohistochemically analyzed for VSIG4 expression. Results showed massive VSIG4(+) cell infiltration throughout the samples. Immunofluorescent double staining showed that VSIG4 was present on CD68(+) macrophages, but absent from CD3(+) T cells, CD31(+) endothelial cells, and CK-18(+) epithelial cells. Moreover, VSIG4 was coexpressed on B7-H1(+) and B7-H3(+) cells in these tumor specimens. Transfection of the VSIG4 gene into 293FT cells demonstrated that the VSIG4 signal could inhibit cocultured CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell proliferation and cytokine (IL-2 and IFN-γ) production in vitro. Interestingly, in a murine tumor model induced by Lewis lung carcinoma cell line, we found that tumors grown in VSIG4-deficient (VSIG4(-/-)) mice were significantly smaller than those found in wild-type littermates. All of these results demonstrate that macrophage-associated VSIG4 is an activator that facilitates lung carcinoma development. Specific targeting of VSIG4 may prove to be a novel, efficacious strategy for the treatment of this carcinoma.

Wang F, Wang G, Liu T, et al.
B7-H3 was highly expressed in human primary hepatocellular carcinoma and promoted tumor progression.
Cancer Invest. 2014; 32(6):262-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
B7-H3 has been detected in different cancers and correlated to tumor progression and outcome in cancer patients. In this study, we investigated the expression of B7-H3 in tissues and cells of primary hepatocellular carcinoma (PHC) patients. The research showed that B7-H3 is aberrantly expressed in PHC tissues and cells, and its high expression on HepG2 cells significantly promotes cell proliferation, adhesion, migration, and invasion capacity; moreover, it inhibits the proliferation of CD8(+) T cells. Thus, B7-H3 may have a critical role in PHC and it may enhance tumor escape from the immune surveillance of CD8(+) T cells.

Nygren MK, Tekle C, Ingebrigtsen VA, et al.
Identifying microRNAs regulating B7-H3 in breast cancer: the clinical impact of microRNA-29c.
Br J Cancer. 2014; 110(8):2072-80 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/04/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: B7-H3, an immunoregulatory protein, is overexpressed in several cancers and is often associated with metastasis and poor prognosis. Here, our aim was to identify microRNAs (miRNAs) regulating B7-H3 and assess their potential prognostic implications in breast cancer.
METHODS: MicroRNAs targeting B7-H3 were identified by transfecting two breast cancer cell lines with a library of 810 miRNA mimics and quantifying changes of B7-H3 protein levels using protein lysate microarrays. For validations we used western immunoblotting and 3'-UTR luciferase assays. Clinical significance of the miRNAs was assayed by analysing whether their expression levels correlated with outcome in two cohorts of breast cancer patients (142 and 81 patients).
RESULTS: We identified nearly 50 miRNAs that downregulated B7-H3 protein levels. Western immunoblotting validated the impact of the 20 most effective miRNAs. Thirteen miRNAs (miR-214, miR-363*, miR-326, miR-940, miR-29c, miR-665, miR-34b*, miR-708, miR-601, miR-124a, miR-380-5p, miR-885-3p, and miR-593) targeted B7-H3 directly by binding to its 3'-UTR region. Finally, high expression of miR-29c was associated with a significant reduced risk of dying from breast cancer in both cohorts.
CONCLUSIONS: We identified miRNAs efficiently downregulating B7-H3 expression. The expression of miR-29c correlated with survival in breast cancer patients, suggesting a tumour suppressive role for this miRNA.

Lutz AM, Bachawal SV, Drescher CW, et al.
Ultrasound molecular imaging in a human CD276 expression-modulated murine ovarian cancer model.
Clin Cancer Res. 2014; 20(5):1313-22 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/04/2017 Related Publications
PURPOSE: To develop a mouse ovarian cancer model that allows modulating the expression levels of human vascular targets in mouse xenograft tumors and to test whether expression of CD276 during tumor angiogenesis can be visualized by molecularly targeted ultrasound in vivo.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: CD276-expressing MILE SVEN 1 (MS1) mouse endothelial cells were engineered and used for coinjection with 2008 human ovarian cancer cells for subcutaneous xenograft tumor induction in 15 nude mice. Fourteen control mice were injected with 2008 cells only. After confirming their binding specificity in flow chamber cell attachment studies, anti-CD276 antibody-functionalized contrast microbubbles were used for in vivo CD276-targeted contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging.
RESULTS: CD276-targeted ultrasound imaging signal was significantly higher (P = 0.006) in mixed MS1/2008 tumors than in control tumors. Compared with control microbubbles, the ultrasound signal using CD276-targeted microbubbles was significantly higher (P = 0.002), and blocking with purified anti-CD276 antibody significantly decreased (P = 0.0096) the signal in mixed MS1/2008 tumors. Immunofluorescence analysis of the tumor tissue confirmed higher quantitative immunofluorescence signal in mixed MS1/2008 tumors than in control 2008 only tumors, but showed not significantly different (P = 0.54) microvessel density.
CONCLUSIONS: Our novel small animal model allows for modulating the expression of human tumor-associated vascular endothelial imaging targets in a mouse host and these expression differences can be visualized noninvasively by ultrasound molecular imaging. The animal model can be applied to other human vascular targets and may facilitate the preclinical development of new imaging probes such as microbubbles targeted at human vascular markers not expressed in mice.

Mesri M, Birse C, Heidbrink J, et al.
Identification and characterization of angiogenesis targets through proteomic profiling of endothelial cells in human cancer tissues.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(11):e78885 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/04/2017 Related Publications
Genomic and proteomic analysis of normal and cancer tissues has yielded abundant molecular information for potential biomarker and therapeutic targets. Considering potential advantages in accessibility to pharmacological intervention, identification of targets resident on the vascular endothelium within tumors is particularly attractive. By employing mass spectrometry (MS) as a tool to identify proteins that are over-expressed in tumor-associated endothelium relative to normal cells, we aimed to discover targets that could be utilized in tumor angiogenesis cancer therapy. We developed proteomic methods that allowed us to focus our studies on the discovery of cell surface/secreted proteins, as they represent key antibody therapeutic and biomarker opportunities. First, we isolated endothelial cells (ECs) from human normal and kidney cancer tissues by FACS using CD146 as a marker. Additionally, dispersed human colon and lung cancer tissues and their corresponding normal tissues were cultured ex-vivo and their endothelial content were preferentially expanded, isolated and passaged. Cell surface proteins were then preferentially captured, digested with trypsin and subjected to MS-based proteomic analysis. Peptides were first quantified, and then the sequences of differentially expressed peptides were resolved by MS analysis. A total of 127 unique non-overlapped (157 total) tumor endothelial cell over-expressed proteins identified from directly isolated kidney-associated ECs and those identified from ex-vivo cultured lung and colon tissues including known EC markers such as CD146, CD31, and VWF. The expression analyses of a panel of the identified targets were confirmed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) including CD146, B7H3, Thy-1 and ATP1B3. To determine if the proteins identified mediate any functional role, we performed siRNA studies which led to previously unidentified functional dependency for B7H3 and ATP1B3.

Chen W, Liu P, Wang Y, et al.
Characterization of a soluble B7-H3 (sB7-H3) spliced from the intron and analysis of sB7-H3 in the sera of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(10):e76965 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/04/2017 Related Publications
B7-H3 is a recently discovered member of the B7 superfamily molecules and has been found to play a negative role in T cell responses. In this study, we identified a new B7-H3 isoform that is produced by alternative splicing from the forth intron of B7-H3 and encodes the sB7-H3 protein. Protein sequence analysis showed that sB7-H3 contains an additional four amino acids, encoded by the intron sequence, at the C-terminus compared to the ectodomain of 2Ig-B7-H3. We further found that this spliced sB7-H3 plays a negative regulatory role in T cell responses and serum sB7-H3 is higher in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) than in healthy donors. Furthermore, we found that the expression of the spliced sb7-h3 gene is higher in carcinoma and peritumor tissues than in PBMCs of both healthy controls and patients, indicating that the high level of serum sB7-H3 in patients with HCC is caused by the increased expression of this newly discovered spliced sB7-H3 isoform in carcinoma and peritumor tissues.

Xylinas E, Robinson BD, Kluth LA, et al.
Association of T-cell co-regulatory protein expression with clinical outcomes following radical cystectomy for urothelial carcinoma of the bladder.
Eur J Surg Oncol. 2014; 40(1):121-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Expression of T-cell co-regulatory proteins has been associated with worse outcomes in patients with UCB. We aimed to confirm these findings.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study comprised tissue microarrays from 302 consecutive UCB patients treated with RC and lymphadenectomy between 1988 and 2003, 117 matched lymph nodes, and 50 cases of adjacent normal urothelium controls, which were evaluated for B7-H1, B7-H3, and PD-1 protein expression by immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: B7-H3 and PD-1 expression were increased in cancers compared to adjacent normal urothelium (58.6% vs 6% and 65% vs 0%, respectively; both p values < 0.001). Meanwhile, B7-H1 was expressed in 25% of cancers (n = 76). Expression of B7-H3, B7-H1, and PD-1 were highly correlated between the primary tumors and metastatic nodes, with concordance rates of 90%, 86%, and 78% for B7H3, B7H1 and PD-1, respectively. Expression was not associated with clinicopathologic features, disease recurrence, cancer-specific or overall mortality. However, for the subgroup of patients with organ-confined disease (n = 96), B7-H1 expression was associated with an increased risk of overall mortality (p = 0.02) on univariate and trended toward an association on multivariate analyses (p = 0.06).
CONCLUSIONS: B7-H1, B7-H3 and PD-1 are altered in a large proportion of UCB. B7-H1 and PD-1 expression are differentially upregulated in cancer versus normal urothelium. High correlation between expression in LN and expression in RC specimens was observed. While expression was not associated with clinicopathologic features or standard outcomes in all patients, B7-H1 expression predicted overall mortality after RC in the subset of patients with organ-confined UCB.

Wang L, Zhang Q, Chen W, et al.
B7-H3 is overexpressed in patients suffering osteosarcoma and associated with tumor aggressiveness and metastasis.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(8):e70689 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/04/2017 Related Publications
B7-H3 is a member of the B7-family of co-stimulatory molecules, which has been shown to be broadly expressed in various tumor tissues, and which plays an important role in adaptive immune responses. The role of B7-H3 in osteosarcoma, however, remains unknown. In this study we used immunohistochemistry to analyze B7-H3 expression in 61 primary osteosarcoma tissues with case-matched adjacent normal tissues, and 37 osteochondroma and 20 bone fibrous dysplasia tissues. B7-H3 expression was expressed in 91.8% (56/61) of the osteosarcoma lesions, and the intensity of B7-H3 expression in osteosarcoma was significantly increased compared with adjacent normal tissues, osteochondroma and bone fibrous dysplasia tissues (p<0.001). Patients with high tumor B7-H3 levels had a significantly shorter survival time and recurrence time than patients with low tumor B7-H3 levels (p<0.001). Moreover, tumor B7-H3 expression inversely correlated with the number of tumor-infiltrating CD8(+) T cells (p<0.05). In vitro, increasing expression of B7-H3 promotes osteosarcoma cell invasion, at least in part by upregulating matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). In conclusion, our study provides the first evidence of B7-H3 expression in osteosarcoma cells as a potential mechanism controlling tumor immunity and invasive malignancy, and which is correlated with patients' survival and metastasis.

Zhao J, Lei T, Xu C, et al.
MicroRNA-187, down-regulated in clear cell renal cell carcinoma and associated with lower survival, inhibits cell growth and migration though targeting B7-H3.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013; 438(2):439-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aberrantly expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) are frequently associated with the aggressive malignant behavior of human cancers, including clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Based on the preliminary deep sequencing data, we hypothesized that miR-187 may play an important role in ccRCC development. In this study, we found that miR-187 was down-regulated in both tumor tissue and plasma of ccRCC patients. Lower miR-187 expression levels were associated with higher tumor grade and stage. All patients with high miR-187 expression survived 5years, while with low miR-187 expression, only 42% survived. Suppressed in vitro proliferation, inhibited in vivo tumor growth, and decreased motility were observed in cells treated with the miR-187 expression vector. Further studies showed that B7 homolog 3 (B7-H3) is a direct target of miR-187. Over-expression of miR-187 decreased B7-H3 mRNA level and repressed B7-H3-3'-UTR reporter activity. Knockdown of B7-H3 using siRNA resulted in similar phenotype changes as that observed for overexpression of miR-187. Our data suggest that miR-187 is emerging as a novel player in the disease state of ccRCC. miR-187 plays a tumor suppressor role in ccRCC.

Liu Y, Wu X, Li X, et al.
Blocking mtDNA replication upregulates the expression of stemness-related genes in prostate cancer cell lines.
Ultrastruct Pathol. 2013; 37(4):258-66 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ethidium bromide (EtBr) is an intercalating agent, which binds tightly to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) during replication, and so blocks the function of mitochondria. EtBr inserts itself between the stacked bases in double-stranded DNA and specifically inhibits mtDNA transcription and replication by deleting RNA primers required for initiating mtDNA replication. In this study, the authors wanted to examine whether blocking mtDNA replication with EtBr could change the expression of stenmness genes and the expression of the immuneregulator B7-H3 in prostate cancer cell lines in vitro. Both PC-3 and DU145 prostate cancer cell lines were treated with 50 and 500 ng/mL of EtBr for 2 weeks. There was no difference in growth between EtBr-treated and control cells after 1 week. A slightly slower growth was observed for both cell lines during the second week of culture with EtBr compared to controls. After 2 weeks of culture with EtBr both cell lines showed increased expression of the stemness-related genes ABCG2, Oct3/4, Nanog1/Nanogp8, and CD44. Concomitantly, a dose-dependent increase of B7-H3 protein expression in both cell lines was identified and verified by both flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry. In conclusion, blocking mtDNA replication by EtBr induces increased expression of stemness genes, such as Oct3/4, Nanog, CD44, and ABCG2, in addition to the immune regulator B7-H3 in PC-3 and DU145 prostate cancer cell lines. The findings indicate that mitochondrial function may be associated with stemness of cancer cells and/or maintenance of a cancer stem cell phenotype. The finding of increased B7-H3 expression may be associated with the immunosuppression of cancer cells.

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