FGFR3

Gene Summary

Gene:FGFR3; fibroblast growth factor receptor 3
Aliases: ACH, CEK2, JTK4, CD333, HSFGFR3EX
Location:4p16.3
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) family, with its amino acid sequence being highly conserved between members and among divergent species. FGFR family members differ from one another in their ligand affinities and tissue distribution. A full-length representative protein would consist of an extracellular region, composed of three immunoglobulin-like domains, a single hydrophobic membrane-spanning segment and a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase domain. The extracellular portion of the protein interacts with fibroblast growth factors, setting in motion a cascade of downstream signals, ultimately influencing mitogenesis and differentiation. This particular family member binds acidic and basic fibroblast growth hormone and plays a role in bone development and maintenance. Mutations in this gene lead to craniosynostosis and multiple types of skeletal dysplasia. Three alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode different protein isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2009]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:fibroblast growth factor receptor 3
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 August, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 11 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 11 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: FGFR3 (cancer-related)

Wang K, Liu T, Liu C, et al.
TERT promoter mutations and TERT mRNA but not FGFR3 mutations are urinary biomarkers in Han Chinese patients with urothelial bladder cancer.
Oncologist. 2015; 20(3):263-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2016 Related Publications
The TERT promoter and FGFR3 gene mutations are two of the most common genetic events in urothelial bladder cancer (UBC), and these mutation assays in patient urine have been shown to be promising biomarkers for UBC diagnosis and surveillance. These results were obtained mainly from studies of patients with UBC in Western countries, and little is known about such information in Han Chinese patients with UBC. In the present study, we addressed this issue by analyzing tumors from 182 Han Chinese patients with UBC and urine samples from 102 patients for mutations in the TERT promoter and FGFR3 and TERT mRNA expression in tumors and/or urine. TERT promoter and FGFR3 mutations were identified in 87 of 182 (47.8%) and 7 of 102 (6.7%) UBC cases, respectively. In 46 urine samples from patients with TERT promoter mutation-carrying tumors, the mutant promoter was detected in 24 (52%) prior to operation and disappeared in most examined urine samples (80%) taken 1 week after operation. TERT mRNA was detected in urine derived from 46 of 49 patients (94%) that was analyzed before operation independently of the presence of TERT promoter mutations. Collectively, FGFR3 mutations occur at a very low rate in Han Chinese UBC and cannot serve as diagnostic markers for Chinese patients. Han Chinese patients with UBC have relatively low TERT promoter mutation frequency compared with patients in Western countries, and simultaneous detection of both mutant TERT promoter and TERT mRNA improves sensitivity and specificity of urine-based diagnosis.

Wen YS, Cai L, Zhang XW, et al.
Concurrent oncogene mutation profile in Chinese patients with stage Ib lung adenocarcinoma.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2014; 93(29):e296 [PubMed] Related Publications
Molecular characteristics in lung cancer are associated with carcinogenesis, response to targeted therapies, and prognosis. With concurrent oncogene mutations being reported more often, the adjustment of treatment based on the driver gene mutations would improve therapy. We proposed to investigate the distribution of concurrent oncogene mutations in stage Ib lung adenocarcinoma in a Chinese population and find out the correlation between survival outcome and the most frequently mutated genes in EGFR and KRAS in Chinese population. Simultaneously, we tried to validate the Sequenom method by real time fluoresce qualification reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in oncogene detection. One hundred fifty-six patients who underwent complete surgical resection in our hospital between 1999 and 2007 were retrospectively investigated. Using time-of-flight mass spectrometry, 238 mutation hotspots in 19 oncogenes were examined. Genetic mutations occurred in 86 of 156 patients (55.13%). EGFR was most frequently gene contained driver mutations, with a rate of 44.23%, followed by KRAS (8.33%), PIK3CA (3.84%), KIT (3.20%), BRAF (2.56%), AKT (1.28%), MET (0.64%), NRAS (0.64%), HRAS (0.64%), and ERBB2 (0.64%). No mutations were found in the RET, PDGFRA, FGFR1, FGFR3, FLT3, ABL, CDK, or JAK2 oncogenes. Thirteen patients (8.3%) were detected in multiple gene mutations. Six patients had PIK3CA mutations in addition to mutations in EGFR and KRAS. EGFR mutations can coexist with mutations in NRAS, KIT, ERBB2, and BRAF. Only one case was found to have a KRAS mutation coexisting with the EGFR T790M mutation. Otherwise, mutations in EGFR and KRAS seem to be mutually exclusive. There is no survival benefit in favor of EGFR/KRAS mutation. Several concomitant driver gene mutations were observed in our study. None of EFGR/KRAS mutation was demonstrated as a prognostic factor. Polygenic mutation testing by time-of-flight mass spectrometry was validated by RT-PCR, which can be an alternative option to test for multiple mutations and can be widely applied to clinical practice and help to guide treatment.

Geller MD, Pei Y, Spurgeon SE, et al.
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia with a FGFR3 translocation: case report and literature review of an uncommon cytogenetic event.
Cancer Genet. 2014 Jul-Aug; 207(7-8):340-3 [PubMed] Related Publications
The t(4;14) (p16; q32) with fusion of the IGH (immunoglobulin heavy chain) and FGFR3 (fibroblast growth factor receptor 3) genes are rarely present in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), with only two previously reported cases. We herein describe a unique case of CLL with the occurrence of a t(4;14) (p16;q32), trisomy 12, and deletion of 11q13-q23 in the same clonal cells. In contrast to myeloma, in which FGFR3 translocations are a common early cytogenetic hit, FGFR3 rearrangement in CLL appears to occur later in the disease course.

Szasz AM, Szirtes I, Tihanyi B, et al.
Basaloid carcinoma of the pancreas--clinicopathological presentation and oncogenetic snapshot of a rare entity.
Virchows Arch. 2015; 466(2):237-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
We report a case of basaloid pancreatic carcinoma with clinical, pathological, and genomic data. The 73-year-old male patient had jaundice, acholic stool, diarrhea, weight loss, and a large, painless gall bladder. His GGT was highly elevated. The pancreatic head contained a tumor, which was resected by partial pancreatoduodenectomy with pancreato-gastric anastomosis, cholecystectomy, and lymphadenectomy. On gross examination, a 3.8-cm white firm nodule was found, which microscopically was composed of basaloid cell nests with a less than usual desmoplastic stromal background and focally PANIN. Immunohistochemical profile displayed strong CK5/6, CK19, p63, EGFR, vimentin, and evident CK14 expression and absence of expression of CK7, chromogranin, synaptophysin, and BRCA1. A high Ki-67 index and p53 expression were noted. Sequencing of the most frequent 46 oncogenes with ionTorrent (AmpliSeq PCR) method identified PIK3CA, KRAS, and TP53 genes as drivers and variants of the FGFR3, PDGFRA, KIT, KDR, EGFR, RET, and ATM genes. The tumor we report displays histopathological appearances similar to the previously described case and a genomic landscape fitting to the general population of pancreatic carcinomas. We hypothesize that this tumor may belong to the group of DNA damage repair-deficient pancreatic carcinoma subgroup.

Javidi-Sharifi N, Traer E, Martinez J, et al.
Crosstalk between KIT and FGFR3 Promotes Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor Cell Growth and Drug Resistance.
Cancer Res. 2015; 75(5):880-91 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2016 Related Publications
Kinase inhibitors such as imatinib have dramatically improved outcomes for patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), but many patients develop resistance to these treatments. Although in some patients this event corresponds with mutations in the GIST driver oncogenic kinase KIT, other patients develop resistance without KIT mutations. In this study, we address this patient subset in reporting a functional dependence of GIST on the FGF receptor FGFR3 and its crosstalk with KIT in GIST cells. Addition of the FGFR3 ligand FGF2 to GIST cells restored KIT phosphorylation during imatinib treatment, allowing sensitive cells to proliferate in the presence of the drug. FGF2 expression was increased in imatinib-resistant GIST cells, the growth of which was blocked by RNAi-mediated silencing of FGFR3. Moreover, combining KIT and FGFR3 inhibitors synergized to block the growth of imatinib-resistant cells. Signaling crosstalk between KIT and FGFR3 activated the MAPK pathway to promote resistance to imatinib. Clinically, an IHC analysis of tumor specimens from imatinib-resistant GIST patients revealed a relative increase in FGF2 levels, with a trend toward increased expression in imatinib-naïve samples consistent with possible involvement in drug resistance. Our findings provide a mechanistic rationale to evaluate existing FGFR inhibitors and multikinase inhibitors that target FGFR3 as promising strategies to improve treatment of patients with GIST with de novo or acquired resistance to imatinib.

Ab Mutalib NS, Syafruddin SE, Md Zain RR, et al.
Molecular characterization of serous ovarian carcinoma using a multigene next generation sequencing cancer panel approach.
BMC Res Notes. 2014; 7:805 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: High grade serous ovarian cancer is one of the poorly characterized malignancies. This study aimed to elucidate the mutational events in Malaysian patients with high grade serous ovarian cancer by performing targeted sequencing on 50 cancer hotspot genes.
RESULTS: Nine high grade serous ovarian carcinoma samples and ten normal ovarian tissues were obtained from Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center (UKMMC) and the Kajang Hospital. The Ion AmpliSeq™ Cancer Hotspot Panel v2 targeting "mutation-hotspot region" in 50 most common cancer-associated genes was utilized. A total of 20 variants were identified in 12 genes. Eleven (55%) were silent alterations and nine (45%) were missense mutations. Six of the nine missense mutations were predicted to be deleterious while the other three have low or neutral protein impact. Eight genes were altered in both the tumor and normal groups (APC, EGFR, FGFR3, KDR, MET, PDGFRA, RET and SMO) while four genes (TP53, PIK3CA, STK11 and KIT) were exclusively altered in the tumor group. TP53 alterations were present in all the tumors but not in the normal group. Six deleterious mutations in TP53 (p.R175H, p.H193R, p.Y220C, p.Y163C, p.R282G and p.Y234H) were identified in eight serous ovarian carcinoma samples and none in the normal group.
CONCLUSION: TP53 remains as the most frequently altered gene in high grade serous ovarian cancer and Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM) in combination with Ion Ampliseq™ Cancer Hotspot Panel v2 were proven to be instrumental in identifying a wide range of genetic alterations simultaneously from a minute amount of DNA. However, larger series of validation targeting more genes are necessary in order to shed a light on the molecular events underlying pathogenesis of this cancer.

Li Z, Li X, Yu C, et al.
MicroRNA-100 regulates pancreatic cancer cells growth and sensitivity to chemotherapy through targeting FGFR3.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(12):11751-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
We intended to investigate the role of microRNA 100 (miR-100) in regulating pancreatic cancer cells' growth in vitro and tumor development in vivo. QTR-PCR was used to examine the expression of miR-100 in pancreatic cancer cell lines and tumor cells from human patients. Lentivirual vector containing miR-100 mimics (lv-miR-100) was used to overexpress miR-100 in MIA PaCa-2 and FCPAC-1 cells. The effects of overexpressing miR-100 on pancreatic cancer cell proliferation and chemosensitivity to cisplatin were examined by cell proliferation essay in vitro. MIA PaCa-2 cells with endogenously overexpressed miR-100 were transplanted into null mice to examine tumor growth in vivo. The predicted target of miR-100, fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3), was downregulated by siRNA to examine its effect on pancreatic cancer cells. We found miR-100 was markedly underexpressed in both pancreatic cancer cell lines and tumor cells from patients. In cancer cells, transfection of lv-miR-100 was able to upregulate endogenous expression of miR-100, inhibited cancer cell proliferation, and increased sensitivities to cisplatin. Overexpressing miR-100 led to significant inhibition on tumor formation in vivo. Luciferase essay showed FGFR3 was direct target of miR-100. FGFR3 was significantly downregulated by overexpressing miR-100 in pancreatic cancer cells and knocking down FGFR3 by siRNA exerted similar effect as miR-100. Our study demonstrated that miR-100 played an important role in pancreatic cancer development, possibly through targeting FGFR3. It may become a new therapeutic target for gene therapy in patients suffered from pancreatic cancer.

Chinen Y, Kuroda J, Shimura Y, et al.
Phosphoinositide protein kinase PDPK1 is a crucial cell signaling mediator in multiple myeloma.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(24):7418-29 [PubMed] Related Publications
Multiple myeloma is a cytogenetically/molecularly heterogeneous hematologic malignancy that remains mostly incurable, and the identification of a universal and relevant therapeutic target molecule is essential for the further development of therapeutic strategy. Herein, we identified that 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDPK1), a serine threonine kinase, is expressed and active in all eleven multiple myeloma-derived cell lines examined regardless of the type of cytogenetic abnormality, the mutation state of RAS and FGFR3 genes, or the activation state of ERK and AKT. Our results revealed that PDPK1 is a pivotal regulator of molecules that are essential for myelomagenesis, such as RSK2, AKT, c-MYC, IRF4, or cyclin Ds, and that PDPK1 inhibition caused the growth inhibition and the induction of apoptosis with the activation of BIM and BAD, and augmented the in vitro cytotoxic effects of antimyeloma agents in myeloma cells. In the clinical setting, PDPK1 was active in myeloma cells of approximately 90% of symptomatic patients at diagnosis, and the smaller population of patients with multiple myeloma exhibiting myeloma cells without active PDPK1 showed a significantly less frequent proportion of the disease stage III by the International Staging System and a significantly more favorable prognosis, including the longer overall survival period and the longer progression-free survival period by bortezomib treatment, than patients with active PDPK1, suggesting that PDPK1 activation accelerates the disease progression and the resistance to treatment in multiple myeloma. Our study demonstrates that PDPK1 is a potent and a universally targetable signaling mediator in multiple myeloma regardless of the types of cytogenetic/molecular profiles.

Zhang Y, Xie S, Zhou Y, et al.
H3K36 histone methyltransferase Setd2 is required for murine embryonic stem cell differentiation toward endoderm.
Cell Rep. 2014; 8(6):1989-2002 [PubMed] Related Publications
Setd2 is known as a histone-H3K36-specific methyltransferase. However, its role in physiological function remains unclear. In this study, we show that Setd2 mainly regulates differentiation of murine embryonic stem cells (mESCs) toward primitive endoderm. Furthermore, we show that downregulated endoderm-related genes in Setd2(-/-) mESCs are associated with an aberrantly low level of Erk activity and that enforced expression of Fgfr3 can rescue the defective Erk pathway in Setd2(-/-) mESCs. Interestingly, the transcriptional initiation of Fgfr3 is directly regulated through histone H3K36me3 modification in its distal promoter region by Setd2. These results indicate that Setd2 controls the primitive endoderm differentiation of mESCs by regulating the Fgfr3-Erk signaling.

van Rhijn BW, Catto JW, Goebell PJ, et al.
Molecular markers for urothelial bladder cancer prognosis: toward implementation in clinical practice.
Urol Oncol. 2014; 32(7):1078-87 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: To summarize the current status of clinicopathological and molecular markers for the prediction of recurrence or progression or both in non-muscle-invasive and survival in muscle-invasive urothelial bladder cancer, to address the reproducibility of pathology and molecular markers, and to provide directions toward implementation of molecular markers in future clinical decision making.
METHODS AND MATERIALS: Immunohistochemistry, gene signatures, and FGFR3-based molecular grading were used as molecular examples focussing on prognostics and issues related to robustness of pathological and molecular assays.
RESULTS: The role of molecular markers to predict recurrence is limited, as clinical variables are currently more important. The prediction of progression and survival using molecular markers holds considerable promise. Despite a plethora of prognostic (clinical and molecular) marker studies, reproducibility of pathology and molecular assays has been understudied, and lack of reproducibility is probably the main reason that individual prediction of disease outcome is currently not reliable.
CONCLUSIONS: Molecular markers are promising to predict progression and survival, but not recurrence. However, none of these are used in the daily clinical routine because of reproducibility issues. Future studies should focus on reproducibility of marker assessment and consistency of study results by incorporating scoring systems to reduce heterogeneity of reporting. This may ultimately lead to incorporation of molecular markers in clinical practice.

Rampias T, Vgenopoulou P, Avgeris M, et al.
A new tumor suppressor role for the Notch pathway in bladder cancer.
Nat Med. 2014; 20(10):1199-205 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Notch signaling pathway controls cell fates through interactions between neighboring cells by positively or negatively affecting the processes of proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis in a context-dependent manner. This pathway has been implicated in human cancer as both an oncogene and a tumor suppressor. Here we report new inactivating mutations in Notch pathway components in over 40% of human bladder cancers examined. Bladder cancer is the fourth most commonly diagnosed malignancy in the male population of the United States. Thus far, driver mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) and, less commonly, in RAS proteins have been identified. We show that Notch activation in bladder cancer cells suppresses proliferation both in vitro and in vivo by directly upregulating dual-specificity phosphatases (DUSPs), thus reducing the phosphorylation of ERK1 and ERK2 (ERK1/2). In mouse models, genetic inactivation of Notch signaling leads to Erk1/2 phosphorylation, resulting in tumorigenesis in the urinary tract. Collectively our findings show that loss of Notch activity is a driving event in urothelial cancer.

Pattison S, Zalcberg JR
Bespoke treatment: drivers beware!
Asia Pac J Clin Oncol. 2014; 10(4):378-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
Significant progress has been made in the identification of molecular targets and targeted therapy is becoming a realistic option for patients with tumors for which potential driver mutations are identified. We present a case that highlights that the identification of a potential driver mutation does not confirm it as a key mutational event in every case and emphasizes the need for ongoing research to enable therapy to be more accurately directed for the benefit of patients.

Bao ZS, Chen HM, Yang MY, et al.
RNA-seq of 272 gliomas revealed a novel, recurrent PTPRZ1-MET fusion transcript in secondary glioblastomas.
Genome Res. 2014; 24(11):1765-73 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2016 Related Publications
Studies of gene rearrangements and the consequent oncogenic fusion proteins have laid the foundation for targeted cancer therapy. To identify oncogenic fusions associated with glioma progression, we catalogued fusion transcripts by RNA-seq of 272 gliomas. Fusion transcripts were more frequently found in high-grade gliomas, in the classical subtype of gliomas, and in gliomas treated with radiation/temozolomide. Sixty-seven in-frame fusion transcripts were identified, including three recurrent fusion transcripts: FGFR3-TACC3, RNF213-SLC26A11, and PTPRZ1-MET (ZM). Interestingly, the ZM fusion was found only in grade III astrocytomas (1/13; 7.7%) or secondary GBMs (sGBMs, 3/20; 15.0%). In an independent cohort of sGBMs, the ZM fusion was found in three of 20 (15%) specimens. Genomic analysis revealed that the fusion arose from translocation events involving introns 3 or 8 of PTPRZ and intron 1 of MET. ZM fusion transcripts were found in GBMs irrespective of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutation status. sGBMs harboring ZM fusion showed higher expression of genes required for PIK3CA signaling and lowered expression of genes that suppressed RB1 or TP53 function. Expression of the ZM fusion was mutually exclusive with EGFR overexpression in sGBMs. Exogenous expression of the ZM fusion in the U87MG glioblastoma line enhanced cell migration and invasion. Clinically, patients afflicted with ZM fusion harboring glioblastomas survived poorly relative to those afflicted with non-ZM-harboring sGBMs (P < 0.001). Our study profiles the shifting RNA landscape of gliomas during progression and reveled ZM as a novel, recurrent fusion transcript in sGBMs.

Xie Z, Chng WJ
MMSET: role and therapeutic opportunities in multiple myeloma.
Biomed Res Int. 2014; 2014:636514 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2016 Related Publications
Recurrent chromosomal translocations are central to the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and prognosis of hematologic malignancies. The translocation t(4; 14)(p16; q32) is one of the most common translocations in multiple myeloma (MM) and is associated with very poor prognosis. The t(4; 14) translocation leads to the simultaneous overexpression of two genes, FGFR3 (fibroblast growth factor receptor 3) and MMSET (multiple myeloma SET domain), both of which have potential oncogenic activity. However, approximately 30% of t(4; 14) MM patients do not express FGFR3 and have poor prognosis irrespective of FGFR3 expression, whereas MMSET overexpression is universal in t(4; 14) cases. In this review, we provide an overview of recent findings regarding the oncogenic roles of MMSET in MM and its functions on histone methylation. We also highlight some of MMSET partners and its downstream signalling pathways and discuss the potential therapeutics targeting MMSET.

Trietsch MD, Spaans VM, ter Haar NT, et al.
CDKN2A(p16) and HRAS are frequently mutated in vulvar squamous cell carcinoma.
Gynecol Oncol. 2014; 135(1):149-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Two etiologic pathways of vulvar cancer are known, a human papillomavirus (HPV)- and a TP53-associated route, respectively, but other genetic changes may also play a role. Studies on somatic mutations in vulvar cancer other than TP53 are limited in number and size. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of genetic mutations in 107 vulvar squamous cell carcinomas (VSCCs).
METHODS: A total of 107 paraffin-embedded tissue samples of primarily surgically treated VSCCs were tested for HPV infection and screened for mutations in 14 genes (BRAF, CDKN2A(p16), CTNNB1, FBXW7, FGFR2, FGFR3, FOXL2, HRAS, KRAS, NRAS, PIK3CA, PPP2R1A, PTEN, and TP53) using Sanger sequencing and mass spectrometry.
RESULTS: Mutations were detected in 7 genes. Of 107 VSCCs, 66 tumors (62%) contained at least one mutation (TP53=58, CDKN2A(p16)=14, HRAS=10, PIK3CA=7, PPP2R1A=3, KRAS=1, PTEN=1). Mutations occurred most frequently in HPV-negative samples. Five-year survival was significantly worse for patients with a mutation (47% vs 59%, P=.035), with a large effect from patients carrying HRAS-mutations.
CONCLUSION: Somatic mutations were detected in 62% of VSCCs. As expected, HPV infection and TP53-mutations play a key role in the development of VSCC, but CDKN2A(p16), HRAS, and PIK3CA-mutations were also frequently seen in HPV-negative patients. Patients with somatic mutations, especially HRAS-mutations, have a significantly worse prognosis than patients lacking these changes, which could be of importance for the development of targeted therapy.

Gleeson FC, Kipp BR, Kerr SE, et al.
Kinase genotype analysis of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor cytology samples using targeted next-generation sequencing.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2015; 13(1):202-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) usually contain the mast/stem cell growth factor receptor Kit gene (KIT) or platelet-derived growth factor receptor A (PDGFRA) mutations that can be targeted by, or mediate resistance to, imatinib. Diagnostic material often is obtained by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration, which often is unsuitable for molecular analysis. We investigated whether targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) can be used in multiplex genotype analysis of cytology samples collected by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration. We used the Ion AmpliSeq V2 Cancer Hotspot NGS Panel (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA) to identify mutations in more than 2800 exons from 50 cancer-associated genes in GIST samples from 20 patients. We identified KIT mutations in 58% of samples (91% in exon 11 and 9% in exon 17) and PDGFRA mutations in 26% (60% in exon 18 and 40% in exon 12); 16% of samples had no mutations in KIT or PDGFRA. No pathogenic alterations were found in PIK3CA, BRAF, KRAS, NRAS, or FGFR3. We predicted that 32% of patients would have primary resistance to imatinib, based on mutations in exon 17 of KIT, exon 18 of PDGFRA (D842V), or no mutation in either gene. Targeted NGS of cytology samples from GISTs is feasible and provides clinically relevant data about kinase genotypes that can help guide individualized therapy.

Ryslik GA, Cheng Y, Cheung KH, et al.
A spatial simulation approach to account for protein structure when identifying non-random somatic mutations.
BMC Bioinformatics. 2014; 15:231 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Current research suggests that a small set of "driver" mutations are responsible for tumorigenesis while a larger body of "passenger" mutations occur in the tumor but do not progress the disease. Due to recent pharmacological successes in treating cancers caused by driver mutations, a variety of methodologies that attempt to identify such mutations have been developed. Based on the hypothesis that driver mutations tend to cluster in key regions of the protein, the development of cluster identification algorithms has become critical.
RESULTS: We have developed a novel methodology, SpacePAC (Spatial Protein Amino acid Clustering), that identifies mutational clustering by considering the protein tertiary structure directly in 3D space. By combining the mutational data in the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC) and the spatial information in the Protein Data Bank (PDB), SpacePAC is able to identify novel mutation clusters in many proteins such as FGFR3 and CHRM2. In addition, SpacePAC is better able to localize the most significant mutational hotspots as demonstrated in the cases of BRAF and ALK. The R package is available on Bioconductor at: http://www.bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/SpacePAC.html.
CONCLUSION: SpacePAC adds a valuable tool to the identification of mutational clusters while considering protein tertiary structure.

Choi W, Czerniak B, Ochoa A, et al.
Intrinsic basal and luminal subtypes of muscle-invasive bladder cancer.
Nat Rev Urol. 2014; 11(7):400-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
Whole-genome analyses have revealed that muscle-invasive bladder cancers (MIBCs) are heterogeneous and can be grouped into basal and luminal subtypes that are highly reminiscent of those found in breast cancer. Basal MIBCs are enriched with squamous and sarcomatoid features and are associated with advanced stage and metastatic disease at presentation. Like basal breast cancers, basal bladder tumours contain a claudin-low subtype that is enriched with biomarkers characteristic of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. The stem cell transcription factor ΔNp63α controls basal MIBC gene expression, just as it does in basal breast cancers. Luminal MIBCs are enriched with activating FGFR3 and ERBB3 mutations and ERBB2 amplifications, and their gene expression profiles are controlled by peroxisome proliferator activator receptor γ (PPARγ) and possibly also by oestrogen receptor activation. Luminal bladder cancers can be further subdivided into two subtypes, p53-like and luminal, which can be distinguished from one another by different levels of biomarkers that are characteristic of stromal infiltration, cell cycle progression, and proliferation. Importantly, basal bladder cancers are intrinsically aggressive, but are highly sensitive to cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy. Although the luminal subtypes are not as intrinsically aggressive as basal cancers, p53-like tumours are resistant to chemotherapy and might, therefore, represent a problem for treated patients.

Tsai JH, Huang WC, Jhuang JY, et al.
Frequent activating HRAS mutations in trichilemmoma.
Br J Dermatol. 2014; 171(5):1073-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Trichilemmoma is a benign follicular epithelial tumour exhibiting outer root sheath differentiation. It is associated with Cowden syndrome and naevus sebaceus (NS), but the pathogenesis of sporadic tumours is poorly understood. Recently, NS was found to be caused by postzygotic HRAS or KRAS mutations.
OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine whether NS-related and NS-unrelated trichilemmomas harbour RAS mutations.
METHODS: Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded blocks of 12 NS-related and 15 NS-unrelated trichilemmomas from 26 individuals were retrieved and analysed to determine the presence of mutations in exons 1 and 2 of the HRAS, KRAS and NRAS genes by polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing. Mutational hotspots of the FGFR3 and PIK3CA genes were also analysed for NS-unrelated cases.
RESULTS: Among the 27 cases, mutually exclusive HRAS c.37G>C and c.182A>G mutations were observed in 17 and three tumours, respectively. Of the 12 NS-related tumours, 11 (92%) harboured the HRAS c.37G>C substitution. Of the 15 sporadic tumours, nine (60%) harboured HRAS mutations, including six c.37G>C and three c.182A>G. An HRAS c.182A>G mutation was observed only in sporadic tumours. No mutations were observed in the other genes that were tested.
CONCLUSIONS: The high frequency of HRAS activating mutations, including the c.182A>G substitution, which was rather rare in NS, suggests that most trichilemmomas are authentic neoplasms.

Neuzillet Y, van Rhijn BW, Prigoda NL, et al.
FGFR3 mutations, but not FGFR3 expression and FGFR3 copy-number variations, are associated with favourable non-muscle invasive bladder cancer.
Virchows Arch. 2014; 465(2):207-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
The fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) is a tyrosine kinase receptor frequently activated by point mutations in bladder cancer (BC). These mutations are associated with genetically stable, Ta and low-grade BC, representing the favourable BC pathway. Conversely, FGFR3 over-expression was recently found in 40 % of muscle invasive BC. We examined FGFR3 mutation status and protein expression in patients originally diagnosed as T1. We also investigated copy-number variations in FGFR3 as a possible alternative mechanism to activate FGFR3. We included 84 patients with T1 BC as their initial diagnosis. A uropathologist reviewed the slides for grade and (sub)stage. The FGFR3 mutation status was examined by PCR-SNaPshot and FGFR3 protein expression by standard immuno-histochemistry (FGFR3-B9). Copy-number status was determined in 69/84 cases with nine probes covering nine exons of the FGFR3 gene (MLPA). Of 27 BC with FGFR3 mutations, 26 (96 %) showed FGFR3 over-expression. Of the 57 wild-type BC, 27 (47 %) BC showed over-expression. Pathological parameters significantly differed (p < 0.01) between mutant and wild-type tumours with the FGFR3 mutation pointing to more favourable BC. However, if the BC exhibited wild-type FGFR3, FGFR3 protein status had no influence on grade and (sub)stage. We found six tumours with more than or equal to three copies of FGFR3. Only 1 of 22 wild-type tumours with over-expression of FGFR3 had more than or equal to three gene copies. In initially diagnosed T1 BC, only the FGFR3 mutation was significantly associated with favourable BC disease characteristics. In addition to almost all FGFR3 mutant BC, 47 % of wild-type BC displayed FGFR3 over-expression, suggesting an alternative mechanism to activate FGFR3. Increased FGFR3 copy number was a rare event and did not account for this mechanism. Nevertheless, FGFR3 wild-type tumours with over-expression of the protein may still represent a subset that might potentially benefit from FGFR3-targeted therapy.

Guancial EA, Werner L, Bellmunt J, et al.
FGFR3 expression in primary and metastatic urothelial carcinoma of the bladder.
Cancer Med. 2014; 3(4):835-44 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2016 Related Publications
While fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) is frequently mutated or overexpressed in nonmuscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma (UC), the prevalence of FGFR3 protein expression and mutation remains unknown in muscle-invasive disease. FGFR3 protein and mRNA expression, mutational status, and copy number variation were retrospectively analyzed in 231 patients with formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded primary UCs, 33 metastases, and 14 paired primary and metastatic tumors using the following methods: immunohistochemistry, NanoString nCounterTM, OncoMap or Affymetrix OncoScanTM array, and Gain and Loss of Analysis of DNA and Genomic Identification of Significant Targets in Cancer software. FGFR3 immunohistochemistry staining was present in 29% of primary UCs and 49% of metastases and did not impact overall survival (P = 0.89, primary tumors; P = 0.78, metastases). FGFR3 mutations were observed in 2% of primary tumors and 9% of metastases. Mutant tumors expressed higher levels of FGFR3 mRNA than wild-type tumors (P < 0.001). FGFR3 copy number gain and loss were rare events in primary and metastatic tumors (0.8% each; 3.0% and 12.3%, respectively). FGFR3 immunohistochemistry staining is present in one third of primary muscle-invasive UCs and half of metastases, while FGFR3 mutations and copy number changes are relatively uncommon.

Rüping K, Altendorf-Hofmann A, Chen Y, et al.
High IGF2 and FGFR3 are associated with tumour progression in undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcomas, but EGFR and FGFR3 mutations are a rare event.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2014; 140(8):1315-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: Pleomorphic undifferentiated sarcomas (formerly known as malignant fibrous histiocytomas) are recognised by the actual WHO classification as an undifferentiated, unclassifiable category of pleomorphic sarcomas which show no definable line of differentiation and are still a diagnosis of exclusion. Therefore, diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic options of these tumours are urgently needed.
METHODS: Three hundred and twenty-seven spindle cell tumours of a German consultation and reference centre of soft tissue tumours consisting of 200 undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcomas (UPS), 45 low-grade sarcomas (10 low-grade fibromyxoid sarcomas, 32 low-grade myofibroblastic sarcomas and three myxoinflammatory fibroblastic sarcomas) and 82 tumours of the fasciitis family were revisited. The specimens were analysed immunohistochemically with distinct markers including tyrosine kinases and expression correlated with clinicopathological parameters. Additionally, mutational analysis was performed on specimens with high expression of EGFR and FGFR3.
RESULTS: At the protein level high IGF2 expression was observed in 86 %, FGFR3 (69 %), PDGFRA (62 %), PDGFRB (39 %), FGFR1 (8 %), EGFR (5 %), KDR/VEGFR2 (3 %), ALK (0 %) and high Ki67 (63 %) in UPS. High expressions of IGF2 and FGFR3 are significantly correlated with a higher grading (p = 0.023 and p = 0.016, respectively) and a high Ki67 index (p = 0.017 and p = 0.001, respectively). No mutations were found in the hot spots of tumour specimens with a high expression of EGFR gene (exons 18-21) and FGFR3 gene (exons 7, 10 and 15).
CONCLUSIONS: High expressions of IGF2 and FGFR3 are significantly associated with tumour progression, grading and Ki67 and might classify a subgroup of undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma. These markers might guide targeted therapies in these neoplasms.

Acquaviva J, He S, Zhang C, et al.
FGFR3 translocations in bladder cancer: differential sensitivity to HSP90 inhibition based on drug metabolism.
Mol Cancer Res. 2014; 12(7):1042-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Activating mutations and/or overexpression of FGFR3 are common in bladder cancer, making FGFR3 an attractive therapeutic target in this disease. In addition, FGFR3 gene rearrangements have recently been described that define a unique subset of bladder tumors. Here, a selective HSP90 inhibitor, ganetespib, induced loss of FGFR3-TACC3 fusion protein expression and depletion of multiple oncogenic signaling proteins in RT112 bladder cells, resulting in potent cytotoxicity comparable with the pan-FGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor BGJ398. However, in contrast to BGJ398, ganetespib exerted pleiotropic effects on additional mitogenic and survival pathways and could overcome the FGFR inhibitor-resistant phenotype of FGFR3 mutant-expressing 97-7 and MHG-U3 cells. Combinatorial benefit was observed when ganetespib was used with BGJ398 both in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, two additional FGFR3 fusion-positive lines (RT4 and SW480) retained sensitivity to HSP90 inhibitor treatment by the ansamycins 17-AAG and 17-DMAG yet displayed intrinsic resistance to ganetespib or AUY922, both second-generation resorcinol-based compounds. Both cell lines, compared with RT112, expressed considerably higher levels of endogenous UGT1A enzyme; this phenotype resulted in a rapid glucuronidation-dependent metabolism and subsequent efflux of ganetespib from SW780 cells, thus providing a mechanism to account for the lack of bioactivity.
IMPLICATIONS: Pharmacologic blockade of the molecular chaperone HSP90 represents a promising approach for treating bladder tumors driven by oncogenic gene rearrangements of FGFR3. Furthermore, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase enzyme expression may serve as a predictive factor for clinical response to resorcinol-based HSP90 inhibitors.

Williamson SR, Wang M, Montironi R, et al.
Molecular characteristics of urothelial neoplasms in children and young adults: a subset of tumors from young patients harbors chromosomal abnormalities but not FGFR3 or TP53 gene mutations.
Mod Pathol. 2014; 27(11):1540-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Urothelial neoplasms in children and young adult patients are rare and hypothesized to have a lower rate of recurrence and progression than those of older adults. Because of their rarity, data regarding molecular abnormalities in these tumors are limited. We studied molecular characteristics of urothelial neoplasms from patients under age 30 years using UroVysion fluorescence in situ hybridization (chromosomes 3, 7, 17, and 9p21) and DNA mutational analysis for the FGFR3 and TP53 genes. Seventeen tumors were identified in patients 6-26 years of age, including low-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma (n=10), high-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma (n=5), urothelial papilloma (n=1), and papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential (n=1). No tumor demonstrated mutation of FGFR3 or TP53. Chromosomal abnormalities were detected only in patients aged ≥19 years: two low-grade urothelial carcinomas had loss of 9p21 as a sole chromosomal abnormality and three high-grade urothelial carcinomas had other or multiple chromosomal abnormalities. Under age 19 years, no tumor showed molecular abnormalities with either method (five low-grade papillary urothelial carcinomas and one each of high-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma, papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential, and urothelial papilloma). Our results support the idea that mutations of the FGFR3 and TP53 genes are rare or absent in urothelial neoplasms of young patients. In contrast, chromosomal abnormalities detected by UroVysion fluorescence in situ hybridization are sometimes present in patients above 19-20 years of age. This finding supports the recently proposed hypothesis that an age of 19-20 years separates distinct molecular pathways of urothelial carcinogenesis.

Türkmen S, Binder A, Gerlach A, et al.
High prevalence of immunoglobulin light chain gene aberrations as revealed by FISH in multiple myeloma and MGUS.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2014; 53(8):650-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant B-cell neoplasm characterized by an uncontrolled proliferation of aberrant plasma cells in the bone marrow. Chromosome aberrations in MM are complex and represent a hallmark of the disease, involving many chromosomes that are altered both numerically and structurally. Nearly half of the cases are nonhyperdiploid and show IGH translocations with the following partner genes: CCND1, FGFR3 and MMSET, MAF, MAFB, and CCND3. The remaining 50% are grouped into a hyperdiploid group that is characterized by multiple trisomies involving chromosomes 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 15, 19, and 21. In this study, we analyzed the immunoglobulin light chain kappa (IGK, 2p12) and lambda (IGL, 22q11) loci in 150 cases, mostly with MM but in a few cases monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), without IGH translocations. We identified aberrations in 27% (= 40 patients) including rearrangements (12%), gains (12%), and deletions (4.6%). In 6 of 18 patients with IGK or/and IGL rearrangements, we detected a MYC rearrangement which suggests that MYC is the translocation partner in the majority of these cases.

Spaans VM, Trietsch MD, Crobach S, et al.
Designing a high-throughput somatic mutation profiling panel specifically for gynaecological cancers.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(3):e93451 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2016 Related Publications
Somatic mutations play a major role in tumour initiation and progression. The mutation status of a tumour may predict prognosis and guide targeted therapies. The majority of techniques to study oncogenic mutations require high quality and quantity DNA or are analytically challenging. Mass-spectrometry based mutation analysis however is a relatively simple and high-throughput method suitable for formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumour material. Targeted gene panels using this technique have been developed for several types of cancer. These current cancer hotspot panels are not focussed on the genes that are most relevant in gynaecological cancers. In this study, we report the design and validation of a novel, mass-spectrometry based panel specifically for gynaecological malignancies and present the frequencies of detected mutations. Using frequency data from the online Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer, we selected 171 somatic hotspot mutations in the 13 most important genes for gynaecological cancers, being BRAF, CDKN2A, CTNNB1, FBXW7, FGFR2, FGFR3, FOXL2, HRAS, KRAS, NRAS, PIK3CA, PPP2R1A and PTEN. A total of 546 tumours (205 cervical, 227 endometrial, 89 ovarian, and 25 vulvar carcinomas) were used to test and validate our panel, and to study the prevalence and spectrum of somatic mutations in these types of cancer. The results were validated by testing duplicate samples and by allele-specific qPCR. The panel presented here using mass-spectrometry shows to be reproducible and high-throughput, and is usefull in FFPE material of low quality and quantity. It provides new possibilities for studying large numbers of gynaecological tumour samples in daily practice, and could be useful in guided therapy selection.

Gaykalova DA, Mambo E, Choudhary A, et al.
Novel insight into mutational landscape of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(3):e93102 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2016 Related Publications
Development of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is characterized by accumulation of mutations in several oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. We have formerly described the mutation pattern of HNSCC and described NOTCH signaling pathway alterations. Given the complexity of the HNSCC, here we extend the previous study to understand the overall HNSCC mutation context and to discover additional genetic alterations. We performed high depth targeted exon sequencing of 51 highly actionable cancer-related genes with a high frequency of mutation across many cancer types, including head and neck. DNA from primary tumor tissues and matched normal tissues was analyzed for 37 HNSCC patients. We identified 26 non-synonymous or stop-gained mutations targeting 11 of 51 selected genes. These genes were mutated in 17 out of 37 (46%) studied HNSCC patients. Smokers harbored 3.2-fold more mutations than non-smokers. Importantly, TP53 was mutated in 30%, NOTCH1 in 8% and FGFR3 in 5% of HNSCC. HPV negative patients harbored 4-fold more TP53 mutations than HPV positive patients. These data confirm prior reports of the HNSCC mutational profile. Additionally, we detected mutations in two new genes, CEBPA and FES, which have not been previously reported in HNSCC. These data extend the spectrum of HNSCC mutations and define novel mutation targets in HNSCC carcinogenesis, especially for smokers and HNSCC without HPV infection.

Kim B, Wang S, Lee JM, et al.
Synthetic lethal screening reveals FGFR as one of the combinatorial targets to overcome resistance to Met-targeted therapy.
Oncogene. 2015; 34(9):1083-93 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2016 Related Publications
Met is a receptor tyrosine kinase that promotes cancer progression. In addition, Met has been implicated in resistance of tumors to various targeted therapies such as epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors in lung cancers, and has been prioritized as a key molecular target for cancer therapy. However, the underlying mechanism of resistance to Met-targeting drugs is poorly understood. Here, we describe screening of 1310 genes to search for key regulators related to drug resistance to an anti-Met therapeutic antibody (SAIT301) by using a small interfering RNA-based synthetic lethal screening method. We found that knockdown of 69 genes in Met-amplified MKN45 cells sensitized the antitumor activity of SAIT301. Pathway analysis of these 69 genes implicated fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) as a key regulator for antiproliferative effects of Met-targeting drugs. Inhibition of FGFR3 increased target cell apoptosis through the suppression of Bcl-xL expression, followed by reduced cancer cell growth in the presence of Met-targeting drugs. Treatment of cells with the FGFR inhibitors substantially restored the efficacy of SAIT301 in SAIT301-resistant cells and enhanced the efficacy in SAIT301-sensitive cells. In addition to FGFR3, integrin β3 is another potential target for combination treatment with SAIT301. Suppression of integrin β3 decreased AKT phosphorylation in SAIT301-resistant cells and restored SAIT301 responsiveness in HCC1954 cells, which are resistant to SAIT301. Gene expression analysis using CCLE database shows that cancer cells with high levels of FGFR and integrin β3 are resistant to crizotinib treatment, suggesting that FGFR and integrin β3 could be used as predictive markers for Met-targeted therapy and provide a potential therapeutic option to overcome acquired and innate resistance for the Met-targeting drugs.

Rogler A, Hoja S, Giedl J, et al.
Loss of MTUS1/ATIP expression is associated with adverse outcome in advanced bladder carcinomas: data from a retrospective study.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:214 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Seventy percent of all bladder tumours tend to recur and need intensive surveillance, and a subset of tumours progress to muscle-invasive and metastatic disease. However, it is still difficult to find the adequate treatment for every individual patient as it is a very heterogeneous disease and reliable biomarkers are still missing. In our study we searched for new target genes in the critical chromosomal region 8p and investigated the potential tumour suppressor gene candidate MTUS1/ATIP in bladder cancer.
METHODS: MTUS1 was identified to be the most promising deleted target gene at 8p in aCGH analysis with 19 papillary bladder tumours. A correlation with bladder cancer was further validated using immunohistochemistry of 85 papillary and 236 advanced bladder tumours and in functional experiments. Kaplan-Meier analysis and multivariate Cox-regression addressed overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) as a function of MTUS1/ATIP expression. Bivariate correlations investigated associations between MTUS1/ATIP expression, patient characteristics and histopathology. MTUS1 expression was analysed in cell lines and overexpressed in RT112, where impact on viability, proliferation and migration was measured.
RESULTS: MTUS1 protein expression was lost in almost 50% of all papillary and advanced bladder cancers. Survival, however, was only influenced in advanced carcinomas, where loss of MTUS1 was associated with adverse OS and DSS. In this cohort, there was also a significant correlation of MTUS1 expression and histological subtype: positive expression was detected in all micropapillary tumours and aberrant nuclear staining was detected in a subset of plasmocytoid urothelial carcinomas. MTUS1 was expressed in all investigated bladder cell lines and overexpression in RT112 led to significantly decreased viability.
CONCLUSIONS: MTUS1 is a tumour suppressor gene in cultured bladder cancer cells and in advanced bladder tumours. It might represent one new target gene at chromosome 8p and can be used as an independent prognostic factor for advanced bladder cancer patients. The limitation of the study is the retrospective data analysis. Thus, findings should be validated with a prospective advanced bladder tumour cohort.

Tian E, Sawyer JR, Heuck CJ, et al.
In multiple myeloma, 14q32 translocations are nonrandom chromosomal fusions driving high expression levels of the respective partner genes.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2014; 53(7):549-57 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2016 Related Publications
In studies of patients with multiple myeloma (MM), gene expression profiling (GEP) of myeloma cells demonstrates substantially higher expression of MMSET, FGFR3, CCND3, CCND1, MAF, and MAFB--the partner genes of 14q32 translocations--than GEP of plasma cells from healthy individuals. Interphase fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to discriminate between chromosomal translocations involving different regions of the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) genes at 14q32. With special probes designed for the constant region (IGHC) and the variable region (IGHV), IGH translocations were shown to be definite, nonrandom chromosomal fusions of IGHC with the loci of FGFR3, CCND1, CCND3, MAF, and MAFB genes; and IGHV with the locus of MMSET gene. When correlated with GEP results, the IGH translocations were found to drive expression levels of the partner genes to significantly higher levels (spikes) than copy-number variations. Hence, 42% of IGH translocations were identified among newly diagnosed MM patients (448/1,060). As GEP has become essential for assessing cancer risk, this novel approach is highly consistent with the cytogenetic features of the chromosomal translocations to effectively stratify molecular subgroups of MM on the basis of gene expression profiles of the IGH translocation partner genes in myeloma cells. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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