Research IndicatorsGraph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (9)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: IFITM1 (cancer-related)
Hussein HAM, Alfhili MA, Pakala P, et al.miRNAs and their roles in KSHV pathogenesis.
Virus Res. 2019; 266:15-24 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiological agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), and multicentric Castleman Disease (MCD). Recent mechanistic advances have discerned the importance of microRNAs in the virus-host relationship. KSHV has two modes of replication: lytic and latent phase. KSHV entry into permissive cells, establishment of infection, and maintenance of latency are contingent upon successful modulation of the host miRNA transcriptome. Apart from host cell miRNAs, KSHV also encodes viral miRNAs. Among various cellular and molecular targets, miRNAs are appearing to be key players in regulating viral pathogenesis. Therefore, the use of miRNAs as novel therapeutics has gained considerable attention as of late. This innovative approach relies on either mimicking miRNA species by identical oligonucleotides, or selective silencing of miRNA with specific oligonucleotide inhibitors. Here, we provide an overview of KSHV pathogenesis at the molecular level with special emphasis on the various roles miRNAs play during virus infection.
Purpose: Retinoblastoma (RB) is a retinal tumor that most commonly occurs in children. Approximately 40% of RB patients carry germline mutations in the
Methods: Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from 52 RB patients (27 unilaterally and 25 bilaterally affected probands). Mutations in the
Conclusions: This study provides a data set of an
Emerging data indicate that interferon-induced transmembrane protein 1 (IFITM1) plays an important role in many cancers. However, it remains unclear whether IFITM1 is functionally indispensable in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Here, using NSCLC cell lines and patient-derived samples, we show that IFITM1 is essentially required for the progression of NSCLC in vitro and in vivo. Specifically, IFITM1 depletion resulted in a significant reduction in sphere formation, migration, and invasion of NSCLC cells in vitro; these events were inversely correlated with the ectopic expression of IFITM1. In addition, tumor development was significantly impaired in the absence of IFITM1 in vivo. Mechanistically, epidermal growth factor receptor/sex-determining region Y-box 2 (EGFR/SOX2) signaling axis was compromised in the absence of IFITM1, and the ectopic expression of SOX2 partially rescued the defects caused by IFITM1 depletion. More importantly, using 226 patient-derived samples, we demonstrate that a high level of IFITM1 expression is associated with a poor overall survival (OS) rate in adenocarcinoma but not in squamous cell carcinoma. Collectively, these data suggest that IFITM1 is a poor prognostic marker of adenocarcinoma and an attractive target to develop novel therapeutics for NSCLC.
Ovarian cancer is a heterogeneous disease. Data regarding familial risks for specific proband, age at diagnosis and histology are limited. Such data can assist genetic counseling and help elucidate etiologic differences among various histologic types of ovarian malignancies. By using the Swedish Family-Cancer Database, we calculated relative risks (RRs) for detailed family histories using a two-way comparison, which implied e.g. estimation of RRs for overall ovarian cancer when family history was histology-specific ovarian cancer, and conversely, RRs for histology-specific ovarian cancer when family history was overall ovarian cancer. In families of only mother, only sisters or both mother and sisters diagnosed with ovarian cancer, cancer risks for ovary were 2.40, 2.59 and 10.40, respectively; and were higher for cases diagnosed before the age of 50 years. All histological types showed a familial risk in two-way analyses, except mucinous and sex cord-stromal tumors. RRs for concordant histology were found for serous (2.47), endometrioid (3.59) and mucinous ovarian cancers (6.91). Concordant familial risks were highest for mucinous cancer; for others, some discordant associations, such as endometrioid-undifferentiated (9.27) and serous-undifferentiated (4.80), showed the highest RRs. Familial risks are high for early-onset patients and for those with multiple affected relatives. Sharing of different histological types of ovarian cancer is likely an indication of the complexity of the underlying mechanisms.
Liu SV, Camidge DR, Gettinger SN, et al.Long-term survival follow-up of atezolizumab in combination with platinum-based doublet chemotherapy in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.
Eur J Cancer. 2018; 101:114-122 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Before the availability of immunotherapy, chemotherapy was standard first-line therapy for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) lacking actionable gene alterations. Preclinical evidence suggests chemotherapy is immunomodulatory, supporting chemotherapy/immunotherapy combinations. Atezolizumab, anti-programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) antibody, blocks programmed cell death protein-1 and B7.1 interaction with PD-L1. GP28328 (NCT01633970) assessed atezolizumab with chemotherapy in multiple tumours; we report results for advanced, treatment-naïve NSCLC.
METHODS: Patients received atezolizumab plus carboplatin with paclitaxel (Arm C: atezo/cb/pac), pemetrexed (Arm D: atezo/cb/pem, maintenance pemetrexed permitted), or nab-paclitaxel (Arm E: atezo/cb/nab-pac), four-six cycles, then atezolizumab maintenance. Primary end-point was safety; secondary end-points were objective response rate (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS).
RESULTS: Seventy-six NSCLC patients were enrolled (n = 25, 25 and 26 for Arms C, D and E, respectively). Common treatment-related grade III/IV adverse events were neutropenia (36% atezo/cb/pac, 36% atezo/cb/pem, 42% atezo/cb/nab-pac) and anaemia (16% atezo/cb/pac, 16% atezo/cb/pem, 31% atezo/cb/nab-pac). Confirmed ORRs were 36% atezo/cb/pac, 68% atezo/cb/pem (one complete response [CR]) and 46% atezo/cb/nab-pac (four CRs). Median PFS was 7.1 months, (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.2-8.3), 8.4 months (95% CI: 4.7-11) and 5.7 months (95% CI: 4.4-14.8), respectively. Median OS was 12.9 months (95% CI: 8.8-21.3), 18.9 months (95% CI: 9.9-27.4) and 17.0 months (95% CI: 12.7-not evaluable), respectively.
CONCLUSION: Atezolizumab with chemotherapy was well tolerated with encouraging efficacy, though the analysis was limited by small numbers. NSCLC chemotherapy combination studies are ongoing. CLINICALTRIALS.
GOV IDENTIFIER: NCT01633970.
PURPOSE: Although the interferon α (IFNα) signaling and the paired-like homeodomain transcription factor 2 (PITX2) have both been implicated in the progression of breast cancer (BCa), it remains obscure whether these two pathways act in a coordinated manner. We therefore aimed to elucidate the expression and function of PITX2 during the pathogenesis of endocrine resistance in BCa.
Materials and Methods: PITX2 expression was assessed in BCa tissues using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and immunohistochemistry and in experimentally induced letrozole-resistant BCa cells using RT-qPCR and immunoblotting. Effects of PITX2 deregulation on BCa progression was determined by assessing MTT, apoptosis and xenograft model. Finally, using multiple assays, the transcriptional regulation of interferon-inducible transmembrane protein 1 (IFITM1) by PITX2 was studied at both molecular and functional levels.
RESULTS: PITX2 expression was induced in letrozole-resistant BCa tissues and cells, and PITX2 induction by IFNα signaling powerfully protected BCa cells against letrozole insult and potentiated letrozole-resistance. Mechanistically, PITX2 enhanced IFNα-induced AKT activation by transactivating the transcription of IFITM1, thus rendering BCa cells unresponsive to letrozoleelicited cell death. Additionally, ablation of IFITM1 expression using siRNA substantially abolished IFNα-elicited AKT phosphorylation, even in the presence of PITX2 overexpression, thus sensitizing BCa cells to letrozole treatment.
CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that constitutive upregulation of PITX2/IFITM1 cascade is an intrinsic adaptive mechanism during the pathogenesis of letrozole-resistance, and modulation of PITX2/IFITM1 level using different genetic and pharmacological means would thus have a novel therapeutic potential against letrozole resistance in BCa.
This research aimed to analyze the effect of IFITM1 on the radioresistance of oral neoplasm. Using a multi-group heat map from GSE9716 analysis of the GEO database, IFITM1 was determined to be a relevant radioresistance gene. The TCGA database was analyzed before the expression of IFITM1 was analyzed. IFITM1 expression was quantified by quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry in 19 paired oral neoplasm cases. The effects of time and dose of radiation on IFITM1 expression level in CAL27 and TSCC1 cell lines were tested by quantitative RT-PCR. Oral neoplasm cells were transfected with siRNA after radiotherapy to disturb IFITM1 expression. After this, the survival rates, cell apoptosis, caspase-3 viability, expression and γ-H2AX were detected using colony formation, flow cytometry, western blot and immunofluorescence, respectively. Western blot was used for STAT1/2/3/p21-related protein and phosphorylation changes. Finally, an in vivo nude mice tumor model was established to verify the effect of IFITM1 on oral neoplasm cells radioresistance. Through microarray analysis, the head and neck neoplasm radioresistance-related gene IFITM1 was found to be overexpressed. IFITM1 overexpression was verified not only using the TCGA database but also in 19 paired cases of oral neoplasm tissues and cells. With increases of dose and time of radiation, the expression of IFITM1 was increased in CAL27 and TSCC1 cell lines. Furthermore, si-IFITM1 may restrain cell proliferation, DNA damage and cell apoptosis in oral neoplasm cell lines. Finally, pSTAT1/2/p21 was found to be upregulated while pSTAT3/p-p21 was downregulated due to IFITM1 inhibition after radiotherapy. The evidence suggested that IFITM1 in combination with radiotherapy can inhibit oral neoplasm cells.
Loss of runt‑related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3) has been reported in various cancers, and one of the mechanisms mediating loss of RUNX3 expression is DNA methylation. However, the role of RUNX3 expression and its DNA methylation status as prognostic factors in endometrial cancer remain unclear. In the present study, the expression and promoter methylation of RUNX3 was examined in endometrial cancer tissues and cell lines, as well as their association with endometrial cancer prognosis. Fifty‑five endometrial cancer tissues and two endometrial cancer cell lines (HEC1‑α and Ishikawa) were studied. RUNX3 expression and promoter methylation were examined using reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction (RT‑PCR), methylation specific PCR (MS‑PCR), and immunohistochemical staining. The demethylating agent 5‑aza‑2'‑deoxycytidine (ADC) was used to reverse the methylation of the RUNX3 promoter. Loss of RUNX3 expression was observed in 50.9% (27/53) of endometrial cancer tissues and in the HEC1‑α cell line by immunohistochemistry and RT‑PCR, respectively. Methylation of the RUNX3 promoter was observed in 62.2% (33/53) of endometrial cancer tissues, 12.5% (1/8) of normal endometrial tissues, and the HEC1‑α cell line by MS‑PCR. Tumor grade and stage were significantly correlated with loss of RUNX3 expression. The expression of RUNX3 was restored by treatment with ADC and resulted in growth inhibition in HEC1‑α cells. The present results suggested that methylation may serve a critical role in the silencing of RUNX3 and loss of RUNX3 expression may serve as a prognostic marker in endometrial cancer.
Background: We have previously shown that gene expression profiles of oral leukoplakia (OL) may improve the prediction of oral cancer (OC) risk. To identify new targets for prevention, we performed a systematic survey of transcripts associated with an increased risk of oral cancer and overexpressed in OC vs normal mucosa (NM).
Methods: We used gene expression profiles of 86 patients with OL and available outcomes from a chemoprevention trial of OC and NM. MET expression was evaluated using immunohistochemistry in 120 OL patients, and its association with OC development was tested in multivariable analysis. Sensitivity to pharmacological Met inhibition was tested invitro in premalignant and OC cell lines (n = 33) and invivo using the 4-NQO model of oral chemoprevention (n = 20 mice per group). All statistical tests were two-sided.
Results: The overlap of 693 transcripts associated with an increased risk of OC with 163 transcripts overexpressed in OC compared with NM led to the identification of 23 overlapping transcripts, including MET. MET overexpression in OL was associated with a hazard ratio of 3.84 (95% confidence interval = 1.59 to 9.27, P = .003) of developing OC. Met activation was found in OC and preneoplastic cell lines. Crizotinib activity in preneoplastic and OC cell lines was comparable. ARQ 197 was more active in preneoplastic compared with OC cell lines. In the 4-NQO model, squamous cell carcinoma, dysplasia, and hyperkeratosis were observed in 75.0%, 15.0%, and 10.0% in the control group, and in 25.0%, 70.0%, and 5.0% in the crizotinib group (P < .001).
Conclusion: Together, these data suggest that MET activation may represent an early driver in oral premalignancy and a target for chemoprevention of OC.
Dou M, Zhou X, Fan Z, et al.Clinical Significance of Retinoic Acid Receptor Beta Promoter Methylation in Prostate Cancer: A Meta-Analysis.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 45(6):2497-2505 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Retinoic acid receptor beta (RAR beta) is a retinoic acid receptor gene that has been shown to play key roles during multiple cancer processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion. Numerous studies have found that methylation of the RAR beta promoter contributed to the occurrence and development of malignant tumors. However, the connection between RAR beta promoter methylation and prostate cancer (PCa) remains unknown. This meta-analysis evaluated the clinical significance of RAR beta promoter methylation in PCa.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched all published records relevant to RAR beta and PCa in a series of databases, including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, ISI Web of Science and CNKI. The rates of RAR beta promoter methylation in the PCa and control groups (including benign prostatic hyperplasia and normal prostate tissues) were summarized. In addition, we evaluated the source region of available samples and the methods used to detect methylation. To compare the incidence and variation in RAR beta promoter methylation in PCa and non-PCa tissues, the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated accordingly. All the data were analyzed with the statistical software STATA 12.0.
RESULTS: Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 15 articles assessing 1,339 samples were further analyzed. These data showed that the RAR beta promoter methylation rates in PCa tissues were significantly higher than the rates in the non-PCa group (OR=21.65, 95% CI: 9.27-50.57). Subgroup analysis according to the source region of samples showed that heterogeneity in Asia was small (I2=0.0%, P=0.430). Additional subgroup analysis based on the method used to detect RAR beta promoter methylation showed that the heterogeneity detected by MSP (methylation-specific PCR) was relatively small (I2=11.3%, P=0.343).
CONCLUSION: Although studies reported different rates for RAR beta promoter methylation in PCa tissues, the total analysis demonstrated that RAR beta promoter methylation may be correlated with PCa carcinogenesis and that the RAR beta gene is particularly susceptible. Additional studies with sufficient data are essential to further evaluate the clinical features and prognostic utility of RAR beta promoter methylation in PCa.
Izumi K, Inoue S, Ide H, et al.Uridine 5'diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase 1A expression as an independent prognosticator in urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract.
Int J Urol. 2018; 25(5):429-435 [PubMed
] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To determine the expression status of uridine 5'diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase 1A, a major phase II drug metabolism enzyme, in upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma, as well as to assess its prognostic significance.
METHODS: We immunohistochemically stained for uridine 5'diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase 1A in tissue microarray consisting of 99 upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma samples and paired non-neoplastic urothelial tissues. We also assessed the effect of uridine 5'diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase 1A knockdown on urothelial cancer cell growth.
RESULTS: Uridine 5'diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase 1A was positive in 92.9% (27.3% weak [1+], 37.4% moderate [2+], 28.3% strong [3+]) of tumors, which was significantly (P < 0.001) lower than in benign urothelial tissues (98.8%; 3.5% 1+, 18.8% 2+, 76.4% 3+). All 37 (100%) non-muscle-invasive versus 55 (88.7%) of 62 muscle-invasive tumors (P = 0.043) were immunoreactive for uridine 5'diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase 1A. The rates of moderate-to-strong uridine 5'diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase 1A expression and its positivity were also strongly associated with the absence of concomitant carcinoma in situ (P = 0.034) and lymphovascular invasion (P = 0.016), respectively. However, there were no statistically significant associations between uridine 5'diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase 1A expression and tumor grade or pN/M status. Uridine 5'diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase 1A loss in M0 tumors was strongly associated with lower progression-free survival (P < 0.001) and cancer-specific survival (P < 0.001) rates. Multivariate analysis further identified a strong correlation of uridine 5'diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase 1A positivity with reduced cancer-specific mortality (hazard ratio 0.28, P = 0.018). Meanwhile, uridine 5'diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase 1A knockdown in urothelial cancer cells resulted in significant increases in their viability and migration.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest a preventive role of uridine 5'diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase 1A signals in the development and progression of upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma. Loss of uridine 5'diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase 1A expression might serve as an independent predictor of poor prognosis in patients with upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma.
Handschuh L, Kaźmierczak M, Milewski MC, et al.Gene expression profiling of acute myeloid leukemia samples from adult patients with AML-M1 and -M2 through boutique microarrays, real-time PCR and droplet digital PCR.
Int J Oncol. 2018; 52(3):656-678 [PubMed
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Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common and severe form of acute leukemia diagnosed in adults. Owing to its heterogeneity, AML is divided into classes associated with different treatment outcomes and specific gene expression profiles. Based on previous studies on AML, in this study, we designed and generated an AML-array containing 900 oligonucleotide probes complementary to human genes implicated in hematopoietic cell differentiation and maturation, proliferation, apoptosis and leukemic transformation. The AML-array was used to hybridize 118 samples from 33 patients with AML of the M1 and M2 subtypes of the French-American‑British (FAB) classification and 15 healthy volunteers (HV). Rigorous analysis of the microarray data revealed that 83 genes were differentially expressed between the patients with AML and the HV, including genes not yet discussed in the context of AML pathogenesis. The most overexpressed genes in AML were STMN1, KITLG, CDK6, MCM5, KRAS, CEBPA, MYC, ANGPT1, SRGN, RPLP0, ENO1 and SET, whereas the most underexpressed genes were IFITM1, LTB, FCN1, BIRC3, LYZ, ADD3, S100A9, FCER1G, PTRPE, CD74 and TMSB4X. The overexpression of the CPA3 gene was specific for AML with mutated NPM1 and FLT3. Although the microarray-based method was insufficient to differentiate between any other AML subgroups, quantitative PCR approaches enabled us to identify 3 genes (ANXA3, S100A9 and WT1) whose expression can be used to discriminate between the 2 studied AML FAB subtypes. The expression levels of the ANXA3 and S100A9 genes were increased, whereas those of WT1 were decreased in the AML-M2 compared to the AML-M1 group. We also examined the association between the STMN1, CAT and ABL1 genes, and the FLT3 and NPM1 mutation status. FLT3+/NPM1- AML was associated with the highest expression of STMN1, and ABL1 was upregulated in FLT3+ AML and CAT in FLT3- AML, irrespectively of the NPM1 mutation status. Moreover, our results indicated that CAT and WT1 gene expression levels correlated with the response to therapy. CAT expression was highest in patients who remained longer under complete remission, whereas WT1 expression increased with treatment resistance. On the whole, this study demonstrates that the AML-array can potentially serve as a first-line screening tool, and may be helpful for the diagnosis of AML, whereas the differentiation between AML subgroups can be more successfully performed with PCR-based analysis of a few marker genes.
Background: Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare disease with a relatively short overall survival (OS). Metalloproteinases (MMPs) have a vast biological effect on tumor progression, invasion, metastasis formation, and apoptosis. MMP expression was previously associated with survival in MPM. Our aim was to evaluate if genetic variability of
Methods: We genotyped 199 MPM patients for ten polymorphisms: rs243865, rs243849 and rs7201, in
Results: Carriers of polymorphic
Li D, Yang Z, Liu Z, et al.DDR2 and IFITM1 Are Prognostic Markers in Gallbladder Squamous Cell/Adenosquamous Carcinomas and Adenocarcinomas.
Pathol Oncol Res. 2019; 25(1):157-167 [PubMed
] Related Publications
This study was conducted to investigate the expressions of DDR2 and IFITM1 and their clinical and pathological significances in the rare type squamous cell/adenosquamous carcinomas (SC/ASC) and ordinary adenocarcinomas (AC) of gallbladder cancers. DDR2 and IFITM1 expression was examined in 69 SC/ASCs and 146 ACs using EnVision immunohistochemistry. Results showed that the percentage of positive DDR2 and IFITM1 expression was significantly higher in SC/ASC patients with high TNM stage, lymph node metastasis, invasion, and no resection surgery compared to patients with low TNM stages, no lymph node metastasis, no invasion, and resection surgery (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). The positive rate of DDR2 was significantly higher in SC/ASC patients with large tumor sizes than patients with small tumor sizes (p < 0.05). The percentage of positive DDR2 and IFITM1 expressions was significantly higher in AC patients with high TNM stages that didn't receive resection surgery compared to patients with low TNM stages that did receive resection surgery (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). The positive rate of IFITM1 was significantly higher in AC patients with lymph node metastasis and invasion than in patients without metastasis and invasion (p < 0.05). Positive DDR2 and IFITM1 expression was closely associated with a decreased overall survival in SC/ASC and AC patients (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). AUC analysis showed that DDR2 and IFITM1 was sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of SC/ASC (AUC = 0.740 and AUC =0.733, respectively) and AC (AUC = 0.710 and AUC =0.741, respectively). In conclusion, positive DDR2 and IFITM1 expression is a marker for the clinical severity, poor prognosis, and diagnosis of gallbladder SC/ASC and AC.
Ohata Y, Tatsuzawa A, Ohyama Y, et al.A distinctive subgroup of oral EBV+ B-cell neoplasm with polymorphous features is potentially identical to EBV+ mucocutaneous ulcer.
Hum Pathol. 2017; 69:129-139 [PubMed
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Epstein-Barr virus-positive mucocutaneous ulcer (EBVMCU) is a newly recognized provisional entity included in mature B-cell neoplasm in the latest 2016 World Health Organization Classification. It has a self-limited growth potential with a high predilection for oral cavities and occurs in age-related or iatrogenic immunodeficiency with indolent clinical courses. However, it shares histological features with EBV-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), and this often leads to diagnostic challenges and controversies in patients with an oral EBV-positive B-cell neoplasm. The aim of this study was to better characterize and comprehend the pathophysiology of DLBCL and EBVMCU in the oral cavity. We conducted clinicopathologic and recurrent gene mutation analysis of 49 cases (14 EBV positive, 35 EBV negative), including cases diagnosed as DLBCL or B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders with high-grade morphology in the oral cavity. All EBV-positive cases matched the criteria of EBVMCU, with significantly earlier clinical stages than the EBV-negative group (P=.0006). Besides, histological analysis showed that all EBV-positive cases presented polymorphous features, whereas 91.4% (32/35) of the EBV-negative cases showed diffuse and monotonous proliferation (P<.0001). Furthermore, EBV-positive cases presented favorable clinical outcomes without disease-related death or recurrence. Gene mutation analysis (MYD88, CD79A, CD79B, CARD11, and EZH2) revealed that 33.3% (9/27) of EBV-negative cases harbored at least 1 gene mutation, whereas no gene mutation was observed in the EBV-positive group (0/11). These results suggest that oral EBV-positive B-cell lymphoid proliferation with polymorphous features often fulfill the criteria for EBVMCU, with clinicopathologically and genetically distinctive properties.
Li J, Ping JL, Ma B, et al.DIP2C expression in breast cancer and its clinical significance.
Pathol Res Pract. 2017; 213(11):1394-1399 [PubMed
] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate DIP2C expression in different subtypes of breast cancer tissues and cell lines and its correlation with clinicopathologic and histopathological features, in an effort to elucidate the DIP2C expression profile in breast cancer and its clinical significance.
METHODS: Hereby, we investigated the DIP2C expression in breast cancer tissues using TMA-IHC method and the DIP2C expression in breast cell lines using quantitative RT-PCR.
RESULTS: DIP2C displayed universal expression, being present in all the breast cancer subtypes. There were more cases that staining weakly in breast cancer tissues (n=79/150, 52.7%) than that in fibroadenomas tissues (n=2/18, 11.1%) and normal tissues (n=2/20, 10.0%) (χ2=21.84, P <0.001). Within different intrinsic subtypes of breast cancer assayed by IHC expression profiles, there were less cases of the strongly staining group in basal-like subtype (n=38/86, 44.2%) and HER-2 subtype (n=6/24, 25.0%) than that in luminal A (14/20, 70%) and luminal B (13/20, 65%) subtypes (χ2=11.77, p=0.008). Furthermore, DIP2C expression was positive correlated with ER (χ2=8.90, p=0.003) and PR expression (χ2=10.94, p=0.001), while negative correlated with EGFR expression (χ2=9.27, p=0.002), in accordance with the results of cell lines with different subtypes. Oncomine database also confirmed that, DIP2C was expressed lower in breast cancer tissues, and could indicate prognosis.
CONCLUSION: our data revealed DIP2C expression level decreased in breast cancer, especially in basal-like and HER-2 subtypes, and could be a valuable target for diagnosis on specific subtype of breast cancer.
Wang X, Teer JK, Tousignant RN, et al.Breast cancer risk and germline genomic profiling of women with neurofibromatosis type 1 who developed breast cancer.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2018; 57(1):19-27 [PubMed
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NF1 mutations predispose to neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and women with NF1 have a moderately elevated risk for breast cancer, especially under age 50. Germline genomic analysis may better define the risk so screening and prevention can be applied to the individuals who benefit the most. Survey conducted in several neurofibromatosis clinics in the United States has demonstrated a 17.2% lifetime risk of breast cancer in women affected with NF1. Cumulated risk to age 50 is estimated to be 9.27%. For genomic profiling, fourteen women with NF1 and a history of breast cancer were recruited and underwent whole exome sequencing (WES), targeted genomic DNA based and RNA-based analysis of the NF1 gene. Deleterious NF1 pathogenic variants were identified in each woman. Frameshift mutations because of deletion/duplication/complex rearrangement were found in 50% (7/14) of the cases, nonsense mutations in 21% (3/14), in-frame splice mutations in 21% (3/14), and one case of missense mutation (7%, 1/14). No deleterious mutation was found in the following high/moderate-penetrance breast cancer genes: ATM, BRCA1, BRCA2, BARD1, BRIP1, CDH1, CHEK2, FANCC, MRE11A, NBN, PALB2, PTEN, RAD50, RAD51C, TP53, and STK11. Twenty-five rare or common variants in cancer related genes were discovered and may have contributed to the breast cancers in these individuals. Breast cancer predisposition modifiers in women with NF1 may involve a great variety of molecular and cellular functions.
Wang R, Wei B, Wei J, et al.Cysteine-rich 61-associated gene expression profile alterations in human glioma cells.
Mol Med Rep. 2017; 16(4):5561-5567 [PubMed
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The present study aimed to investigate gene expression profile alterations associated with cysteine‑rich 61 (CYR61) expression in human glioma cells. The GSE29384 dataset, downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus, includes three LN229 human glioma cell samples expressing CYR61 induced by doxycycline (Dox group), and three control samples not exposed to doxycycline (Nodox group). Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the Dox and Nodox groups were identified with cutoffs of |log2 fold change (FC)|>0.5 and P<0.05. Gene ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analyses for DEGs were performed. Protein‑protein interaction (PPI) network and module analyses were performed to identify the most important genes. Transcription factors (TFs) were obtained by detecting the TF binding sites of DEGs using a Whole Genome rVISTA online tool. A total of 258 DEGs, including 230 (89%) upregulated and 28 (11%) downregulated DEGs were identified in glioma cells expressing CYR61 compared to cells without CYR61 expression. The majority of upregulated DEGs, including interferon (IFN)B1, interferon‑induced (IFI)44 and interferon regulatory factor (IRF)7, were associated with immune, defense and virus responses, and cytokine‑cytokine receptor interaction signaling pathways. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) and DEAD‑box helicase 58 (DDX58) were observed to have high connection degrees in the PPI network. A total of seven TFs of the DEGs, including interferon consensus sequence‑binding protein and IFN‑stimulated gene factor‑3 were additionally detected. In conclusion, IFNB1, genes encoding IFN‑induced proteins (IFI16, IFI27, IFI44 and IFITM1), IRFs (IRF1, IRF7 and IRF9), STAT1 and DDX58 were demonstrated to be associated with CYR61 expression in glioma cells; thus, they may be critical for maintaining the role of CYR61 during cancer progression.
Platinum resistance is a critical barrier for clinicians to improve the survival of ovarian cancer. Our study evaluated the correlation between copy number variations (CNVs) of neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase 3 (NTRK3) and the prognosis of ovarian cancer, which might predict platinum resistance in ovarian cancer patients.Array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) was used to test gene backgrounds between platinum-sensitive and platinum-resistant relapsed populations and CNVs of NTRK3 were indicated by cluster analysis. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was adopted in 41 cases for further verification, which confirmed the results of array CGH. Spearman's rank correlation analysis and χ test were used to evaluate the accuracy of CNVs of NTRK3 which predicted platinum-sensitive or platinum-resistant recurrence.We detected CNVs of NTRK3 between 2 groups by array CGH, and amplification of NTRK3 was confirmed by FISH in the platinum-sensitive recurrence group with enlarged samples. The test concordance of 2 methods was 78.6%. Among 41 cases with satisfied FISH results, the median time to recurrence (TTR) of patients with amplified and nonamplified NTRK3 were respectively 18 and 5 months (P <.01). The cut-off value of TTR to differentiate platinum-sensitive or platinum-resistant recurrence was 6 months in accordance with clinical practice. According to the above standard, 15 cases with NTRK3 amplification were platinum-sensitive and 12 cases without NTRK3 amplification were platinum-resistant recurrences which demonstrated that the accuracy of NTRK3 amplification/nonamplification to predict recurrent types was 65.9% (27/41).CNVs of NTRK3 were associated with platinum-sensitive and platinum-resistant recurrences. Amplification of NTRK3 perfectly predicted platinum-sensitive relapse of ovarian cancer.
Li SJ, Liu CS, Li HJ, et al.A novel engineered interferon-α hybrid molecule increases anticancer efficacy of doxorubicin in breast cancer chemotherapy.
Int J Oncol. 2017; 51(3):949-958 [PubMed
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Breast cancer is the most common carcinoma among Chinese women. Interferon α (IFNα) has been used to treat various types of cancer, including breast cancer, but its antitumor activity is relative low, which significantly hinders its clinical application. In this study, we utilized a Ph.D.-12 peptide library screening system to identify a short peptide that specifically binds to MCF-7 breast cancer cells. By fusing the MCF-7 binding peptide (MBP) to the C-terminus of IFNα, we constructed an engineered IFNα-MBP fusion molecule (IMBP), and applied this novel fusion protein to the treatment of breast cancer. We found that IMBP exhibited significantly higher activity than wild-type IFNα in inhibiting cell growth and inducing cell apoptosis. Additionally, IMBP potentiated the therapeutic efficacy of doxorubicin-based breast cancer chemotherapy via the activation of cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis pathway genes including p53, p21, CDK2, cyclin A, caspase 9, Bcl-2 and Bax. The enhanced activity of the synthetic IMBP was also associated with the activation of signal transducer and activation of transcription 1 (STAT1) pathway target genes (STAT1, IFIT1, IFITM1 and MX1). This study evaluated the potential value of the synthetic IMBP as a novel anti-breast cancer agent.
The pathogenetic mechanism of prostate cancer (PCa) has not been understood completely, and gene polymorphisms have been demonstrated to play a critical role in the course. It has been reported that rs9282858 polymorphism of steroid 5-α-reductase type 2 (SRD5A2) may affect the susceptibility of PCa, but some researches showed different results. We therefore carried out a meta-analysis to clarify this relationship.Relevant studies were identified through PubMed and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases concerning the association between SRD5A2 rs9282858 polymorphism and PCa. Odds ratios (ORs) with their 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated to assess the strength of the association. Additionally, stratified analyses were performed based on ethnicity and source of control. Besides, heterogeneity test, sensitivity analysis, and publication bias evaluation were conducted in current meta-analysis as well.Ultimately, 20 publications incorporating 30 case-control studies were included in this meta-analysis, involving a total of 7300 cases and 7952 controls. The overall results demonstrated that SRD5A2 rs9282858 polymorphism was remarkably associated with increased susceptibility of PCa (TT vs. AA: OR = 4.08, 95% CI = 1.94-8.58; TT + AT vs. AA: OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.11-1.47; TT vs. AA + AT: OR = 4.44, 95% CI = 2.12-9.27; allele T vs. allele A: OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.17-1.54). After subgroup analyses by ethnicity and source of control, we also observed a similar trend in Latinos, other-ethnicity, population-based, and hospital-based groups under corresponding genetic models.Our findings indicate that SRD5A2 rs9282858 polymorphism may be a susceptible factor to PCa.
Lui AJ, Geanes ES, Ogony J, et al.IFITM1 suppression blocks proliferation and invasion of aromatase inhibitor-resistant breast cancer in vivo by JAK/STAT-mediated induction of p21.
Cancer Lett. 2017; 399:29-43 [PubMed
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Interferon induced transmembrane protein 1 (IFITM1) belongs to a family of interferon stimulated genes (ISGs) that is associated with tumor progression and DNA damage resistance; however, its role in endocrine resistance is not known. Here, we correlate IFITM1 expression with clinical stage and poor response to endocrine therapy in a tissue microarray consisting of 94 estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast tumors. IFITM1 overexpression is confirmed in the AI-resistant MCF-7:5C cell line and not found in AI-sensitive MCF-7 cells. In this study, the orthotopic (mammary fat pad) and mouse mammary intraductal (MIND) models of breast cancer are used to assess tumor growth and invasion in vivo. Lentivirus-mediated shRNA knockdown of IFITM1 in AI-resistant MCF-7:5C cells diminished tumor growth and invasion and induced cell death, whereas overexpression of IFITM1 in wild-type MCF-7 cells promoted estrogen-independent growth and enhanced their aggressive phenotype. Mechanistic studies indicated that loss of IFITM1 in MCF-7:5C cells markedly increased p21 transcription, expression and nuclear localization which was mediated by JAK/STAT activation. These findings suggest IFITM1 overexpression contributes to breast cancer progression and that targeting IFITM1 may be therapeutically beneficial to patients with endocrine-resistant disease.
Gastric cancer (GC) is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. The Tff1 knockout (KO) mouse model develops gastric lesions that include low-grade dysplasia (LGD), high-grade dysplasia (HGD), and adenocarcinomas. In this study, we used Affymetrix microarrays gene expression platforms for analysis of molecular signatures in the mouse stomach [Tff1-KO (LGD) and Tff1 wild-type (normal)] and human gastric cancer tissues and their adjacent normal tissue samples. Combined integrated bioinformatics analysis of mouse and human datasets indicated that 172 genes were consistently deregulated in both human gastric cancer samples and Tff1-KO LGD lesions (P < .05). Using Ingenuity pathway analysis, these genes mapped to important transcription networks that include MYC, STAT3, β-catenin, RELA, NFATC2, HIF1A, and ETS1 in both human and mouse. Further analysis demonstrated activation of FOXM1 and inhibition of TP53 transcription networks in human gastric cancers but not in Tff1-KO LGD lesions. Using real-time RT-PCR, we validated the deregulated expression of several genes (VCAM1, BGN, CLDN2, COL1A1, COL1A2, COL3A1, EpCAM, IFITM1, MMP9, MMP12, MMP14, PDGFRB, PLAU, and TIMP1) that map to altered transcription networks in both mouse and human gastric neoplasia. Our study demonstrates significant similarities in deregulated transcription networks in human gastric cancer and gastric tumorigenesis in the Tff1-KO mouse model. The data also suggest that activation of MYC, STAT3, RELA, and β-catenin transcription networks could be an early molecular step in gastric carcinogenesis.
Ramanathan A, Ramanathan AInterferon Induced Transmembrane Protein-1 Gene Expression as a Biomarker for Early Detection of Invasive Potential of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016; 17(4):2297-9 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: Early detection of malignant transformation with expression biomarkers has significant potential to improve the survival rate of patients as such biomarkers enable prediction of progression and assess sensitivity to chemotherapy. The expression of interferon inducible transmembrane protein 1 (IFITM1) has been associated with early invasion events in several carcinomas, including head and neck cancers, and hence has been proposed as a novel candidate biomarker. As the incidence of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is highest in the Indian population, we sought to investigate: 1) the expression pattern of IFITM1 in OSCC tissue samples obtained from Indian patients of Dravidian origin; and 2) the possibility of using IFITM1 expression as a potential biomarker.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Total RNA extracted from thirty eight OSCC biopsy samples was subjected to semi-quantitative RT-PCR with IFITM1 and GAPDH specific primers.
RESULTS: Of the thirty eight OSCC samples that were analyzed, IFITM1 overexpression was identified in fifteen (39%). Seven expressed a low level, while the remainder expressed high level of IFITM1.
CONCLUSIONS: The overexpression of IFITM1 in OSCC samples indicates that IFITM1 may be explored for the possibility of use as a high confidence diagnostic biomarker in oral cancers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that IFITM1 overexpression is being reported in Indian OSCC samples.
Ogony J, Choi HJ, Lui A, et al.Interferon-induced transmembrane protein 1 (IFITM1) overexpression enhances the aggressive phenotype of SUM149 inflammatory breast cancer cells in a signal transducer and activator of transcription 2 (STAT2)-dependent manner.
Breast Cancer Res. 2016; 18(1):25 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a very aggressive and lethal subtype of breast cancer that accounts for about 4 % of all breast cancers diagnosed in the United States. Despite the efforts of several investigators to identify the molecular factors driving the aggressive phenotype of IBC, a great deal is still unknown about the molecular underpinnings of the disease. In the present study, we investigated the role of interferon-induced transmembrane protein 1 (IFITM1), a well-known interferon-stimulated gene (ISG), in promoting the aggressiveness of SUM149 IBC cells.
METHODS: Western blot and real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses were performed to assess the protein and messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of IFITM1 and other ISGs in three IBC cell lines: SUM149, MDA-IBC-3, and SUM190. IFITM1 expression and cellular localization were assessed by using immunofluorescence, while the tumorigenic potential was assessed by performing cell migration, invasion, and colony formation assays. Small interfering RNA and short hairpin RNA knockdowns, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and luciferase assays were performed to determine the functional significance of IFITM1 and signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 and 2 (STAT1/2) in SUM149 cells.
RESULTS: We found that IFITM1 was constitutively overexpressed at the mRNA and protein levels in triple-negative SUM149 IBC cells, but that it was not expressed in SUM190 and MDA-IBC-3 IBC cells, and that suppression of IFITM1 or blockade of the IFNα signaling pathway significantly reduced the aggressive phenotype of SUM149 cells. Additionally, we found that knockdown of STAT2 abolished IFITM1 expression and IFITM1 promoter activity in SUM149 cells and that loss of STAT2 significantly inhibited the ability of SUM149 cells to proliferate, migrate, invade, and form 2-D colonies. Notably, we found that STAT2-mediated activation of IFITM1 was particularly dependent on the chromatin remodeler brahma-related gene 1 (BRG1), which was significantly elevated in SUM149 cells compared with SUM190 and MDA-IBC-3 cells.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that overexpression of IFITM1 enhances the aggressive phenotype of triple-negative SUM149 IBC cells and that this effect is dependent on STAT2/BRG1 interaction. Further studies are necessary to explore the potential of IFITM1 as a novel therapeutic target and prognostic marker for some subtypes of IBCs.
Hingorani P, Missiaglia E, Shipley J, et al.Clinical Application of Prognostic Gene Expression Signature in Fusion Gene-Negative Rhabdomyosarcoma: A Report from the Children's Oncology Group.
Clin Cancer Res. 2015; 21(20):4733-9 [PubMed
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PURPOSE: Pediatric rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) has two common histologic subtypes: embryonal (ERMS) and alveolar (ARMS). PAX-FOXO1 fusion gene status is a more reliable prognostic marker than alveolar histology, whereas fusion gene-negative (FN) ARMS patients are clinically similar to ERMS patients. A five-gene expression signature (MG5) previously identified two diverse risk groups within the fusion gene-negative RMS (FN-RMS) patients, but this has not been independently validated. The goal of this study was to test whether expression of the MG5 metagene, measured using a technical platform that can be applied to routine pathology material, would correlate with outcome in a new cohort of patients with FN-RMS.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Cases were taken from the Children's Oncology Group (COG) D9803 study of children with intermediate-risk RMS, and gene expression profiling for the MG5 genes was performed using the nCounter assay. The MG5 score was correlated with clinical and pathologic characteristics as well as overall and event-free survival.
RESULTS: MG5 standardized score showed no significant association with any of the available clinicopathologic variables. The MG5 signature score showed a significant correlation with overall (N = 57; HR, 7.3; 95% CI, 1.9-27.0; P = 0.003) and failure-free survival (N = 57; HR, 6.1; 95% CI, 1.9-19.7; P = 0.002).
CONCLUSIONS: This represents the first, validated molecular prognostic signature for children with FN-RMS who otherwise have intermediate-risk disease. The capacity to measure the expression of a small number of genes in routine pathology material and apply a simple mathematical formula to calculate the MG5 metagene score provides a clear path toward better risk stratification in future prospective clinical trials.
Yu F, Xie D, Ng SS, et al.IFITM1 promotes the metastasis of human colorectal cancer via CAV-1.
Cancer Lett. 2015; 368(1):135-143 [PubMed
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Interferon-induced transmembrane protein 1 (IFITM1) is one of the interferon-induced transmembrane protein family members. In this study, we reported that the elevated IFITM1 expression in human colorectal cancer (CRC) significantly correlated with CRC lymph node and distance metastasis as well as a more advanced clinical stage. Importantly, elevated IFITM1 expression is an independent prognostic factor for poor survival. To investigate the molecular mechanisms, we showed that over-expression of IFITM1 in CRC cells promoted, whereas knockdown of IFITM1 expression inhibited, cell migration/invasion and tumorigenicity in vitro. Furthermore, we identified Caveolin-1 (CAV1) as a downstream target of IFITM1-induced cell invasion, as knockdown of CAV1 abrogated siIFITM1 mediated inhibition of cell invasion in CRC cells. In addition, in a CRC cohort of 229 patients, the expression of IFITM1 inversely correlated with the expression of CAV1. These results suggested that IFITM1 promotes the aggressiveness of CRC cells, and it is a potential prognostic marker and therapeutic target for CRC.
Uvirova M, Simova J, Kubova B, et al.Comparison of the prevalence of KRAS-LCS6 polymorphism (rs61764370) within different tumour types (colorectal, breast, non-small cell lung cancer and brain tumours). A study of the Czech population.
Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2015; 159(3):466-71 [PubMed
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AIMS: A germline SNP (rs61764370) is located in a let-7 complementary site (LCS6) in the 3'UTR of KRAS oncogene, and it was found to alter the binding capability of the mature let-7 microRNA to the KRAS mRNA. The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of the KRAS-LCS6 variant allele in different cancer types that included patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), breast cancer (BC), non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and brain tumour patient subgroups from the Czech Republic. The occurrence of this genetic variant was correlated with the presence of selected somatic mutations representing predictive biomarkers in the respective tumours.
METHODS: DNA of tumour tissues was isolated from 428 colorectal cancer samples, 311 non-small cell lung cancer samples, 195 breast cancer samples and 151 samples with brain tumour. Analysis of SNP (rs61764370) was performed by the PCR+RFLP method and direct sequencing. KRAS, BRAF and EGFR mutation status was assessed using real-time PCR. The status of the HER2 gene was assessed using the FISH method.
RESULTS: The KRAS-LCS6 TG genotype has been detected in 16.4% (32/195) of breast cancer cases (in HER2 positive breast cancer 3.3%, in HER2 negative breast cancer 20.1%), in 12.4% (53/428) of CRC cases (KRAS/BRAF wild type CRC in 10.6%, KRAS mutant CRC in 10.1%, BRAF V600E mutant CRC in 18.5%), in 13.2% (41/311) of NSCLC samples, (EGFR mutant NSCLC patients in 8%, EGFR wild type NSCLC in 12.9%), and 17.9% (27/151) of brain tumour cases. The KRAS-LCS6 TG genotype was not significantly different across the studied tumours. In our study, the GG genotype has not been found among the cancer samples.
CONCLUSIONS: Based on the findings, it is concluded that the occurrence of the KRAS-LCS6 TG genotype was statistically significantly different in association with status of the HER2 gene in breast cancer. Furthermore, significant association between the mutation status of analysed somatic variants in genes of the EGFR signalling pathway (KRAS, BRAF, EGFR) and the KRAS-LCS6 genotype in colorectal cancer and NSCLC has not been established.
Xie SB, He XX, Yao SKMatrine-induced autophagy regulated by p53 through AMP-activated protein kinase in human hepatoma cells.
Int J Oncol. 2015; 47(2):517-26 [PubMed
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Matrine, one of the main extract components of Sophora flavescens, has been shown to exhibit inhibitory effects on some tumors through autophagy. However, the mechanism underlying the effect of matrine remains unclear. The cultured human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 and SMMC‑7721 were treated with matrine. Signal transduction and gene expression profile were determined. Matrine stimulated autophagy in SMMC‑7721 cells in a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-dependent manner, but in an mTOR-independent manner in HepG2 cells. Next, in HepG2 cells, autophagy induced by matrine was regulated by p53 inactivation through AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling transduction, then AMPK suppression switched autophagy to apoptosis. Furthermore, the interferon (IFN)-inducible genes, including interferon α-inducible protein 27 (IFI27) and interferon induced transmembrane protein 1 (IFITM1), which are downstream effector of p53, might be modulated by matrine-induced autophagy. In addition, we found that the p53 protein isoforms, p53β, p53γ, ∆133p53, and ∆133p53γ, due to alternative splicing of intron 9, might be regulated by the p53-mediated autophagy. These results show that matrine induces autophagy in human hepatoma cells through a novel mechanism, which is p53/AMPK signaling pathway involvement in matrine-promoted autophagy.
INTRODUCTION: Estrogen deprivation using aromatase inhibitors (AIs) is currently the standard of care for postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Unfortunately, the majority of patients treated with AIs eventually develop resistance, inevitably resulting in patient relapse and, ultimately, death. The mechanism by which resistance occurs is still not completely known, however, recent studies suggest that impaired/defective interferon signaling might play a role. In the present study, we assessed the functional role of IFITM1 and PLSCR1; two well-known interferon response genes in AI resistance.
METHODS: Real-time PCR and Western blot analyses were used to assess mRNA and protein levels of IFITM1, PLSCR1, STAT1, STAT2, and IRF-7 in AI-resistant MCF-7:5C breast cancer cells and AI-sensitive MCF-7 and T47D cells. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining was performed on tissue microarrays consisting of normal breast tissues, primary breast tumors, and AI-resistant recurrence tumors. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to quantitate intracellular IFNα level. Neutralizing antibody was used to block type 1 interferon receptor IFNAR1 signaling. Small interference RNA (siRNA) was used to knockdown IFITM1, PLSCR1, STAT1, STAT2, IRF-7, and IFNα expression.
RESULTS: We found that IFITM1 and PLSCR1 were constitutively overexpressed in AI-resistant MCF-7:5C breast cancer cells and AI-resistant tumors and that siRNA knockdown of IFITM1 significantly inhibited the ability of the resistant cells to proliferate, migrate, and invade. Interestingly, suppression of IFITM1 significantly enhanced estradiol-induced cell death in AI-resistant MCF-7:5C cells and markedly increased expression of p21, Bax, and Noxa in these cells. Significantly elevated level of IFNα was detected in AI-resistant MCF-7:5C cells compared to parental MCF-7 cells and suppression of IFNα dramatically reduced IFITM1, PLSCR1, p-STAT1, and p-STAT2 expression in the resistant cells. Lastly, neutralizing antibody against IFNAR1/2 and knockdown of STAT1/STAT2 completely suppressed IFITM1, PLSCR1, p-STAT1, and p-STAT2 expression in the resistant cells, thus confirming the involvement of the canonical IFNα signaling pathway in driving the overexpression of IFITM1 and other interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) in the resistant cells.
CONCLUSION: Overall, these results demonstrate that constitutive overexpression of ISGs enhances the progression of AI-resistant breast cancer and that suppression of IFITM1 and other ISGs sensitizes AI-resistant cells to estrogen-induced cell death.