MBL2

Gene Summary

Gene:MBL2; mannose binding lectin 2
Aliases: MBL, MBP, MBP1, MBPD, MBL2D, MBP-C, COLEC1, HSMBPC
Location:10q21.1
Summary:This gene encodes the soluble mannose-binding lectin or mannose-binding protein found in serum. The protein encoded belongs to the collectin family and is an important element in the innate immune system. The protein recognizes mannose and N-acetylglucosamine on many microorganisms, and is capable of activating the classical complement pathway. Deficiencies of this gene have been associated with susceptibility to autoimmune and infectious diseases. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:mannose-binding protein C
Source:NCBIAccessed: 14 March, 2017

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 14 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 14 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: MBL2 (cancer-related)

Scarfò L, Ghia P
What does it mean I have a monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis?: Recent insights and new challenges.
Semin Oncol. 2016; 43(2):201-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) is defined as a laboratory abnormality where small (<5 x 10(9)/L) clonal B-cell populations are detected in the peripheral blood of otherwise healthy subjects. According to the immunophenotype, MBL is labeled as chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)-like (75% of cases), atypical CLL, and CD5-negative. Concentration of clonal B cells differentiates low- (LC) and high-count (HC)-MBL (< or ≥ 0.5 x 10(9)/L, respectively). Thanks to technical improvements, we are able to identify CLL-like clonal B-cell populations at increased frequency with age, but we are still far from understanding its relationship with clinically overt CLL. LC-MBL, requiring high-throughput screening technique to be identified in population studies, seems to be a bird of a different feather and several hints suggest that LC-MBL is related to aging and/or chronic antigenic stimulation. Immunogenetic, cytogenetic and genetic data support the notion that HC-MBL, usually identified in the clinical setting, is a premalignant condition and, based on biological parameters, it is frequently difficult to differentiate it from early stage CLL. The rapid improvement and widespread availability of cutting-edge technology, in particular next-generation sequencing (NGS), raises hope that we are getting closer to unveiling the fundamental nature of MBL and CLL and how they are related to each other.

Hoff AM, Alagaratnam S, Zhao S, et al.
Identification of Novel Fusion Genes in Testicular Germ Cell Tumors.
Cancer Res. 2016; 76(1):108-16 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) are the most frequently diagnosed solid tumors in young men ages 15 to 44 years. Embryonal carcinomas (EC) comprise a subset of TGCTs that exhibit pluripotent characteristics similar to embryonic stem (ES) cells, but the genetic drivers underlying malignant transformation of ECs are unknown. To elucidate the abnormal genetic events potentially contributing to TGCT malignancy, such as the existence of fusion genes or aberrant fusion transcript expression, we performed RNA sequencing of EC cell lines and their nonmalignant ES cell line counterparts. We identified eight novel fusion transcripts and one gene with alternative promoter usage, ETV6. Four out of nine transcripts were found recurrently expressed in an extended panel of primary TGCTs and additional EC cell lines, but not in normal parenchyma of the testis, implying tumor-specific expression. Two of the recurrent transcripts involved an intrachromosomal fusion between RCC1 and HENMT1 located 80 Mbp apart and an interchromosomal fusion between RCC1 and ABHD12B. RCC1-ABHD12B and the ETV6 transcript variant were found to be preferentially expressed in the more undifferentiated TGCT subtypes. In vitro differentiation of the NTERA2 EC cell line resulted in significantly reduced expression of both fusion transcripts involving RCC1 and the ETV6 transcript variant, indicating that they are markers of pluripotency in a malignant setting. In conclusion, we identified eight novel fusion transcripts that, to our knowledge, are the first fusion genes described in TGCT and may therefore potentially serve as genomic biomarkers of malignant progression.

Weber S, Haferlach C, Jeromin S, et al.
Gain of chromosome 21 or amplification of chromosome arm 21q is one mechanism for increased ERG expression in acute myeloid leukemia.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2016; 55(2):148-57 [PubMed] Related Publications
In acute myeloid leukemia (AML), acquired genomic gains and losses are common and lead to altered expression of genes located within or nearby the affected regions. Increased expression of the ETS-related transcription factor gene ERG has been described in myeloid malignancies with chromosomal rearrangements involving chromosome band 21q22, but also in cytogenetically normal AML, where it is associated with adverse prognosis. In this study, fluorescence in situ hybridization on interphase nuclei disclosed an amplification of the ERG gene (more than six copies) in 33 AML patients with structural rearrangements of 21q22. Array comparative genomic hybridization of these cases disclosed a minimal amplified region at the position 39.6-40.0 Mbp from pter that harbors ERG as the only gene. Analysis by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction revealed significantly higher ERG mRNA expression in these patients and in a group of 95 AML patients with complete or partial gain of chromosome 21 (three to six copies) compared with 351 AML patients without gain of chromosome 21. Quantification of ERG DNA copy numbers revealed a strong correlation with ERG mRNA expression. Furthermore, in patients with gain of chromosome 21, higher ERG expression was found to be associated with RUNX1 mutations. Our results suggest that acquired gain of chromosome 21 or amplification of chromosome arm 21q is one mechanism contributing to increased ERG expression in AML.

Nielsen KR, Steffensen R, Bendtsen MD, et al.
Inherited Inflammatory Response Genes Are Associated with B-Cell Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Risk and Survival.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(10):e0139329 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Malignant B-cell clones are affected by both acquired genetic alterations and by inherited genetic variations changing the inflammatory tumour microenvironment.
METHODS: We investigated 50 inflammatory response gene polymorphisms in 355 B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (B-NHL) samples encompassing 216 diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and 139 follicular lymphoma (FL) and 307 controls. The effect of single genes and haplotypes were investigated and gene-expression analysis was applied for selected genes. Since interaction between risk genes can have a large impact on phenotype, two-way gene-gene interaction analysis was included.
RESULTS: We found inherited SNPs in genes critical for inflammatory pathways; TLR9, IL4, TAP2, IL2RA, FCGR2A, TNFA, IL10RB, GALNT12, IL12A and IL1B were significantly associated with disease risk and SELE, IL1RN, TNFA, TAP2, MBL2, IL5, CX3CR1, CHI3L1 and IL12A were, associated with overall survival (OS) in specific diagnostic entities of B-NHL. We discovered noteworthy interactions between DLBCL risk alleles on IL10 and IL4RA and FL risk alleles on IL4RA and IL4. In relation to OS, a highly significant interaction was observed in DLBCL for IL4RA (rs1805010) * IL10 (rs1800890) (HR = 0.11 (0.02-0.50)). Finally, we explored the expression of risk genes from the gene-gene interaction analysis in normal B-cell subtypes showing a different expression of IL4RA, IL10, IL10RB genes supporting a pathogenetic effect of these interactions in the germinal center.
CONCLUSIONS: The present findings support the importance of inflammatory genes in B-cell lymphomas. We found association between polymorphic sites in inflammatory response genes and risk as well as outcome in B-NHL and suggest an effect of gene-gene interactions during the stepwise oncogenesis.

Fekete F, Fadgyas B, Papp É, et al.
The role of mannose binding lectin on fever episodes in pediatric oncology patients.
Pathol Oncol Res. 2016; 22(1):139-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
Despite significant changes in pediatric oncological therapy, mortality is still high, mainly due to infections. Complement system as an ancient immune defense against microorganisms plays a significant role in surmounting infections, therefore, deficiency of its components may have particular importance in malignancies. The present paper assesses the effect of promoter (X/Y) and exon 1 (A/0) polymorphisms of the MBL2 gene altering mannose binding lectin (MBL) serum level in pediatric oncological patients with febrile neutropenia. Furthermore, frequency distribution of MBL2 alleles in children with malignancies and age-matched controls was analysed. Fifty-four oncohematological patients and 53 children who had undergone pediatric surgery were enrolled into this retrospective study. No significant differences were found in the frequency of MBL2 alleles between the hemato-oncologic and control group. The average duration of fever episodes was significantly shorter (p = 0.035) in patients carrying genotypes (AY/AY and AY/AX) that encode normal MBL level, compared to individuals with genotypes associated with lower functional MBL level (AX/AX, AY/0, AX/0, or 0/0) (days, median (IQ range) 3.7(0-5.4) vs. 5.0(3.8-6.6), respectively). In conclusion, our data suggest that MBL2 genotypes may influence the course of febrile neutropenia in pediatric patients with malignancies, and may contribute to clarification of the importance of MBL in infections.

Awan FM, Naz A, Obaid A, et al.
Identification of Circulating Biomarker Candidates for Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC): An Integrated Prioritization Approach.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(9):e0138913 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the world's third most widespread cancer. Currently available circulating biomarkers for this silently progressing malignancy are not sufficiently specific and sensitive to meet all clinical needs. There is an imminent and pressing need for the identification of novel circulating biomarkers to increase disease-free survival rate. In order to facilitate the selection of the most promising circulating protein biomarkers, we attempted to define an objective method likely to have a significant impact on the analysis of vast data generated from cutting-edge technologies. Current study exploits data available in seven publicly accessible gene and protein databases, unveiling 731 liver-specific proteins through initial enrichment analysis. Verification of expression profiles followed by integration of proteomic datasets, enriched for the cancer secretome, filtered out 20 proteins including 6 previously characterized circulating HCC biomarkers. Finally, interactome analysis of these proteins with midkine (MDK), dickkopf-1 (DKK-1), current standard HCC biomarker alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), its interacting partners in conjunction with HCC-specific circulating and liver deregulated miRNAs target filtration highlighted seven novel statistically significant putative biomarkers including complement component 8, alpha (C8A), mannose binding lectin (MBL2), antithrombin III (SERPINC1), 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (HSD11B1), alcohol dehydrogenase 6 (ADH6), beta-ureidopropionase (UPB1) and cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily A, polypeptide 6 (CYP2A6). Our proposed methodology provides a swift assortment process for biomarker prioritization that eventually reduces the economic burden of experimental evaluation. Further dedicated validation studies of potential putative biomarkers on HCC patient blood samples are warranted. We hope that the use of such integrative secretome, interactome and miRNAs target filtration approach will accelerate the selection of high-priority biomarkers for other diseases as well, that are more amenable to downstream clinical validation experiments.

McCarthy BA, Yancopoulos S, Tipping M, et al.
A seven-gene expression panel distinguishing clonal expansions of pre-leukemic and chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells from normal B lymphocytes.
Immunol Res. 2015; 63(1-3):90-100 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a clonal disease of B lymphocytes manifesting as an absolute lymphocytosis in the blood. However, not all lymphocytoses are leukemic. In addition, first-degree relatives of CLL patients have an ~15 % chance of developing a precursor condition to CLL termed monoclonal B cell lymphocytosis (MBL), and distinguishing CLL and MBL B lymphocytes from normal B cell expansions can be a challenge. Therefore, we selected FMOD, CKAP4, PIK3C2B, LEF1, PFTK1, BCL-2, and GPM6a from a set of genes significantly differentially expressed in microarray analyses that compared CLL cells with normal B lymphocytes and used these to determine whether we could discriminate CLL and MBL cells from B cells of healthy controls. Analysis with receiver operating characteristics and Bayesian relevance determination demonstrated good concordance with all panel genes. Using a random forest classifier, the seven-gene panel reliably distinguished normal polyclonal B cell populations from expression patterns occurring in pre-CLL and CLL B cell populations with an error rate of 2 %. Using Bayesian learning, the expression levels of only two genes, FMOD and PIK3C2B, correctly distinguished 100 % of CLL and MBL cases from normal polyclonal and mono/oligoclonal B lymphocytes. Thus, this study sets forth effective computational approaches that distinguish MBL/CLL from normal B lymphocytes. The findings also support the concept that MBL is a CLL precursor.

Maranto C, Perconti G, Contino F, et al.
Cellular stress induces cap-independent alpha-enolase/MBP-1 translation.
FEBS Lett. 2015; 589(16):2110-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Myc promoter-binding protein-1 (MBP-1) is a shorter protein variant of the glycolytic enzyme alpha-enolase. Although several lines of evidence indicate that MBP-1 acts as a tumor suppressor, the cellular mechanisms and signaling pathways underlying MBP-1 expression still remain largely elusive. To dissect these pathways, we used the SkBr3 breast cancer cell line and non-tumorigenic HEK293T cells ectopically overexpressing alpha-enolase/MBP-1. Here, we demonstrate that induced cell stresses promote MBP-1 expression through the AKT/PERK/eIF2α signaling axis. Our results contribute to shedding light on the molecular mechanisms underlying MBP-1 expression in non-tumorigenic and cancer cells.

Yoshino T, Muro K, Yamaguchi K, et al.
Clinical Validation of a Multiplex Kit for RAS Mutations in Colorectal Cancer: Results of the RASKET (RAS KEy Testing) Prospective, Multicenter Study.
EBioMedicine. 2015; 2(4):317-23 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: RAS (KRAS and NRAS) testing is required to predict anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) treatment efficacy in metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). Although direct sequencing (DS) with manual microdissection (MMD) is widely used, a diagnostic kit providing rapid detections of RAS mutations would be clinically beneficial. We evaluated the MEBGEN(TM) RASKET KIT (RASKET KIT), a multiplex assay using PCR-reverse sequence specific oligonucleotide and xMAP(®) technology to concurrently detect exon 2, 3, and 4 RAS mutations in a short turnaround time (4.5 h/96-specimens).
METHODS: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues were obtained from 308 consenting patients with histologically-confirmed CRC at six hospitals in Japan. For the RASKET KIT, we used only 50-100 ng DNA from each FFPE specimen not processed by MMD. The primary endpoint was the concordance rate between RAS mutations identified with the RASKET KIT and two reference assays (DS with MMD and TheraScreen(®) K-RAS Mutation Kit). As the secondary endpoints, we evaluated the concordance rate between DS and the RASKET KIT for RAS mutations in the wild-type KRAS exon 2 population and the genotyping performance of the RASKET KIT compared with DS.
FINDINGS: Among 307 analyzable specimens, the reference assays detected 140 (45.6%, 140/307) RAS mutations: 111 KRAS exon 2 and 29 other (minor) RAS mutations. The RASKET KIT detected 143 (46.6%, 143/307) mutations: 114 KRAS exon 2 and 29 minor RAS mutations. The between-method concordance rate was 96.7% (297/307) (95% CI: 94.1-98.4%). Minor RAS mutations were detected in 15.7% (30/191) of the wild-type KRAS exon 2 population (n = 191); the concordance rate was 98.4% (188/191) (95% CI: 95.5-99.7%). The concordance rate of RAS genotyping was 100% (139/139) (95% CI: 97-100%).
INTERPRETATION: The RASKET KIT provides rapid and precise detections of RAS mutations and consequently, quicker and more effective anti-EGFR therapy for CRC (Study ID: UMIN000011784).
FUNDING: Medical & Biological Laboratories Co., Ltd. (MBL). MBL had roles in study design, data collection, data analysis, and writing of the report for the study.

Rodríguez D, Bretones G, Quesada V, et al.
Mutations in CHD2 cause defective association with active chromatin in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Blood. 2015; 126(2):195-202 [PubMed] Related Publications
Great progress has recently been achieved in the understanding of the genomic alterations driving chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Nevertheless, the specific molecular mechanisms governing chromatin remodeling in CLL are unknown. Here we report the genetic and functional characterization of somatic mutations affecting the chromatin remodeler CHD2, one of the most frequently mutated genes in CLL (5.3%) and in monoclonal B lymphocytosis (MBL, 7%), a B-cell expansion that can evolve to CLL. Most of the mutations affecting CHD2, identified by whole-exome sequencing of 456 CLL and 43 MBL patients, are either truncating or affect conserved residues in functional domains, thus supporting a putative role for CHD2 as a tumor suppressor gene. CHD2 mutants show altered nuclear distribution, and a chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 2 (CHD2) mutant affected in its DNA-binding domain exhibits defective association with active chromatin. Clinicobiological analyses show that most CLL patients carrying CHD2 mutations also present mutated immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region genes (IGHVs), being the most frequently mutated gene in this prognostic subgroup. This is the first study providing functional evidence supporting CHD2 as a cancer driver and opens the way to further studies of the role of this chromatin remodeler in CLL.

Subbannayya Y, Mir SA, Renuse S, et al.
Identification of differentially expressed serum proteins in gastric adenocarcinoma.
J Proteomics. 2015; 127(Pt A):80-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Gastric adenocarcinoma is an aggressive cancer with poor prognosis. Blood based biomarkers of gastric cancer have the potential to improve diagnosis and monitoring of these tumors. Proteins that show altered levels in the circulation of gastric cancer patients could prove useful as putative biomarkers. We used an iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic approach to identify proteins that show altered levels in the sera of patients with gastric cancer. Our study resulted in identification of 643 proteins, of which 48 proteins showed increased levels and 11 proteins showed decreased levels in serum from gastric cancer patients compared to age and sex matched healthy controls. Proteins that showed increased expression in gastric cancer included inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4 (ITIH4), Mannose-binding protein C (MBL2), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 2 (IGFBP2), serum amyloid A protein (SAA1), Orosomucoid 1 (ORM1) and extracellular superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn] (SOD3). We used multiple reaction monitoring assays and validated elevated levels of ITIH4 and SAA1 proteins in serum from gastric cancer patients.
BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Gastric cancer is a highly aggressive cancer associated with high mortality. Serum-based biomarkers are of considerable interest in diagnosis and monitoring of various diseases including cancers. Gastric cancer is often diagnosed at advanced stages resulting in poor prognosis and high mortality. Pathological diagnosis using biopsy specimens remains the gold standard for diagnosis of gastric cancer. Serum-based biomarkers are of considerable importance as they are minimally invasive. In this study, we carried out quantitative proteomic profiling of serum from gastric cancer patients to identify proteins that show altered levels in gastric cancer patients. We identified more than 50 proteins that showed altered levels in gastric cancer patient sera. Validation in a large cohort of well classified patient samples would prove useful in identifying novel blood based biomarkers for gastric cancers. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics in India.

Kittipongdaja W, Wu X, Garner J, et al.
Rapamycin Suppresses Tumor Growth and Alters the Metabolic Phenotype in T-Cell Lymphoma.
J Invest Dermatol. 2015; 135(9):2301-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
The mTOR pathway is a master regulator of cellular growth and metabolism. The biosynthetic and energetic demand of rapidly proliferating cells such as cancer cells is met by metabolic adaptations such as an increased glycolytic rate known as the Warburg effect. Herein, we characterize the anti-tumor effect of rapamycin in a mouse model of T-cell lymphoma and examine the metabolic effects in vitro. The murine T-cell lymphoma line, MBL2, and human cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) lines, HH and Hut78, were used in syngeneic or standard NSG mouse models to demonstrate a marked suppression of tumor growth by rapamycin accompanied by inhibition of mTORC1/2. Analysis of the metabolic phenotype showed a substantial reduction in the glycolytic rate and glucose utilization in rapamycin-treated lymphoma cells. This was associated with reduced expression of glucose transporters and glycolytic enzymes in cultured cells and xenograft tumors. As a result of the decrease in glycolytic state, rapamycin-treated cells displayed reduced sensitivity to low-glucose conditions but continued to rely on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) with sensitivity to inhibition of OXPHOS. Taken together, we demonstrate that rapamycin suppresses growth of T-cell lymphoma tumors and leads to a reduction in aerobic glycolysis counteracting the Warburg effect of cancer cells.

Alakus H, Yost SE, Woo B, et al.
BAP1 mutation is a frequent somatic event in peritoneal malignant mesothelioma.
J Transl Med. 2015; 13:122 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Malignant mesothelioma (MM) arises from mesothelial cells that line the pleural, peritoneal and pericardial surfaces. The majority of MMs are pleural and have been associated with asbestos exposure. Previously, pleural MMs have been genetically characterized by the loss of BAP1 (40-60%) as well as loss of NF2 (75%) and CDKN2A (60%). The rare peritoneal form of MM occurs in ~10% cases. With only ~300 cases diagnosed in the US per year, its link to asbestos exposure is not clear and its mutational landscape unknown.
METHODS: We analyzed the somatic mutational landscape of 12 peritoneal MM of epitheloid subtype using copy number analysis (N = 9), whole exome sequencing (N = 7) and targeted sequencing (N = 12).
RESULTS: Peritoneal MM display few copy number alterations, with most samples having less than 10 Mbp total changes, mostly through deletions and no high copy number amplification. Chromosome band 3p21 encoding BAP1 is the most recurrently deleted region (5/9), while, in contrast to pleural MM, NF2 and CDKN2A are not affected. We further identified 87 non-silent mutations across 7 sequenced tumors, with a median of 8 mutated genes per tumor, resulting in a very low mutation rate (median 1.3 10(-6)). BAP1 was the only recurrently mutated gene (N = 3/7). In one additional case, loss of the entire chromosome 3 leaves a non-functional copy of BAP1 carrying a rare nonsense germline variant, thus suggesting a potential genetic predisposition in this patient. Finally, with targeted sequencing of BAP1 in 3 additional cases, we conclude that BAP1 is frequently altered through copy number losses (N = 3/12), mutations (N = 3/12) or both (N = 2/12) sometimes at a sub-clonal level.
CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest a major role for BAP1 in peritoneal MM susceptibility and oncogenesis and indicate important molecular differences to pleural MM as well as potential strategies for therapy and prevention.

Maura F, Cutrona G, Mosca L, et al.
Association between gene and miRNA expression profiles and stereotyped subset #4 B-cell receptor in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Leuk Lymphoma. 2015; 56(11):3150-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
In this study we investigated specific biological and clinical features associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients carrying stereotyped BCR subset #4 (IGHV4-34) among a prospective cohort of 462 CLL/MBL patients in early stage (Binet A). All subset #4 patients (n = 16) were characterized by the IGHV mutated gene configuration, and absence of unfavorable cytogenetic lesions, NOTCH1 or SF3B1 mutations. Gene and miRNA expression profiling evidenced that the leukemic cells of subset #4 cases showed significant downregulation of WDFY4, MF2A and upregulation of PDGFA, FGFR1 and TFEC gene transcripts, as well as the upregulation of miR-497 and miR-29c. The transfection of miR-497 mimic in primary leukemic CLL cells induced a downregulation of BCL2, a known validated target of this miRNA. Our data identify biological characteristics associated with subset #4 patients, providing further evidence for the putative role of BCR in shaping the features of the tumor cells in CLL.

Hansen MC, Nyvold CG, Roug AS, et al.
Nature and nurture: a case of transcending haematological pre-malignancies in a pair of monozygotic twins adding possible clues on the pathogenesis of B-cell proliferations.
Br J Haematol. 2015; 169(3):391-400 [PubMed] Related Publications
We describe a comprehensive molecular analysis of a pair of monozygotic twins, who came to our attention when one experienced amaurosis fugax and was diagnosed with JAK2+ polycythaemia vera. He (Twin A) was also found to have an asymptomatic B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL). Although JAK2-, Twin B was subsequently shown to have a benign monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL). Flow cytometric and molecular analyses of the B-cell compartments revealed different immunoglobulin light and heavy chain usage in each twin. We hypothesized that whole exome sequencing could help delineating the pattern of germline B-cell disorder susceptibility and reveal somatic mutations potentially contributing to the differential patterns of pre-malignancy. Comparing bone marrow cells and T cells and employing in-house engineered integrative analysis, we found aberrations in Twin A consistent with a myeloid neoplasm, i.e. in TET2, RUNX1, PLCB1 and ELF4. Employing the method for detecting high-ranking variants by extensive annotation and relevance scoring, we also identified shared germline variants in genes of proteins interacting with B-cell receptor signalling mediators and the WNT-pathway, including IRF8, PTPRO, BCL9L, SIT1 and SIRPB1, all with possible implications in B-cell proliferation. Similar patterns of IGHV-gene usage to those demonstrated here have been observed in inherited acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Collectively, these findings may help in facilitating identification of putative master gene(s) involved in B-cell proliferations in general and MBL and B-CLL in particular.

Zupin L, Polesello V, Casalicchio G, et al.
MBL2 polymorphisms in women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance.
J Med Virol. 2015; 87(5):851-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Infection with high risk Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main known cause of cervical cancer. HPV induces different grades of lesions: among them, Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance are abnormal lesions that could evolve in pre-cancer lesions or spontaneously regress. The mannose binding lectin (MBL) is an innate immunity serum protein also found in cervico-vaginal mucosa, whose expression is known to be affected by polymorphisms in exon 1 and promoter of the MBL2 gene. In the present study the possible association between MBL2 functional polymorphisms and susceptibility to develop atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance was investigated in a group of women from North-East of Italy, stratified for HPV infection status. The MBL2 D and O alleles and the deficient producer combined genotypes, responsible for low MBL production, were more represented among atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance positive women than healthy controls and the results were confirmed when only HPV negative samples were considered. These results suggest a possible involvement of MBL2 functional polymorphisms in atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance susceptibility.

Anagnostopoulos AK, Papathanassiou C, Karamolegou K, et al.
Proteomic studies of pediatric medulloblastoma tumors with 17p deletion.
J Proteome Res. 2015; 14(2):1076-88 [PubMed] Related Publications
CNS tumors are the leading cause of cancer-related death in children. Medulloblastoma is the commonest pediatric CNS malignancy, wherein, despite multimodal therapy with surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, 5 year survival rates merely approach 60%. Until present, gene expression and cytogenetic studies have produced contradicting findings regarding the molecular background of the specific disease. Through integration of genomics, bioinformatics, and proteomics, the current study aims to shed light at the proteomic-related molecular events responsible for MBL pathophysiology, as well as to provide molecular/protein/pathway answers concerning tumor-onset. Experiments were performed on tissues collected at surgery. With 17p loss being the commonest chromosomal aberrance observed in our sample set, array-CGH were employed to first distinguish for 17p-positive cases. 2-DE coupled to mass spectrometry identification exposed the MBL-specific protein profile. Protein profiles of malignant tissues were compared against profiles of normal cerebellar tissues, and quantitative protein differences were determined. Bioinformatics, functional and database analyses, characterization, and subnetwork profiling generated information on MBL protein interactions. Key molecules of the PI3K/mTOR signaling network were identified via the techniques applied herein. Among the findings IGF2, PI3K, Rictor, MAPKAP1, S6K1, 4EBP1, and ELF4A, as part of the IGF network (implicating PI3K/mTOR), were founded to be deregulated.

Kostopoulos IV, Paterakis G, Papadimitriou K, et al.
Immunophenotypic analysis reveals heterogeneity and common biologic aspects in monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2015; 54(4):210-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) is the presence of small B-cell clones in the peripheral blood of healthy subjects. Most MBL have the characteristic phenotype of chronic lymphocyte leukemia (chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)-like MBL), and depending on the number of monoclonal B-cells, may characterize a preclinical stage of the CLL. However, there are also MBL with an atypical (CD5(+) CD20(+/bright) CD23(dim/-) ) or a CD5(neg) phenotype, which remain largely unexplored. We performed an extended immunophenotypic, cytogenetic, and hematologic analysis in 75 CLL-like, 39 atypical, 50 CD5(neg) , and 7 biphenotypic MBL cases to detect differences or similarities among the MBL subsets. The phenotypic analysis showed expression variations in many surface markers and a wide spectrum of disease-specific phenotypes within each MBL subtype. Interphase fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis showed a different panel of aberrations according to the phenotype. Overall, del(13q14) and +12 were the most common abnormalities (39%), whereas del(11q13), del(17p13), and del(6q23) were detected only in 3, 1, and 0 cases, respectively. A comparison of MBL with overt chronic lymphoproliferations revealed common aspects in the preclinical state, regarding both the kind of cytogenetic aberrations detected and the lymphocyte composition. Our findings highlight not only the heterogeneity among MBL subsets but also indicate common biologic features which differentiate MBL from clinical disease.

Torres-Martín M, Lassaletta L, de Campos JM, et al.
Genome-wide methylation analysis in vestibular schwannomas shows putative mechanisms of gene expression modulation and global hypomethylation at the HOX gene cluster.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2015; 54(4):197-209 [PubMed] Related Publications
Schwannomas are tumors that develop from Schwann cells in the peripheral nerves and commonly arise from the vestibular nerve. Vestibular schwannomas can present unilaterally and sporadically or bilaterally when the tumor is associated with neurofibromatosis Type 2 (NF2) syndrome. The molecular hallmark of the disease is biallelic inactivation of the NF2 gene. The epigenetic signature of schwannomas remains poorly understood and is mostly limited to DNA methylation of the NF2 gene, whose altered expression due to epigenetic factors in this tumor is controversial. In this study, we tested the genomewide DNA methylation pattern of schwannomas to shed light on this epigenetic alteration in these particular tumors. The methodology used includes Infinium Human Methylation 450K BeadChip microarrays in a series of 36 vestibular schwannomas, 4 nonvestibular schwannomas, and 5 healthy nerves. Our results show a trend toward hypomethylation in schwannomas. Furthermore, homeobox (HOX) genes, located at four clusters in the genome, displayed hypomethylation in several CpG sites in the vestibular schwannomas but not in the nonvestibular schwannomas. Several microRNA (miRNA) and protein-coding genes were also found to be hypomethylated at promoter regions and were confirmed as upregulated by expression analysis; including miRNA-21, Met Proto-Oncogene (MET), and PMEPA1. We also detected methylation patterns that might be involved in alternative transcripts of several genes such as NRXN1 or MBP, which would increase the complexity of the methylation and expression patterns. Overall, our results show specific epigenetic signatures in several coding genes and miRNAs that could potentially be used as therapeutic targets.

Yang X, Zhu H, Qin Q, et al.
Genetic variants and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a GWAS-based pathway analysis.
Gene. 2015; 556(2):149-52 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
This study was designed to identify candidate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that may affect the susceptibility to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and elucidate their potential mechanisms to generate SNP-to-gene-to-pathway hypotheses. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) dataset for ESCC, which included 453,852 SNPs from 1898 ESCC patients and 2100 control subjects of Chinese population, was reviewed. The identify candidate causal SNPs and pathways (ICSNPathway) analysis identified seven candidate SNPs, five genes, and seven pathways, which together revealed seven hypothetical biological mechanisms. The three strongest hypothetical biological mechanisms were as follows: rs4135113→TDG→BASE EXCISION REPAIR; rs1800450→MBL2→MONOSACCHARIDE BINDING; and rs3769823→CASP8→d4gdiPathway. The GWAS dataset was evaluated using the ICSNPathway, which showed seven candidate SNPs, five genes, and seven pathways that may contribute to the susceptibility of patients to ESCC.

Rodríguez-Caballero A, Henriques A, Criado I, et al.
Subjects with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia-like B-cell clones with stereotyped B-cell receptors frequently show MDS-associated phenotypes on myeloid cells.
Br J Haematol. 2015; 168(2):258-67 [PubMed] Related Publications
An increasing body of evidence suggests the potential occurrence of antigen encounter by the cell of origin in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) and CLL-like monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL). However, the scenario in which this event might occur remains unknown. In order to gain insight into this scenario we investigated the molecular, cytogenetic and haematological features of 223 CLL-like (n = 84) and CLL (n = 139) clones with stereotyped (n = 32) versus non-stereotyped (n = 191) immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region (IGHV) amino acid sequences. Overall, stereotyped CLL-like MBL and CLL clones showed a unique IGHV profile, associated with higher IGHV1 and lower IGHV3 gene family usage (P = 0·03), longer IGHV complementary determining region 3 (HCDR3) sequences (P = 0·007) and unmutated IGHV (P < 0·001) versus non-stereotyped clones. Whilst the overall size of the stereotyped B-cell clones in peripheral blood did not appear to be associated with the CLL-related cytogenetic profile of B-cells (P > 0·05), it did show a significant association with the presence of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)-associated immunophenotypes on peripheral blood neutrophils and/or monocytes (P = 0·01). Altogether our results point to the potential involvement of different selection forces in the expansion of stereotyped vs. non-stereotyped CLL and CLL-like MBL clones, the former being potentially favoured by an underlying altered haematopoiesis.

Towle R, Tsui IF, Zhu Y, et al.
Recurring DNA copy number gain at chromosome 9p13 plays a role in the activation of multiple candidate oncogenes in progressing oral premalignant lesions.
Cancer Med. 2014; 3(5):1170-84 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Genomic alteration at chromosome 9p has been previously reported as a frequent and critical event in oral premalignancy. While this alteration is typically reported as a loss driven by selection for CDKN2A deactivation (at 9p21.3), we detect a recurrent DNA copy number gain of ~2.49 Mbp at chromosome 9p13 in oral premalignant lesions (OPLs) that later progressed to invasive lesions. This recurrent alteration event has been validated using fluorescence in situ hybridization in an independent set of OPLs. Analysis of publicly available gene expression datasets aided in identifying three oncogene candidates that may have driven selection for DNA copy number increases in this region (VCP, DCTN3, and STOML2). We performed in vitro silencing and activation experiments for each of these genes in oral cancer cell lines and found that each gene is independently capable of upregulating proliferation and anchorage-independent growth. We next analyzed the activity of each of these genes in biopsies of varying histological grades that were obtained from a diseased oral tissue field in a single patient, finding further molecular evidence of parallel activation of VCP, DCTN3, and STOML2 during progression from normal healthy tissue to invasive oral carcinoma. Our results support the conclusion that DNA gain at 9p13 is important to the earliest stages of oral tumorigenesis and that this alteration event likely contributes to the activation of multiple oncogene candidates capable of governing oral cancer phenotypes.

Terashima M, Fujita Y, Togashi Y, et al.
KIAA1199 interacts with glycogen phosphorylase kinase β-subunit (PHKB) to promote glycogen breakdown and cancer cell survival.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(16):7040-50 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The KIAA1199 gene was first discovered to be associated with non-syndromic hearing loss. Recently, several reports have shown that the up-regulation of KIAA1199 is associated with cancer cell migration or invasion and a poor prognosis. These findings indicate that KIAA1199 may be a novel target for cancer therapy. Therefore, we explored in detail the function of KIAA1199 in cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the interaction of KIAA1199 protein with intracellular proteins in cancer cells. To this end, we expressed KIAA1199-MBP fusion protein and performed a pull-down assay. In addition, KIAA1199-overexpressing cancer cell lines were constructed using a retroviral vector and were used for further experiments. A pull-down analysis showed that the glycogen phosphorylase kinase β-subunit (PHKB) interacted with the C-terminal region of KIAA1199 protein. Furthermore, we observed the interaction of KIAA1199 with glycogen phosphorylase brain form (PYGB) under serum-free conditions. The interaction promoted glycogen breakdown and cancer cell survival. Our findings indicate that KIAA1199 plays an important role in glycogen breakdown and cancer cell survival and that it may represent a novel target for cancer therapy.

Gao W, Chan JY, Wong TS
Long non-coding RNA deregulation in tongue squamous cell carcinoma.
Biomed Res Int. 2014; 2014:405860 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The deregulated tumorigenic long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) has been reported in several malignancies. However, there is still no comprehensive study on tongue squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
METHODS: Functional reannotation for the human lncRNA was carried out by ncFANs. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to validate the identified lncRNAs.
RESULTS: Using the functional annotation algorithm from ncFANs, 8 differentially expressed lncRNAs were identified. Lnc-PPP2R4-5, lnc-SPRR2D-1, lnc-MAN1A2-1, lnc-FAM46A-1, lnc-MBL2-4:1, and lnc-MBL2-4:3 were upregulated in the microdissected tongue SCC tissues. In comparison, lnc-AL355149.1-1 and lnc-STXBP5-1 showed significant downregulation. High level of lnc-MBL2-4:3 was significantly associated with the node positive tongue SCC patients. Further, patients with advanced T-stage demonstrated a further reduction of lnc-AL355149.1-1 in the tumor tissues. Treatment of tongue SCC cells with 5-fluorouracil and paclitaxel can reserve the expression patterns observed in the tongue SCC tissues. Further, changes of lnc-MBL2-4:3 and lnc-AL355149.1-1 expression levels were noticed in the cisplatin-resistant tongue SCC cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated that functional reannotation allows us to identify novel lncRNAs using the existing gene expression array dataset. The association of lncRNA with the T-stage and nodal status of tongue SCC patients suggested that lncRNA deregulation was involved in the pathogenesis of tongue SCC.

Swierzko AS, Szala A, Sawicki S, et al.
Mannose-Binding Lectin (MBL) and MBL-associated serine protease-2 (MASP-2) in women with malignant and benign ovarian tumours.
Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2014; 63(11):1129-40 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mannose-Binding Lectin (MBL) is a serum pattern recognition molecule, able to activate complement in association with MASP proteases. Serum levels of MBL and MASP-2, activities of MBL-MASP complexes, single nucleotide polymorphisms of the MBL2 and MASP2 genes and/or their specific mRNA expression in ovarian sections were investigated in 128 patients suffering from primary ovarian cancer (OC) and compared with 197 controls (C), encompassing both patients with benign ovarian tumours (n = 123) and others with no ovarian pathology (n = 74). MBL deficiency-associated genotypes were more common among OC patients than among controls. The O/O group of genotypes was associated with ovarian cancer (OR 3.5, p = 0.02). In A/A homozygotes, MBL concentrations and activities were elevated in the OC group and correlated with C-reactive protein. Moreover, high MBL serum levels were associated with more advanced disease stage. No differences in distribution of the MASP2 +359 A>G (D120G) SNP or MASP-2 serum levels were found between cancer patients and their controls. However, the highest frequency of the A/G (MASP2) and LXA/O or O/O (MBL2) genotypes was found among OC patients with tumours of G1-2 grade (well/moderately differentiated). Furthermore, MBL deficiency-associated genotypes predicted prolonged survival. None of the parameters investigated correlated with CA125 antigen or patients' age. The local expression of MBL2 and MASP2 genes was higher in women with ovarian cancer compared with controls. It is concluded that the expression of MBL and MASP-2 is altered in ovarian cancer, possibly indicating involvement of the lectin pathway of complement activation in the disease.

Fang F, Ma J, Ni W, et al.
MUC1 and maltose‑binding protein recombinant fusion protein combined with Bacillus Calmette‑Guerin induces MUC1‑specific and nonspecific anti‑tumor immunity in mice.
Mol Med Rep. 2014; 10(2):1056-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human mucin 1 (MUC1) is a target for immunotherapy. The major problem associated with MUC1‑based cancer vaccines is the weakness of the immunogenicity of MUC1. The present study aimed to develop an efficient cancer vaccine through generating a recombinant fusion protein consisting of MUC1 and maltose‑binding protein (MBP) by inserting seven tandem repeats encoding the human MUC1 gene into the pMAL‑c2 expression vector. Bacillus Calmette‑Guerin (BCG) was used as an adjuvant. MUC1 was found to predominantly induce T helper type 2 (Th2) cell responses. MUC1/BCG and MUC1‑MBP were found to generate T helper (Th) type 1 and 2 responses, while MUC1‑MBP/BCG induced a Th1 immune profile and stimulated MUC1‑specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte killing activity. MUC1‑MBP, as well as MBP and BCG alone were found to induce natural killer (NK) cell activity, with MUC1‑MBP/BCG observed to synergistically induce NK cell activity. Furthermore, MUC1‑MBP/BCG significantly inhibited MUC1+ B16 cell growth in mice. These findings show that MBP augments the immunogenicity of MUC1 and that BCG enhances the efficacy of the MUC1‑MBP vaccine. Thus, MUC1‑MBP/BCG may have potential as a cancer vaccine for clinical application.

Pehlivan M, Sahin HH, Ozdilli K, et al.
Gene polymorphisms and febrile neutropenia in acute leukemia--no association with IL-4, CCR-5, IL-1RA, but the MBL-2, ACE, and TLR-4 are associated with the disease in Turkish patients: a preliminary study.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers. 2014; 18(7):474-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the mannose-binding lectin 2 (MBL-2), interleukin (IL)-4, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), chemokine receptor 5 (CCR-5), and IL-1 receptor antagonist (RA) gene polymorphisms (GPs) in acute leukemias (ALs) and to evaluate their roles in febrile neutropenia (FN) resulting from chemotherapy.
METHODS: The study included 60 AL patients hospitalized between the period of July 2001 and August 2006. Polymorphisms for the genes ACE(I/D), CCR-5, IL-1RA, MBL-2, TLR-4, and IL-4 were typed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or PCR-restriction fragment length polymerase. Genotype frequencies for these genes were compared in the patient and control groups. The relationships between the genotypes and the body distribution of infections, pathogens, the duration of neutropenia, and febrile episodes in AL patients were evaluated.
RESULTS: No significant differences in either the genotype distribution or the allelic frequencies of TLR-4, IL-4, CCR-5, IL-1RN GPs were observed between patients and healthy controls. The AB/BB genotype (53.3%) in the MBL-2 gene was found to be significantly higher in the AL patients compared with control groups. There were correlations between the presence of MBL-2, TLR-4, and ACE polymorphisms and clinical parameters due to FN. Overall, bacteremia was more common in MBL BB and ACE DD. Gram-positive bacteremia was more common in ACE for ID versus DD genotype. Gram-negative bacteremia was more common for both the MBL-2 AB/BB genotype and TLR-4 AG genotype. Median durations of febrile episodes were significantly shorter in ACE DD and MBL AB/BB.
CONCLUSION: Although TLR-4, ACE, and MBL-2 GPs have been extensively investigated in different clinical pictures, this is the first study to evaluate the role of these polymorphisms in the genetic etiopathogenesis of FN in patients with ALs. As a conclusion, TLR-4, ACE, and MBL-2 genes might play roles in the genetic etiopathogenesis of FN in patients with ALs.

Mastronuzzi A, Miele E, Po A, et al.
Large cell anaplastic medulloblastoma metastatic to the scalp: tumor and derived stem-like cells features.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:262 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Extraneural metastases (ENM) rarely occur in medulloblastoma (MBL) patients and only few cases of subcutaneous localizations have been described. ENM indicate an aggressive disease associated with a worse prognosis. The characterization of metastatic tumours might be useful to understand their pathogenesis and to identify the most appropriate therapeutic strategies.
CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a child with Large Cell Anaplastic (LC/A) MBL, who developed multiple subcutaneous metastases in the scalp area after a ventriculo-peritoneal shunting procedure. The disease rapidly progressed and the child died despite chemotherapy and primary tumour surgical debulking.We molecularly classified the tumour as a group 3 MBL; in addition, we derived stem-like cells (SLC) from a metastatic lesion. Primary tumour, metastases and SLC were further analysed, particularly focusing on features linked to the cutaneous dissemination. Indeed, molecules involved in angiogenesis, cell invasion and epidermal growth factor signalling resulted highly expressed.
CONCLUSIONS: The present report describes a very rare case of subcutaneous metastatic MBL. The tumour, metastases and SLC have been clinically, pathologically and molecularly characterized. Our case is an example of multidisciplinary approach aiming to characterize MBL aggressive behaviour.

Zafer MM, Al-Agamy MH, El-Mahallawy HA, et al.
Antimicrobial resistance pattern and their beta-lactamase encoding genes among Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from cancer patients.
Biomed Res Int. 2014; 2014:101635 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of metallo-β-lactamases (MBL) and extended-spectrum β -lactamases (ESBL) in P. aeruginosa isolates collected from two different hospitals in Cairo, Egypt. Antibiotic susceptibility testing and phenotypic screening for ESBLs and MBLs were performed on 122 P. aeruginosa isolates collected in the period from January 2011 to March 2012. MICs were determined. ESBLs and MBLs genes were sought by PCR. The resistant rate to imipenem was 39.34%. The resistance rates for P. aeruginosa to cefuroxime, cefoperazone, ceftazidime, aztreonam, and piperacillin/tazobactam were 87.7%, 80.3%, 60.6%, 45.1%, and 25.4%, respectively. Out of 122 P. aeruginosa, 27% and 7.4% were MBL and ESBL, respectively. The prevalence of bla(VIM-2), bla(OXA-10(-)), bla(VEB-1), bla(NDM(-)), and bla(IMP-1)-like genes were found in 58.3%, 41.7%, 10.4%, 4.2%, and 2.1%, respectively. GIM-, SPM-, SIM-, and OXA-2-like genes were not detected in this study. OXA-10-like gene was concomitant with VIM-2 and/or VEB. Twelve isolates harbored both OXA-10 and VIM-2; two isolates carried both OXA-10 and VEB. Only one strain contained OXA-10, VIM-2, and VEB. In conclusion, bla(VIM-2)- and bla(OXA-10)-like genes were the most prevalent genes in P. aeruginosa in Egypt. To our knowledge, this is the first report of bla(VIM-2), bla(IMP-1), bla(NDM), and bla(OXA-10) in P. aeruginosa in Egypt.

Zempleni J, Liu D, Camara DT, Cordonier EL
Novel roles of holocarboxylase synthetase in gene regulation and intermediary metabolism.
Nutr Rev. 2014; 72(6):369-76 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The role of holocarboxylase synthetase (HLCS) in catalyzing the covalent binding of biotin to the five biotin-dependent carboxylases in humans is well established, as are the essential roles of these carboxylases in the metabolism of fatty acids, the catabolism of leucine, and gluconeogenesis. This review examines recent discoveries regarding the roles of HLCS in assembling a multiprotein gene repression complex in chromatin. In addition, emerging evidence suggests that the number of biotinylated proteins is far larger than previously assumed and includes members of the heat-shock superfamily of proteins and proteins coded by the ENO1 gene. Evidence is presented linking biotinylation of heat-shock proteins HSP60 and HSP72 with redox biology and immune function, respectively, and biotinylation of the two ENO1 gene products MBP-1 and ENO1 with tumor suppression and glycolysis, respectively.

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