Gene Summary

Gene:NBN; nibrin
Aliases: ATV, NBS, P95, NBS1, AT-V1, AT-V2
Summary:Mutations in this gene are associated with Nijmegen breakage syndrome, an autosomal recessive chromosomal instability syndrome characterized by microcephaly, growth retardation, immunodeficiency, and cancer predisposition. The encoded protein is a member of the MRE11/RAD50 double-strand break repair complex which consists of 5 proteins. This gene product is thought to be involved in DNA double-strand break repair and DNA damage-induced checkpoint activation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 08 August, 2015

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 08 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Chromosome 8
  • T-Lymphocytes
  • Adolescents
  • Breast Cancer
  • Genetic Recombination
  • Cervical Cancer
  • cdc25 Phosphatases
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • DNA Repair Enzymes
  • Germ-Line Mutation
  • Prostate Cancer
  • DNA Damage
  • Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Proteins
  • Telomere-Binding Proteins
  • Messenger RNA
  • Risk Assessment
  • Wilms Tumour
  • Rabbits
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Heterozygote
  • DNA Repair
  • Taiwan
  • Genotype
  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • Protein Structure, Tertiary
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • Mutation
  • DNA Sequence Analysis
  • Telomere
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • beta-Galactosidase
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • Sequence Deletion
  • Risk Factors
  • Ovarian Cancer
  • Sequence Homology
  • Slovakia
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
Tag cloud generated 08 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: NBN (cancer-related)

Kolla V, Naraparaju K, Zhuang T, et al.
The tumour suppressor CHD5 forms a NuRD-type chromatin remodelling complex.
Biochem J. 2015; 468(2):345-52 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
Eukaryotic gene expression is developmentally regulated, in part by chromatin remodelling, and its dysregulation has been linked to cancer. CHD5 (chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 5) is a tumour suppressor gene (TSG) that maps to a region of consistent deletion on 1p36.31 in neuroblastomas (NBs) and other tumour types. CHD5 encodes a protein with chromatin remodelling, helicase and DNA-binding motifs that is preferentially expressed in neural and testicular tissues. CHD5 is highly homologous to CHD3 and CHD4, which are the core subunits of nucleosome remodelling and deacetylation (NuRD) complexes. To determine if CHD5 forms a similar complex, we performed studies on nuclear extracts from NBLS, SY5Y (both with endogenous CHD5 expression), NLF (CHD5 null) and NLF cells stably transfected with CHD5 cDNA (wild-type and V5-histidine-tagged). Immunoprecipitation (IP) was performed with either CHD5 antibody or antibody to V5/histidine-tagged protein. We identified NuRD components both by GST-FOG1 (Friend Of GATA1) pull-down and by IP. We also performed MS/MS analysis to confirm the presence of CHD5 or other protein components of the NuRD complex, as well as to identify other novel proteins. CHD5 was clearly associated with all canonical NuRD components, including metastasis-associated protein (MTA)1/2, GATA zinc finger domain containing 2A (GATAD2A), histone deacetylase (HDAC)1/2, retinoblastoma-binding protein (RBBP)4/7 and methyl DNA-binding domain protein (MBD)2/3, as determined by Western blotting and MS/MS. Our data suggest CHD5 forms a NuRD complex similar to CHD4. However, CHD5-NuRD may also have unique protein associations that confer functional specificity and may contribute to normal development and to tumour suppression in NB and other cancers.

Fang W, Qiu F, Zhang L, et al.
The functional polymorphism of NBS1 p.Glu185Gln is associated with an increased risk of lung cancer in Chinese populations: case-control and a meta-analysis.
Mutat Res. 2014; 770:61-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
NBS1 plays pivotal roles in maintaining genomic stability and cancer development. The exon variant rs1805794G>C (p.Glu185Gln) of NBS1 has been frequently studied in several association studies. However, the results were conflicting. Also, the function of this variant has never been well studied. In the current study, we performed a two centers case-control study and function assays to investigate the effect of the variant rs1805794G>C on lung cancer risk in Chinese, and a meta-analysis to summarize the data on the association between rs1805794G>C and cancer risk. We found that compared with the rs1805794GG genotype, the C genotypes (CG/CC) conferred a significantly increased risk of lung cancer in Chinese (OR=1.40, 95% CI=1.21-1.62) and interacted with medical ionizing radiation exposure on increasing cancer risk (Pinteraction=0.015). The lymphocyte cells from the C genotype individuals developed more chromatid breaks than those from the GG genotype carriers after the X-ray radiation (P=0.036). Moreover, the rs1805794C allele encoding p.185Gln attenuated NBS1's ability to repair DNA damage as the cell lines transfected with NBS1 cDNA expression vector carrying rs1805794C allele had significantly higher DNA breaks than those transfected with NBS1 cDNA expression vector carrying rs1805794G allele (P<0.05). The meta-analysis further confirmed the association between the variant rs1805794G>C and lung cancer risk, that compared with the GG genotype, the carriers of C genotypes had a 1.30-fold risk of cancer (95% CI=1.14-1.49, P=8.49×10(-5)). These findings suggest that the rs1805794G>C of NBS1 may be a functional genetic biomarker for lung cancer.

Goričar K, Erčulj N, Faganel Kotnik B, et al.
The association of folate pathway and DNA repair polymorphisms with susceptibility to childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Gene. 2015; 562(2):203-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Genetic factors may play an important role in susceptibility to childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The aim of our study was to evaluate the associations of genetic polymorphisms in folate pathway and DNA repair genes with susceptibility to ALL. In total, 121 children with ALL and 184 unrelated healthy controls of Slovenian origin were genotyped for 14 polymorphisms in seven genes of folate pathway, base excision repair and homologous recombination repair (TYMS, MTHFR, OGG1, XRCC1, NBN, RAD51, and XRCC3). In addition, the exon 6 of NBN was screened for the presence of mutations using denaturing high performance liquid chromatography. Twelve polymorphisms were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in controls and their genotype frequencies were in agreement with those reported in other Caucasian populations. Among the investigated polymorphisms and mutations, NBN Glu185Gln significantly decreased susceptibility to B-cell ALL (p=0.037), while TYMS 3R allele decreased susceptibility to T-cell ALL (p=0.011). Moreover, significantly decreased susceptibility to ALL was observed for MTHFR TA (p=0.030) and RAD51 GTT haplotypes (p=0.016). Susceptibility to ALL increased with the increasing number of risk alleles (ptrend=0.007). We also observed significant influence of hOGG-RAD51 and NBN-RAD51 interactions on susceptibility to ALL. Our results suggest that combination of several polymorphisms in DNA repair and folate pathways may significantly affect susceptibility to childhood ALL.

Rondeau S, Vacher S, De Koning L, et al.
ATM has a major role in the double-strand break repair pathway dysregulation in sporadic breast carcinomas and is an independent prognostic marker at both mRNA and protein levels.
Br J Cancer. 2015; 112(6):1059-66 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 17/03/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is a kinase that has a central role in the maintenance of genomic integrity by activating cell cycle checkpoints and promoting repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB). In breast cancer, a low level of ATM was correlated with poor outcome; however, the molecular mechanism of this downregulation is still unclear.
METHODS: We used qRT-PCR assay to quantify mRNA levels of ATM gene in 454 breast tumours from patients with known clinical/pathological status and outcome; reverse phase protein arrays (RPPA) were used to assess the levels of ATM and 14 proteins in 233 breast tumours.
RESULTS: ATM mRNA was associated with poor metastasis-free survival (MFS) (P=0.00012) on univariate analysis. ATM mRNA and protein levels were positively correlated (P=0.00040). A low level of ATM protein was correlated with poorer MFS (P=0.000025). ATM expression at mRNA or protein levels are independent prognostic factors on multivariate analysis (P=0.00046 and P=0.00037, respectively). The ATM protein level was positively correlated with the levels of six proteins of the DSB repair pathway: H2AX (P<0.0000001), XRCC5 (P<0.0000001), NBN (P<0.0000001), Mre11 (P=0.0000029), Rad50 (P=0.0064), and TP53BP1 (P=0.026), but not with proteins involved in other pathways that are altered in cancer. Low expression of ATM protein was significantly associated with high miR-203 expression (P=0.011).
CONCLUSION: We confirmed that ATM expression is an independent prognostic marker at both RNA and protein levels. We showed that alteration of ATM is involved in dysregulation of the DSB repair pathway. Finally, miR-203 may be responsible for downregulation of ATM in breast cancers.

Russo A, Okur MN, Bosland M, O'Bryan JP
Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, class 2 beta (PI3KC2β) isoform contributes to neuroblastoma tumorigenesis.
Cancer Lett. 2015; 359(2):262-8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/04/2016 Related Publications
Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Ks) play important roles in human tumorigenesis. Activation of the PI3K target AKT is frequent in neuroblastoma (NB) and correlates with poor prognosis. PI3K pan-inhibitors reduce NB tumor formation but present severe toxicity, which limits their therapeutic potential. Therefore, defining the importance of specific PI3K isoforms may aid in developing more effective therapeutic strategies. We previously demonstrated that PI3K Class IIβ (PI3KC2β) and its regulator intersectin 1 (ITSN1) are highly expressed in primary NB tumors and cell lines. Silencing ITSN1 dramatically reduced the tumorigenic potential of NB cells. Interestingly, overexpression of PI3KC2β rescued the anchorage-independent growth of ITSN1-silenced cells suggesting that PI3KC2β mediates ITSN1's function in NB cells. To address the importance of PI3KC2β in NBs, we generated PI3KC2β-silenced lines and examined their biologic activity. Herein, we demonstrate that PI3KC2β-silencing inhibits early stages of NB tumorigenic growth. We also show that loss of endogenous PI3KC2β or ITSN1 reduces AKT activation but does not impact ERK-MAPK activation. These data reveal a novel role for PI3KC2β in human NB tumorigenesis.

Sokolenko AP, Preobrazhenskaya EV, Aleksakhina SN, et al.
Candidate gene analysis of BRCA1/2 mutation-negative high-risk Russian breast cancer patients.
Cancer Lett. 2015; 359(2):259-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
Twenty one DNA repair genes were analyzed in a group of 95 BC patients, who displayed clinical features of hereditary disease predisposition but turned out to be negative for mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 entire coding region as well as for founder disease-predisposing alleles in CHEK2, NBN/NBS1 and ATM genes. Full-length sequencing of CHEK2 and NBN/NBS1 failed to identify non-founder mutations. The analysis of TP53 revealed a woman carrying the R282W allele; further testing of additional 108 BC patients characterized by a very young age at onset (35 years or earlier) detected one more carrier of the TP53 germ-line defect. In addition, this study confirmed non-random occurrence of PALB2 truncating mutations in Russian hereditary BC patients. None of the studied cases carried germ-line defects in recently discovered hereditary BC genes, BRIP1, FANCC, MRE11A and RAD51C. The analysis of genes with yet unproven BC-predisposing significance (BARD1, BRD7, CHEK1, DDB2, ERCC1, EXO1, FANCG, PARP1, PARP2, RAD51, RNF8, WRN) identified single women carrying a protein-truncating allele, WRN R1406X. DNA sequencing of another set of 95 hereditary BC cases failed to reveal additional WRN heterozygous genotypes. Since WRN is functionally similar to the known BC-predisposing gene, BLM, it deserves to be analyzed in future hereditary BC studies. Furthermore, this investigation revealed a number of rare missense germ-line variants, which are classified as probably protein-damaging by online in silico tools and therefore may require further consideration.

Growdon WB, Groeneweg J, Byron V, et al.
HER2 over-expressing high grade endometrial cancer expresses high levels of p95HER2 variant.
Gynecol Oncol. 2015; 137(1):160-6 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Subsets of high grade endometrial cancer (EnCa) over-express HER2 (ERBB2), yet clinical trials have failed to demonstrate any anti-tumor activity utilizing trastuzumab, an approved platform for HER2 positive breast cancer (BrCa). A truncated p95HER2 variant lacking the trastuzumab binding site may confer resistance. The objective of this investigation was to characterize the expression of the p95HER2 truncated variant in EnCa.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: With institutional approval, 86 high grade EnCa tumors were identified with tumor specimens from surgeries performed between 2000 and 2011. Clinical data were collected and all specimens underwent tumor genotyping, HER2 immunohistochemistry (IHC, HercepTest®), HER2 fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), along with total HER2 (H2T) and p95HER2 assessment with VeraTag® testing. Regression models were used to compare a cohort of 86 breast tumors selected for equivalent HER2 protein expression.
RESULTS: We identified 44 high grade endometrioid and 42 uterine serous carcinomas (USC). IHC identified high HER2 expression (2+ or 3+) in 59% of the tumors. HER2 gene amplification was observed in 16 tumors (12 USC, 4 endometrioid). Both HER2 gene amplification and protein expression correlated with H2T values. High p95HER2 expression above 2.8RF/mm2 was observed in 53% (n=54) with significant correlation with H2T levels. When matched to a cohort of 107 breast tumors based on HercepTest HER2 expression, high grade EnCa presented with higher p95 levels (p<0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that compared to BrCa, high grade EnCa expresses higher levels of p95HER2 possibly providing rationale for the trastuzumab resistance observed in EnCa.

Zhou J, Liu ZY, Li CB, et al.
Genetic polymorphisms of DNA repair pathways influence the response to chemotherapy and overall survival of gastric cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(4):3017-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
We aimed to evaluate the clinical response to platinum-based chemotherapy and treatment outcome of gastric cancer patients in the present of ERCC1, ERCC2, NBN, RAD51, and XRCC3 gene polymorphisms. A number of 415 patients of gastric cancer that received platinum-based chemotherapy were enrolled in the present study. The presence of ERCC1 rs11615 and rs2298881, ERCC2 rs1799793 and rs13181, NBN rs1805794, rs709816, and RAD51 rs1801321 and XRCC3 rs1799794 were determined using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Conditional regression analysis identified that CC genotype of ERCC1 rs11615 and AA genotype of ERCC2 rs1799793 was associated with a better response to chemotherapy in gastric cancer patients, and the odds ratio (ORs)(95% confidence interval (CI)) were 2.70(1.33-5.70) and 3.12(1.52-6.84), respectively. By the Cox analysis, the CC genotype of ERCC1 rs11615, AA genotype of ERCC2 rs1799793, and CC genotype of NBN rs1805794 were significantly associated with a longer overall survival (OS) of gastric cancer. In conclusion, our results suggest that ERCC1 rs11615, ERCC2 rs1799793, and NBN rs1805794 polymorphisms in the DNA repair pathways may influence the response to chemotherapy and OS of gastric cancer.

Dassouki Z, Sahin U, El Hajj H, et al.
ATL response to arsenic/interferon therapy is triggered by SUMO/PML/RNF4-dependent Tax degradation.
Blood. 2015; 125(3):474-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
The human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-1) Tax transactivator initiates transformation in adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL), a highly aggressive chemotherapy-resistant malignancy. The arsenic/interferon combination, which triggers degradation of the Tax oncoprotein, selectively induces apoptosis of ATL cell lines and has significant clinical activity in Tax-driven murine ATL or human patients. However, the role of Tax loss in ATL response is disputed, and the molecular mechanisms driving degradation remain elusive. Here we demonstrate that ATL-derived or HTLV-1-transformed cells are dependent on continuous Tax expression, suggesting that Tax degradation underlies clinical responses to the arsenic/interferon combination. The latter enforces promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) nuclear body (NB) formation and partner protein recruitment. In arsenic/interferon-treated HTLV-1 transformed or ATL cells, Tax is recruited onto NBs and undergoes PML-dependent hyper-sumoylation by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)2/3 but not SUMO1, ubiquitination by RNF4, and proteasome-dependent degradation. Thus, the arsenic/interferon combination clears ATL through degradation of its Tax driver, and this regimen could have broader therapeutic value by promoting degradation of other pathogenic sumoylated proteins.

Li H, Chen X, Yu Y, et al.
Metformin inhibits the growth of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells and sensitizes the cells to radiation via inhibition of the DNA damage repair pathway.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 32(6):2596-604 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Radiotherapy is one of the primary modalities for NPC treatment. However, in patients in the late stages of the disease, the local control rate and overall survival rate remain low. Therefore, it is urgent to identify new targets that can improve the outcome of radiotherapy in this neoplasm. In the present study, we investigated the effects of metformin on the radiosensitivity of NPC cells and explored the potential mechanisms. The radiosensitizing effects of metformin on NPC cells were measured by colony formation assay. Cell apoptosis was assessed by Hoechst 33342 staining analysis. DNA damage was detected by monitoring γ-H2AX foci with immunofluorescence. The changes in apotosis-related and DNA damage repair-related proteins were detected by western blotting. Our study demonstrated that metformin significantly reduced the cell viability, enhanced radiosensitivity and potentiated radiation-induced caspase-9/-3 cleavage in the NPC cells. In addition, metformin plus radiation significantly upregulated the expression of p-ATM, p-ATR, γ-H2AX and downregulated the expression of ATM, ATR, p95/NBS1, Rad50, DNA-PK, Ku70 and Ku80. Therefore, our results suggest that metformin possesses a strong radiosensitizing potential in NPC cells. This radiosensitizing effect was associated with inhibition of DNA double-strand break repair processes through HR repair and the NHEJ repair signaling pathway, thereby enhancing radiation-induced cell apoptosis. These findings imply that metformin is a potent radiation-sensitizing agent and may be a promising candidate for clinical evaluation as part of a combined regimen for the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

Yong KJ, Milenic DE, Baidoo KE, Brechbiel MW
Impact of α-targeted radiation therapy on gene expression in a pre-clinical model for disseminated peritoneal disease when combined with paclitaxel.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(9):e108511 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2016 Related Publications
To better understand the molecular basis of the enhanced cell killing effected by the combined modality of paclitaxel and ²¹²Pb-trastuzumab (Pac/²¹²Pb-trastuzumab), gene expression in LS-174T i.p. xenografts was investigated 24 h after treatment. Employing a real time quantitative PCR array (qRT-PCR array), 84 DNA damage response genes were quantified. Differentially expressed genes following therapy with Pac/²¹²Pb-trastuzumab included those involved in apoptosis (BRCA1, CIDEA, GADD45α, GADD45γ, GML, IP6K3, PCBP4, PPP1R15A, RAD21, and p73), cell cycle (BRCA1, CHK1, CHK2, GADD45α, GML, GTSE1, NBN, PCBP4, PPP1R15A, RAD9A, and SESN1), and damaged DNA repair (ATRX, BTG2, EXO1, FEN1, IGHMBP2, OGG1, MSH2, MUTYH, NBN, PRKDC, RAD21, and p73). This report demonstrates that the increased stressful growth arrest conditions induced by the Pac/²¹²Pb-trastuzumab treatment suppresses cell proliferation through the regulation of genes which are involved in apoptosis and damaged DNA repair including single and double strand DNA breaks. Furthermore, the study demonstrates that ²¹²Pb-trastuzumab potentiation of cell killing efficacy results from the perturbation of genes related to the mitotic spindle checkpoint and BASC (BRCA1-associated genome surveillance complex), suggesting cross-talk between DNA damage repair and the spindle damage response.

Smolkova B, Dusinska M, Hemminki K
NBN and XRCC3 genetic variants in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.
Cancer Epidemiol. 2014; 38(5):563-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nibrin and DNA repair protein XRCC3 are involved in DNA double-strand break repair. We genotyped seven tagging SNPs in these genes (rs1805794, rs709816; rs1063054; rs7141928, rs1799794, rs861530, rs861539) with the aim to analyse their association with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), a disease, that is characterised by elevated genetic instability. Study consisted of 460 paediatric ALL cases and 552 healthy controls. For selection of DNA sequence variants we employed SNP-tagging approach, incorporating the HAPMAP CEU reference panel data. We did not find association of analysed and tagged SNPs and derived haplotypes with the ALL risk thus did not confirm the hypothesis that analysed DNA recombination repair variants account for increased susceptibility to ALL.

Subramonian D, Raghunayakula S, Olsen JV, et al.
Analysis of changes in SUMO-2/3 modification during breast cancer progression and metastasis.
J Proteome Res. 2014; 13(9):3905-18 [PubMed] Related Publications
SUMOylation is an essential posttranslational modification and regulates many cellular processes. Dysregulation of SUMOylation plays a critical role in metastasis, yet how its perturbation affects this lethal process of cancer is not well understood. We found that SUMO-2/3 modification is greatly up-regulated in metastatic breast cancer cells compared with nonmetastatic control cells. To identify proteins differentially modified by SUMO-2/3 between metastatic and nonmetastatic cells, we established a method in which endogenous SUMO-2/3 conjugates are labeled by stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC), immunopurified by SUMO-2/3 monoclonal antibodies and epitope-peptide elution, and analyzed by quantitative mass spectrometry. We identified 66 putative SUMO-2/3-conjugated proteins, of which 15 proteins show a significant increase/decrease in SUMO-2/3 modification in metastatic cells. Targets with altered SUMOylation are involved in cell cycle, migration, inflammation, glycolysis, gene expression, and SUMO/ubiquitin pathways, suggesting that perturbations of SUMO-2/3 modification might contribute to metastasis by affecting these processes. Consistent with this, up-regulation of PML SUMO-2/3 modification corresponds to an increased number of PML nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) in metastatic cells, whereas up-regulation of global SUMO-2/3 modification promotes 3D cell migration. Our findings provide a foundation for further investigating the effects of SUMOylation on breast cancer progression and metastasis.

Perry C, Agarwal D, Abdel-Fatah TM, et al.
Dissecting DNA repair in adult high grade gliomas for patient stratification in the post-genomic era.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(14):5764-81 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2016 Related Publications
Deregulation of multiple DNA repair pathways may contribute to aggressive biology and therapy resistance in gliomas. We evaluated transcript levels of 157 genes involved in DNA repair in an adult glioblastoma Test set (n=191) and validated in 'The Cancer Genome Atlas' (TCGA) cohort (n=508). A DNA repair prognostic index model was generated. Artificial neural network analysis (ANN) was conducted to investigate global gene interactions. Protein expression by immunohistochemistry was conducted in 61 tumours. A fourteen DNA repair gene expression panel was associated with poor survival in Test and TCGA cohorts. A Cox multivariate model revealed APE1, NBN, PMS2, MGMT and PTEN as independently associated with poor prognosis. A DNA repair prognostic index incorporating APE1, NBN, PMS2, MGMT and PTEN stratified patients in to three prognostic sub-groups with worsening survival. APE1, NBN, PMS2, MGMT and PTEN also have predictive significance in patients who received chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. ANN analysis of APE1, NBN, PMS2, MGMT and PTEN revealed interactions with genes involved in transcription, hypoxia and metabolic regulation. At the protein level, low APE1 (p=0.031) and low PTEN (p=0.042) remain associated with poor prognosis. In conclusion, multiple DNA repair pathways operate to influence biology and clinical outcomes in adult high grade gliomas.

Guimier A, Ferrand S, Pierron G, et al.
Clinical characteristics and outcome of patients with neuroblastoma presenting genomic amplification of loci other than MYCN.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(7):e101990 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Somatically acquired genomic alterations with MYCN amplification (MNA) are key features of neuroblastoma (NB), the most common extra-cranial malignant tumour of childhood. Little is known about the frequency, clinical characteristics and outcome of NBs harbouring genomic amplification(s) distinct from MYCN.
METHODS: Genomic profiles of 1100 NBs from French centres studied by array-CGH were re-examined specifically to identify regional amplifications. Patients were included if amplifications distinct from the MYCN locus were seen. A subset of NBs treated at Institut Curie and harbouring MNA as determined by array-CGH without other amplification was also studied. Clinical and histology data were retrospectively collected.
RESULTS: In total, 56 patients were included and categorised into 3 groups. Group 1 (n = 8) presented regional amplification(s) without MNA. Locus 12q13-14 was a recurrent amplified region (4/8 cases). This group was heterogeneous in terms of INSS stages, primary localisations and histology, with atypical clinical features. Group 2 (n = 26) had MNA as well as other regional amplifications. These patients shared clinical features of those of a group of NBs MYCN amplified (Group 3, n = 22). Overall survival for group 1 was better than that of groups 2 and 3 (5 year OS: 87.5%±11% vs 34.9%±7%, log-rank p<0.05).
CONCLUSION: NBs harbouring regional amplification(s) without MNA are rare and seem to show atypical features in clinical presentation and genomic profile. Further high resolution genetic explorations are justified in this heterogeneous group, especially when considering these alterations as predictive markers for targeted therapy.

Rendleman J, Antipin Y, Reva B, et al.
Genetic variation in DNA repair pathways and risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(7):e101685 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2016 Related Publications
Molecular and genetic evidence suggests that DNA repair pathways may contribute to lymphoma susceptibility. Several studies have examined the association of DNA repair genes with lymphoma risk, but the findings from these reports have been inconsistent. Here we provide the results of a focused analysis of genetic variation in DNA repair genes and their association with the risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). With a population of 1,297 NHL cases and 1,946 controls, we have performed a two-stage case/control association analysis of 446 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) tagging the genetic variation in 81 DNA repair genes. We found the most significant association with NHL risk in the ATM locus for rs227060 (OR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.13-1.43, p = 6.77×10(-5)), which remained significant after adjustment for multiple testing. In a subtype-specific analysis, associations were also observed for the ATM locus among both diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL) and small lymphocytic lymphomas (SLL), however there was no association observed among follicular lymphomas (FL). In addition, our study provides suggestive evidence of an interaction between SNPs in MRE11A and NBS1 associated with NHL risk (OR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.34-0.77, p = 0.0002). Finally, an imputation analysis using the 1,000 Genomes Project data combined with a functional prediction analysis revealed the presence of biologically relevant variants that correlate with the observed association signals. While the findings generated here warrant independent validation, the results of our large study suggest that ATM may be a novel locus associated with the risk of multiple subtypes of NHL.

Wilson-Edell KA, Kehasse A, Scott GK, et al.
RPL24: a potential therapeutic target whose depletion or acetylation inhibits polysome assembly and cancer cell growth.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(13):5165-76 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2016 Related Publications
Partial loss of large ribosomal subunit protein 24 (RPL24) function is known to protect mice against Akt or Myc-driven cancers, in part via translational inhibition of a subset of cap(eIF4E)-dependently translated mRNAs. The role of RPL24 in human malignancies is unknown. By analyzing a public dataset of matched human breast cancers and normal mammary tissue, we found that breast cancers express significantly more RPL24 than matched normal breast samples. Depletion of RPL24 in breast cancer cells by >70% reduced cell viability by 80% and decreased protein expression of the eIF4E-dependently translated proteins cyclin D1 (75%), survivin (46%) and NBS1 (30%) without altering GAPDH or beta-tubulin levels. RPL24 knockdown also reduced 80S subunit levels relative to 40S and 60S levels. These effects on expression of eIF4E-dependent proteins and ribosome assembly were mimicked by 2-24 h treatment with the pan-HDACi, trichostatin A (TSA), which induced acetylation of 15 different polysome-associated proteins including RPL24. Furthermore, HDAC6-selective inhibition or HDAC6 knockdown induced ribosomal protein acetylation. Via mass spectrometry, we found that 60S-associated, but not, polysome-associated, RPL24 undergoes HDACi-induced acetylation on K27. Thus, RPL24 K27 acetylation may play a role in ribosome assembly. These findings point toward a novel acetylation-dependent polysome assembly mechanism regulating tumorigenesis.

Tural D, Akar E, Mutlu H, Kilickap S
P95 HER2 fragments and breast cancer outcome.
Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 2014; 14(9):1089-96 [PubMed] Related Publications
HER2 is a 185-kDa transmembrane oncoprotein encoded by the HER2 gene. It is located on chromosome 17q21 and is overexpressed in approximately 15% of invasive breast cancers. In addition, it is a poor prognostic factor for survival and disease progression. Approximately 30% of HER2-positive tumors also express a series of carboxy-terminal HER2 fragments known as p95HER2, in addition to the full-length HER receptor. Previous studies have found that p95HER2 represents an independent prognostic marker in patients with HER2-positive disease. Moreover, p95HER2 status might be a decisive factor when choosing between different therapies because p95HER2 fragment-positive tumors are resistant to trastuzumab but respond to tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as lapatinib, as do p95HER2-negative tumors. p95HER2 fragments arise through at least two different mechanisms: proteolytic shedding of the full-length p185HER2 receptor extracellular domain and translation of HER2 mRNA from internal initiation codons. The present review is based primarily on recent studies suggesting p95HER2 constitutes a new surrogate marker for an aggressive HER2-positive breast cancer subtype with distinct clinical and biological features.

Schröder-Heurich B, Bogdanova N, Wieland B, et al.
Functional deficiency of NBN, the Nijmegen breakage syndrome protein, in a p.R215W mutant breast cancer cell line.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:434 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Mutations in NBN, the gene for Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome (NBS), are thought to predispose women to developing breast cancer, but a breast cancer cell line containing mutations in NBN has not yet been described. The p.R215W missense mutation occurs at sub-polymorphic frequencies in several populations. We aimed to investigate its functional impact in breast cancer cells from a carrier of this NBN mutation.
METHODS: Breast cancer cell lines were screened by immunoblotting for NBN protein levels, and the NBN coding region was sequenced for mutation analysis. Radiosensitivity assays and functional studies were performed through immunocytochemistry and immunoblotting, and flow cytometry was employed to assess cell cycle progression. Impedance measurements were used to study the consequences of PARP1 inhibition. Statistical comparisons between cell lines were performed using t-tests.
RESULTS: HCC1395 breast cancer cells exhibited reduced NBN protein levels. Direct sequencing identified the NBN p.R215W mutation in the hemizygous state, in addition to a truncation in BRCA1. Mutations in both genes were already present in the heterozygous state in the patient's germline. HCC1395 cells were highly radiosensitive, susceptible to apoptosis and were deficient in the formation of NBN foci. There was also evidence for some impairment in the formation of γH2AX, MDC1, and 53BP1 foci after irradiation; these foci appeared smaller and irregular compared with repair foci in wild-type cells, although ATM signalling was largely unaffected. In line with their deficiency in NBN and BRCA1, HCC1395 cells were particularly sensitive to PARP1 inhibition.
CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that the p.R215W mutation in the HCC1395 breast cancer cell line impairs NBN function, making this cell line a potentially useful cellular model for studying defective NBN protein within a mutant BRCA1 background.

Damiola F, Pertesi M, Oliver J, et al.
Rare key functional domain missense substitutions in MRE11A, RAD50, and NBN contribute to breast cancer susceptibility: results from a Breast Cancer Family Registry case-control mutation-screening study.
Breast Cancer Res. 2014; 16(3):R58 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2016 Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The MRE11A-RAD50-Nibrin (MRN) complex plays several critical roles related to repair of DNA double-strand breaks. Inherited mutations in the three components predispose to genetic instability disorders and the MRN genes have been implicated in breast cancer susceptibility, but the underlying data are not entirely convincing. Here, we address two related questions: (1) are some rare MRN variants intermediate-risk breast cancer susceptibility alleles, and if so (2) do the MRN genes follow a BRCA1/BRCA2 pattern wherein most susceptibility alleles are protein-truncating variants, or do they follow an ATM/CHEK2 pattern wherein half or more of the susceptibility alleles are missense substitutions?
METHODS: Using high-resolution melt curve analysis followed by Sanger sequencing, we mutation screened the coding exons and proximal splice junction regions of the MRN genes in 1,313 early-onset breast cancer cases and 1,123 population controls. Rare variants in the three genes were pooled using bioinformatics methods similar to those previously applied to ATM, BRCA1, BRCA2, and CHEK2, and then assessed by logistic regression.
RESULTS: Re-analysis of our ATM, BRCA1, and BRCA2 mutation screening data revealed that these genes do not harbor pathogenic alleles (other than modest-risk SNPs) with minor allele frequencies>0.1% in Caucasian Americans, African Americans, or East Asians. Limiting our MRN analyses to variants with allele frequencies of <0.1% and combining protein-truncating variants, likely spliceogenic variants, and key functional domain rare missense substitutions, we found significant evidence that the MRN genes are indeed intermediate-risk breast cancer susceptibility genes (odds ratio (OR)=2.88, P=0.0090). Key domain missense substitutions were more frequent than the truncating variants (24 versus 12 observations) and conferred a slightly higher OR (3.07 versus 2.61) with a lower P value (0.029 versus 0.14).
CONCLUSIONS: These data establish that MRE11A, RAD50, and NBN are intermediate-risk breast cancer susceptibility genes. Like ATM and CHEK2, their spectrum of pathogenic variants includes a relatively high proportion of missense substitutions. However, the data neither establish whether variants in each of the three genes are best evaluated under the same analysis model nor achieve clinically actionable classification of individual variants observed in this study.

Silva FC, Lisboa BC, Figueiredo MC, et al.
Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer: assessment of point mutations and copy number variations in Brazilian patients.
BMC Med Genet. 2014; 15:55 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Germ line mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) and other susceptibility genes have been identified as genetic causes of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC). To identify the disease-causing mutations in a cohort of 120 Brazilian women fulfilling criteria for HBOC, we carried out a comprehensive screening of BRCA1/2, TP53 R337H, CHEK2 1100delC, followed by an analysis of copy number variations in 14 additional breast cancer susceptibility genes (PTEN, ATM, NBN, RAD50, RAD51, BRIP1, PALB2, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, TP53, CDKN2A, CDH1 and CTNNB1).
METHODS: Capillary sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) were used for detecting point mutations and copy number variations (CNVs), respectively, for the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes; capillary sequencing was used for point mutation for both variants TP53 R337H and CHEK2 1100delC, and finally array comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) was used for identifying CNVs in the 14 additional genes.
RESULTS: The positive detection rate in our series was 26%. BRCA1 pathogenic mutations were found in 20 cases, including two cases with CNVs, whereas BRCA2 mutations were found in 7 cases. We also found three patients with the TP53 R337H mutation and one patient with the CHEK2 1100delC mutation. Seven (25%) pathogenic mutations in BRCA1/2 were firstly described, including a splice-site BRCA1 mutation for which pathogenicity was confirmed by the presence of an aberrant transcript showing the loss of the last 62 bp of exon 7. Microdeletions of exon 4 in ATM and exon 2 in PTEN were identified in BRCA2-mutated and BRCA1/2-negative patients, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: In summary, our results showed a high frequency of BRCA1/2 mutations and a higher prevalence of BRCA1 (64.5%) gene. Moreover, the detection of the TP53 R337H variant in our series and the fact that this variant has a founder effect in our population prompted us to suggest that all female breast cancer patients with clinical criteria for HBOC and negative for BRCA1/2 genes should be tested for the TP53 R337H variant. Furthermore, the presence of genomic structural rearrangement resulting in CNVs in other genes that predispose breast cancer in conjunction with BRCA2 point mutations demonstrated a highly complex genetic etiology in Brazilian breast cancer families.

Ong CA, Shannon NB, Ross-Innes CS, et al.
Amplification of TRIM44: pairing a prognostic target with potential therapeutic strategy.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2014; 106(5) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Many prognostic biomarkers have been proposed recently. However, there is a lack of therapeutic strategies exploiting novel prognostic biomarkers. We aimed to propose therapeutic options in patients with overexpression of TRIM44, a recently identified prognostic gene.
METHODS: Genomic and transcriptomic data of epithelial cancers (n = 1932), breast cancers (BCs; n = 1980) and esophago-gastric cancers (EGCs; n = 163) were used to identify genomic aberrations driving TRIM44 overexpression. The driver gene status of TRIM44 was determined using a small interfering RNA (siRNA) screen of the 11p13 amplicon. Integrative analysis was applied across multiple datasets to identify pathway activation and potential therapeutic strategies. Validation of the in silico findings were performed using in vitro assays, xenografts, and patient samples (n = 160).
RESULTS: TRIM44 overexpression results from genomic amplification in 16.1% of epithelial cancers, including 8.1% of EGCs and 6.1% of BCs. This was confirmed using fluorescent in situ hybridization. The siRNA screen confirmed TRIM44 to be a driver of the amplicon. In silico analysis revealed an association between TRIM44 and mTOR signalling, supported by a decrease in mTOR signalling after siRNA knockdown of TRIM44 in cell lines and colocalization of TRIM44 and p-mTOR in patient samples. In vitro inhibition studies using an mTOR inhibitor (everolimus) decreased cell viability in two TRIM44-amplified cells lines by 88% and 70% compared with 35% in the control cell line. These findings were recapitulated in xenograft models.
CONCLUSIONS: Genomic amplification drives TRIM44 overexpression in EGCs and BCs. Targeting the mTOR pathway provides a potential therapeutic option for TRIM44-amplified tumors.

Gao R, Singh R, Kaul Z, et al.
Targeting of DNA Damage Signaling Pathway Induced Senescence and Reduced Migration of Cancer cells.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2015; 70(6):701-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
The heat shock 70 family protein, mortalin, has pancytoplasmic distribution pattern in normal and perinuclear in cancer human cells. Cancer cells when induced to senesce by either chemicals or stress showed shift in mortalin staining pattern from perinuclear to pancytoplasmic type. Using such shift in mortalin staining as a reporter, we screened human shRNA library and identified nine senescence-inducing siRNA candidates. An independent Comparative Genomic Hybridization analysis of 35 breast cancer cell lines revealed that five (NBS1, BRCA1, TIN2, MRE11A, and KPNA2) of the nine genes located on chromosome regions identified as the gain of locus in more than 80% cell lines. By gene-specific PCR, these five genes were found to be frequently amplified in cancer cell lines. Bioinformatics revealed that the identified targets were connected to MRN (MRE11-RAD50-NBS1) complex, the DNA damage-sensing complex. We demonstrate that the identified shRNAs triggered DNA damage response and induced the expression of tumor suppressor protein p16(INK4A) causing growth arrest of cancer cells. Furthermore, cells showed decreased migration, mediated by decrease in matrix metalloproteases. Taken together, we demonstrate that the MRN complex is a potential target of cancer cell proliferation and migration, and staining pattern of mortalin could serve as an assay to identify senescence-inducing/anticancer reagents.

Yin T, Wang P, Li J, et al.
Tumor-penetrating codelivery of siRNA and paclitaxel with ultrasound-responsive nanobubbles hetero-assembled from polymeric micelles and liposomes.
Biomaterials. 2014; 35(22):5932-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
Drug resistance is a big problem in systemic chemotherapy of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and nanomedicines loaded with both chemotherapeutic agents (e.g. paclitaxel, PTX) and siRNA's targeting antiapoptosis genes (e.g. BCL-2) possess the advantages to simultaneously overcome the efflux pump-mediated drug resistance and antiapoptosis-related drug resistance. However, tumor-penetrating drug delivery with this type of nanomedicines is extremely difficult due to their relatively big size compared to the single drug-loaded nanomedicines. Aiming at address this problem, US-responsive nanobubbles encapsulating both anti-cancer drug paclitaxel (PTX) and siRNA (PTX-NBs/siRNA) for HCC treatment were developed by hetero-assembly of polymeric micelles and liposomes in the present study. Utilizing an external low-frequency US force imposed to the tumor site, effective tumor-penetrating codelivery of siRNA and PTX was achieved via tail vein injection of PTX-NBs/siRNA into nude mice bearing human HepG2 xerografts. Consequently, the PTX treatment-inducible antiapoptosis in HepG2 cells was effectively suppressed by the codelivered siRNA targeting an antiapoptosis gene (BCL-2 siRNA) during chemotherapy. Owing to the synergistic anti-cancer effect of two therapeutic agents, tumor growth was completely inhibited using low-dose PTX in animal study. Our results highlight the great potential of this type of US-responsive hetero-assemblies carrying both anti-cancer drug and siRNA as an effective nanomedicinal system for HCC therapy.

Ruggeri P, Farina AR, Di Ianni N, et al.
The TrkAIII oncoprotein inhibits mitochondrial free radical ROS-induced death of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells by augmenting SOD2 expression and activity at the mitochondria, within the context of a tumour stem cell-like phenotype.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(4):e94568 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2016 Related Publications
The developmental and stress-regulated alternative TrkAIII splice variant of the NGF receptor TrkA is expressed by advanced stage human neuroblastomas (NBs), correlates with worse outcome in high TrkA expressing unfavourable tumours and exhibits oncogenic activity in NB models. In the present study, we report that constitutive TrkAIII expression in human SH-SY5Y NB cells inhibits Rotenone, Paraquat and LY83583-induced mitochondrial free radical reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated death by stimulating SOD2 expression, increasing mitochondrial SOD2 activity and attenuating mitochondrial free radical ROS production, in association with increased mitochondrial capacity to produce H2O2, within the context of a more tumour stem cell-like phenotype. This effect can be reversed by the specific TrkA tyrosine kinase inhibitor GW441756, by the multi-kinase TrkA inhibitors K252a, CEP-701 and Gö6976, which inhibit SOD2 expression, and by siRNA knockdown of SOD2 expression, which restores the sensitivity of TrkAIII expressing SH-SY5Y cells to Rotenone, Paraquat and LY83583-induced mitochondrial free radical ROS production and ROS-mediated death. The data implicate the novel TrkAIII/SOD2 axis in promoting NB resistance to mitochondrial free radical-mediated death and staminality, and suggest that the combined use of TrkAIII and/or SOD2 inhibitors together with agents that induce mitochondrial free radical ROS-mediated death could provide a therapeutic advantage that may also target the stem cell niche in high TrkA expressing unfavourable NB.

Kurian AW, Hare EE, Mills MA, et al.
Clinical evaluation of a multiple-gene sequencing panel for hereditary cancer risk assessment.
J Clin Oncol. 2014; 32(19):2001-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2016 Related Publications
PURPOSE: Multiple-gene sequencing is entering practice, but its clinical value is unknown. We evaluated the performance of a customized germline-DNA sequencing panel for cancer-risk assessment in a representative clinical sample.
METHODS: Patients referred for clinical BRCA1/2 testing from 2002 to 2012 were invited to donate a research blood sample. Samples were frozen at -80° C, and DNA was extracted from them after 1 to 10 years. The entire coding region, exon-intron boundaries, and all known pathogenic variants in other regions were sequenced for 42 genes that had cancer risk associations. Potentially actionable results were disclosed to participants.
RESULTS: In total, 198 women participated in the study: 174 had breast cancer and 57 carried germline BRCA1/2 mutations. BRCA1/2 analysis was fully concordant with prior testing. Sixteen pathogenic variants were identified in ATM, BLM, CDH1, CDKN2A, MUTYH, MLH1, NBN, PRSS1, and SLX4 among 141 women without BRCA1/2 mutations. Fourteen participants carried 15 pathogenic variants, warranting a possible change in care; they were invited for targeted screening recommendations, enabling early detection and removal of a tubular adenoma by colonoscopy. Participants carried an average of 2.1 variants of uncertain significance among 42 genes.
CONCLUSION: Among women testing negative for BRCA1/2 mutations, multiple-gene sequencing identified 16 potentially pathogenic mutations in other genes (11.4%; 95% CI, 7.0% to 17.7%), of which 15 (10.6%; 95% CI, 6.5% to 16.9%) prompted consideration of a change in care, enabling early detection of a precancerous colon polyp. Additional studies are required to quantify the penetrance of identified mutations and determine clinical utility. However, these results suggest that multiple-gene sequencing may benefit appropriately selected patients.

Li J, Zou WX, Chang KS
Inhibition of Sp1 functions by its sequestration into PML nuclear bodies.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(4):e94450 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2016 Related Publications
Promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML NBs) are comprised of PML and a striking variety of its associated proteins. Various cellular functions have been attributed to PML NBs, including the regulation of gene expression. We report here that induced expression of PML recruits Sp1 into PML NBs, leading to the reduction of Sp1 transactivation function. Specifically, Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay demonstrated that induced expression of PML significantly diminishes the amount of Sp1 binding to its target gene promoter, immunofluorescence staining showed dramatic increase in the co-localization between PML and Sp1 upon induction of PML expression, moreover, PML and Sp1 co-fractionated in the core nuclear matrix. Our study further showed that PML promotes SUMOylation of Sp1 in a RING-motif-dependent manner, SUMOylation of Sp1 facilitates physical interaction between Sp1 and PML and recruitment of Sp1 into the PML NBs, the SUMO binding motif of PML was also important for its interaction with Sp1. The results of this study demonstrate a novel mechanism by which PML regulates gene expression through sequestration of the transcription factor into PML NBs.

Jiang YH, Xu XL, Ruan HH, et al.
The impact of functional LIG4 polymorphism on platinum-based chemotherapy response and survival in non-small cell lung cancer.
Med Oncol. 2014; 31(5):959 [PubMed] Related Publications
DNA repair capacity is correlated with the sensitivity of cancer cells toward platinum-based chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to investigate whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DNA repair genes NBS1, LIG4, and RAD51 were correlated with tumor response in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients in a Chinese population who received platinum-based chemotherapy. The treatment outcomes of 146 advanced NSCLC patients who were treated with platinum-based chemotherapy were evaluated. The polymorphic status of three SNPs was determined by genotyping via the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Forty-five patients in the group with the CC genotype (45/90) showed a good response to treatment, while only 18 patients in the CT+TT group (18/55) showed a good response, indicating a substantial differences in the chemotherapy response rate based on the LIG4 Thr9Ile polymorphism (P = 0.042). Patients with the GG genotype for the NSB1 Glu185Gln polymorphism were more sensitive to platinum-based chemotherapy compared with patients with either the CG or CC genotype (P = 0.001). Kaplan-Meier analysis of all patients showed a significant association between the LIG4 Thr9Ile CC polymorphism and superior progression-free survival and overall survival (log-rank P = 0.045 and 0.031, respectively). However, there were no significant differences in survival based on the LIG4 Thr9Ile or the RAD51 135G>C polymorphisms. Polymorphisms in the NSB1 and LIG4 genes may be a predictive marker for treatment response and for advanced NSCLC patients in stage IIIB + IV. The CC genotype of the LIG4 Thr9Ile polymorphism may also serve as an independent prognosis factor.

Wu G, Diaz AK, Paugh BS, et al.
The genomic landscape of diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma and pediatric non-brainstem high-grade glioma.
Nat Genet. 2014; 46(5):444-50 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2016 Related Publications
Pediatric high-grade glioma (HGG) is a devastating disease with a less than 20% survival rate 2 years after diagnosis. We analyzed 127 pediatric HGGs, including diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs) and non-brainstem HGGs (NBS-HGGs), by whole-genome, whole-exome and/or transcriptome sequencing. We identified recurrent somatic mutations in ACVR1 exclusively in DIPGs (32%), in addition to previously reported frequent somatic mutations in histone H3 genes, TP53 and ATRX, in both DIPGs and NBS-HGGs. Structural variants generating fusion genes were found in 47% of DIPGs and NBS-HGGs, with recurrent fusions involving the neurotrophin receptor genes NTRK1, NTRK2 and NTRK3 in 40% of NBS-HGGs in infants. Mutations targeting receptor tyrosine kinase-RAS-PI3K signaling, histone modification or chromatin remodeling, and cell cycle regulation were found in 68%, 73% and 59% of pediatric HGGs, respectively, including in DIPGs and NBS-HGGs. This comprehensive analysis provides insights into the unique and shared pathways driving pediatric HGG within and outside the brainstem.

Kocar M, Bozkurtlar E, Telli F, et al.
p95-HER2 and trastuzumab resistance in metastatic breast cancer; is immunohistochemistry appropriate?
J BUON. 2014 Jan-Mar; 19(1):245-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Unraveling the mechanisms underlying the resistance to trastuzumab is important for amending the prognosis of patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positive metastatic breast cancer. Experimentally, it has been shown that p95-HER2 positive breast tumors are resistant to trastuzumab. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive and prognostic importance of p95-HER2 expression by immunohistochemistry in HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer patients treated with trastuzumab.
METHODS: Only patients who had a histological diagnosis of HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer and who had received first line therapy containing trastuzumab were enrolled in the study. Immunohistochemistry was used to analyze p95-HER2 expression in the tissue blocks of the patients.
RESULTS: The study was performed on 38 patients aged between 30 and 84 years. In 14 patients (36.8%), p95-HER2 was positive, whereas it was negative in the remaining 24 patients (63.2%). There was no significant correlation between p95-HER2 expression and overall survival, response to trastuzumab, and progression-free survival (PFS).
CONCLUSION: Unlike previous reports, there was no correlation between the p95-HER2 expression and resistance to trastuzumab. It may be argued that an analysis using immunohistochemistry is inadequate for determining p95- HER2. In order to ascertain whether immunohistochemistry is an appropriate method, studies with larger patient groups are needed.

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