Research IndicatorsGraph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (8)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: NDRG2 (cancer-related)
Kolodziej MA, Weischer C, Reinges MH, et al.NDRG2 and NDRG4 Expression Is Altered in Glioblastoma and Influences Survival in Patients with MGMT-methylated Tumors.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(3):887-97 [PubMed
] Related Publications
AIM: The N-myc down-regulated gene (NDRG) family is a group of genes that have predominantly tumor-suppressive effects. The goal of this study was to investigate the expression of NDRG2 and NDRG4 in surgical specimens of human glioblastoma and in normal brain tissue, and to search for correlations with overall (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Samples from 44 patients (31 males, 13 females; mean age±SD=57.4±15.7 years) with primary (n=40) or recurrent glioblastoma (n=4) were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, with dimensionless semiquantitative immunoreactivity score (IRS), ranging from 0-30] for expression of NDRG2 and NDRG4. Five non-tumorous autopsy brain specimens were used as controls.
RESULTS: On the protein level, expression of NDRG2 was significantly down-regulated in glioblastoma (IRS=3.5±3.0 vs. 8.8±3.3; p=0.001), while expression of NDRG4 was significantly up-regulated (IRS=5.4±3.7 vs. 0.75±0.4 vs, p<0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in PFS between a group of 15 patients with glioblastoma with MGMT methylation and enhanced expression of NDRG4 mRNA who were treated with adjuvant radiochemotherapy (temozolomide and 60 Gy) and a group of patients with low expression of NDRG4 mRNA [10 (range=5.5-14.2) months vs. 21 (range=10.7-31.3) months] (p=0.13).
CONCLUSION: Expression of both NDRG2 and NDRG4 genes is significantly altered in glioblastomas. PFS among the patients with glioblastoma with MGMT methylation treated with radiochemotherapy differed significantly in high-expression groups compared to patients without MGMT methlation and without radiochemotherapy (p<0.05).
Yin A, Wang C, Sun J, et al.Overexpression of NDRG2 Increases Iodine Uptake and Inhibits Thyroid Carcinoma Cell Growth In Situ and In Vivo.
Oncol Res. 2016; 23(1-2):43-51 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is an uncommon and highly aggressive tumor of the neuroendocrine system, which derives from the neuroendocrine C cells of the thyroid gland. Except for surgical resection, there are not very many effective systemic treatment options for MTC. N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) had a significantly lower expression in MTC compared with normal thyroid tissue. However, the function of NDRG2 in MTC oncogenesis is largely unknown. In this study, we found that overexpression of NDRG2 inhibited the proliferation of TT cells (human medullary thyroid carcinoma cells) in vitro and suppressed the development of MTC in a nude mouse xenograft model. Further analysis revealed that NDRG2 arrested the cell cycle G0/G1 phase progression and induced TT cell apoptosis. Moreover, NDRG2 overexpression may mediate the antiproliferative effect by reducing cyclin D1 and cyclin E protein levels. We also found aberrant NDRG2-mitigated TT cell migration and invasion in vitro. Sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) mediates active I(-) transport into the thyroid follicular cells, and radionuclide treatment is a promising therapy for MTC. Our current data revealed that NDRG2 overexpression enhanced NIS level in TT cells and increased their iodine uptake in vitro. Furthermore, (99m)TcO4(-) radionuclide imaging of the xenograft tumors indicated that NDRG2 could promote NIS-mediated radionuclide transport. In conclusion, the present study suggested that NDRG2 is a critical molecule in the regulation of MTC biological behavior and a potential promoter in radioactive iodine therapy.
Gödeke J, Luxenburger E, Trippel F, et al.Low expression of N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) correlates with poor prognosis in hepatoblastoma.
Hepatol Int. 2016; 10(2):370-6 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: Despite tremendous progress in therapy, about 30% of patients with hepatoblastoma still succumb to the disease. Thus, the development of improved therapies as well as the identification of prognostic factors are urgently needed.
METHODS: In the present study, expression and promoter methylation of the N-myc downstream-regulated gene (NDRG2), a tumor suppressor gene contributing to the regulation of the Wnt signalling pathway, was analysed in 38 hepatoblastoma samples by real-time reverse transcription-PCR and pyrosequencing, respectively.
RESULTS: The NDRG2 gene was highly expressed in normal pediatric liver tissue, but was significantly downregulated in heptoblastoma primary tumors. Detailed methylation analysis of CpG sites in the NDRG2 promoter region revealed a general high degree of DNA methylation in hepatoblastoma, which correlated with the suppression of NDRG2. By analyzing clinicopathological features we could demonstrate a strong association between low NDRG2 expression and tumor metastasis. Importantly, the overall survival analysis by Kaplan-Meier revealed that high NDRG2 expression was correlated with a higher survival rate in hepatoblastoma patients.
CONCLUSION: Our data show that downregulation of NDRG2 may play an important role in advanced hepatoblastomas.
N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) is a tumor suppressor and cell stress-related gene. NDRG2 is associated with tumor incidence, progression, and metastasis. NDRG2 regulates tumor-associated genes and is regulated by multiple conditions, treatments, and protein/RNA entities, including hyperthermia, trichostatin A and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, which are promising potential cancer therapeutics. In this review, we discuss the expression as well as the clinical and pathological significance of NDRG2 in cancer. The pathological processes and molecular pathways regulated by NDRG2 are also summarized. Moreover, mechanisms for increasing NDRG2 expression in tumors and the potential directions of future NDRG2 research are discussed. The information reviewed here should assist in experimental design and increase the potential of NDRG2 as a therapeutic target for cancer.
Cancer cells use glucose and glutamine as the major sources of energy and precursor intermediates, and enhanced glycolysis and glutamimolysis are the major hallmarks of metabolic reprogramming in cancer. Oncogene activation and tumor suppressor gene inactivation alter multiple intracellular signaling pathways that affect glycolysis and glutaminolysis. N-Myc downstream regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) is a tumor suppressor gene inhibiting cancer growth, metastasis and invasion. However, the role and molecular mechanism of NDRG2 in cancer metabolism remains unclear. In this study, we discovered the role of the tumor suppressor gene NDRG2 in aerobic glycolysis and glutaminolysis of cancer cells. NDRG2 inhibited glucose consumption and lactate production, glutamine consumption and glutamate production in colorectal cancer cells. Analysis of glucose transporters and the catalytic enzymes involved in glycolysis revealed that glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), hexokinase 2 (HK2), pyruvate kinase M2 isoform (PKM2) and lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) was significantly suppressed by NDRG2. Analysis of glutamine transporter and the catalytic enzymes involved in glutaminolysis revealed that glutamine transporter ASC amino-acid transporter 2 (ASCT2) and glutaminase 1 (GLS1) was also significantly suppressed by NDRG2. Transcription factor c-Myc mediated inhibition of glycolysis and glutaminolysis by NDRG2. More importantly, NDRG2 inhibited the expression of c-Myc by suppressing the expression of β-catenin, which can transcriptionally activate C-MYC gene in nucleus. In addition, the growth and proliferation of colorectal cancer cells were suppressed significantly by NDRG2 through inhibition of glycolysis and glutaminolysis. Taken together, these findings indicate that NDRG2 functions as an essential regulator in glycolysis and glutaminolysis via repression of c-Myc, and acts as a suppressor of carcinogenesis through coordinately targeting glucose and glutamine transporter, multiple catalytic enzymes involved in glycolysis and glutaminolysis, which fuels the bioenergy and biomaterials needed for cancer proliferation and progress.
Lee DG, Lee SH, Kim JS, et al.Loss of NDRG2 promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition of gallbladder carcinoma cells through MMP-19-mediated Slug expression.
J Hepatol. 2015; 63(6):1429-39 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) is the most common malignancy of the biliary tract and one of the most lethal forms of human cancer. However, there is limited information about the molecular pathogenesis of GBC. Here, we examined the functional role of the tumor suppressor N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) and the underlying molecular mechanisms of disease progression in GBC.
METHODS: Clinical correlations between NDRG2 expression and clinicopathological factors were determined by immunohistochemical analysis of tumor tissues from 86 GBC patients. Biological functions of NDRG2 and NDRG2-mediated signaling pathways were determined in GBC cell lines with NDRG2 knockdown or overexpression.
RESULTS: Loss of NDRG2 expression was an independent predictor of decreased survival and was significantly associated with a more advanced T stage, higher cellular grade, and lymphatic invasion in patients with GBC. GBC cells with loss of NDRG2 expression showed significantly enhanced proliferation, migration, and invasiveness in vitro, and tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. Loss of NDRG2 induced the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-19 (MMP-19), which regulated the expression of Slug at the transcriptional level. In addition, MMP-19-induced Slug, increased the expression of a receptor tyrosine kinase, Axl, which maintained Slug expression through a positive feedback loop, and stabilized epithelial-mesenchymal transition of GBC cells.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study help to explain why the loss of NDRG2 expression is closely correlated with malignancy of GBC. These results strongly suggest that NDRG2 could be a favorable prognostic indicator and promising target for therapeutic agents against GBC.
The activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling has a central role in the development of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and many other cancers. However, the activation mechanism of the NF-κB pathways remains poorly understood. Recently, we reported that N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) is a negative regulator of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway by promoting the active dephosphorylated form of PTEN at its C-terminus via the recruitment of PP2A. Additionally, the down-regulation of NDRG2 expression promotes the inactive phosphorylated form of PTEN, which results in constitutively active PI3K/AKT signaling in various cancer cell types. Here, we investigated the involvement of NDRG2 in modulating NF-κB signaling. The forced expression of NDRG2 in ATL cells down-regulates not only the canonical pathway by inhibiting AKT signaling but also the non-canonical pathway by inducing NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK) dephosphorylation via the recruitment of PP2A. Therefore, NDRG2 works as a PP2A recruiter to suppress not only PI3K/AKT signaling but also NF-κB signaling, which is particularly important in host defenses or immune responses to Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection. Furthermore, the loss of NDRG2 expression might play an important role in the progression of tumor development after HTLV-1 infection.
Hong SN, Kim SJ, Kim ER, et al.Epigenetic silencing of NDRG2 promotes colorectal cancer proliferation and invasion.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2016; 31(1):164-71 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Genome-wide methylation arrays have revealed aberrant methylation of N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) promoter in colorectal cancer (CRC). This study investigated the role of NDRG2 in colorectal carcinogenesis.
METHODS: The aberrant promoter methylation, mRNA, and protein expression of NDRG2 were evaluated in 27 pairs of human CRC and adjacent normal tissues and seven human CRC-derived cell-lines. After stable NDRG2 over-expressed RKO and DLD-1 human CRC cell-lines were constructed, in vitro functional assays, including colony formation, cell viability, proliferation, invasion and migration assays, and in vivo xenograft models were performed.
RESULTS: The promoter of NDRG2 was methylated in 89% human CRC tissue compared to adjacent normal colonic mucosa (7.4%; P < 0.001). High-level methylation of NDRG2 promoter was more prevalent in proximal CRC (P = 0.022) and advanced T stage (P = 0.039). NDRG2 mRNA and protein expression was down-regulated in 89% and 100% human CRC tissue, respectively. In human CRC cell-lines, the promoter of NDRG2 was methylated aberrantly and mRNA, and protein expression of NDRG2 was down-regulated. NDRG2 mRNA expression was reactivated by 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. Colony formation of NDRG2 over-expressing RKO cells was inhibited (P = 0.012), as was the viability, proliferation, and invasion of NDRG2 over-expressing DLD-1 cells (P < 0.001, P = 0.003, and P = 0.044, respectively). Tumor volume in xenograft mice transplanted with NDRG2 over-expressing RKO and DLD-1 cells was smaller than that in controls (P = 0.002 and P = 0.001, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: Epigenetic silencing of NDRG2 induces proliferation and invasion of CRC and may be associated with proximal CRC and advanced T stage. NDRG2 methylation might serve as novel biomarker of CRC.
Tsui KH, Hsu SY, Chung LC, et al.Growth differentiation factor-15: a p53- and demethylation-upregulating gene represses cell proliferation, invasion, and tumorigenesis in bladder carcinoma cells.
Sci Rep. 2015; 5:12870 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF15), a member of the TGF-β superfamily, affects tumor biology of certain cancers, but remains poorly understood in bladder cancer cells. This study determined the expression, regulation, function, and potential downstream target genes of GDF15 in bladder carcinoma cells. The transitional papilloma carcionoma cells (RT4) expressed higher levels of GDF15 as compared with the bladder carcinoma cells (HT1376 and T24). Treatments of recombinant human GDF15 (rhGDF15) reduced the proliferations of HT1376 and T24 cells. Expression of GDF15 was upregulated via DNA demethylation and p53. The cell proliferation, invasion, and tumorigenesis were reduced in ectopic overexpression of GDF15, while enhanced in GDF15 knockdown. The expressions of mammary serine protease inhibitor (MASPIN) and N-myc downstream-regulated family genes (NDRG1, NDRG2, and NDRG3) were upregulated by GDF15 overexpressions and rhGDF15 treatments in bladder carcinoma cells. GDF15 knockdown induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and F-actin polarization in HT1376 cells. Our results suggest that enhanced expressions of MASPIN and N-myc downstream-regulated family genes and the modulation of EMT may account for the inhibitory functions of GDF15 in the cell proliferation, invasion, and tumorigenesis of bladder carcinoma cells. The GDF15 should be considered as a tumor suppressor in human bladder carcinoma cells.
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have revealed the potential roles of intelectin 1 (ITLN1) in tumorigenesis. However, its functions and underlying mechanisms in neuroblastoma (NB), the most common extracranial solid tumor in childhood, still remain largely unknown.
METHODS: Human neuroblastoma cell lines were treated with recombinant ITLN1 protein or stably transfected with ITLN1 expression and short hairpin RNA vectors. Gene expression and signaling pathway were detected by western blot and real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Gene promoter activity and transcription factor binding were detected by luciferase reporter and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Growth and aggressiveness of tumor cells were measured by MTT colorimetry, colony formation, scratch assay, matrigel invasion assay, and nude mice model.
RESULTS: Mining of public microarray databases revealed that N-myc downstream regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) was significantly correlated with ITLN1 in NB. Gain- and loss-of-function studies indicated that secretory ITLN1 facilitated the NDRG2 expression, resulting in down-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), in NB cell lines SH-SY5Y, SK-N-BE(2), and SK-N-SH. Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4), a transcription factor crucial for NDRG2 expression, was up-regulated by ITLN1 in NB cells via inactivation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling. Ectopic expression of ITLN1 suppressed the growth, invasion and metastasis of NB cells in vitro and in vivo. Conversely, knockdown of ITLN1 promoted the growth, invasion, and metastasis of NB cells. In addition, rescue experiments in ITLN1 over-expressed or silenced NB cells showed that restoration of NDRG2 expression prevented the tumor cells from ITLN1-mediated changes in these biological features. In clinical NB tissues, ITLN1 was down-regulated and positively correlated with NDRG2 expression. Patients with high ITLN1 or NDRG2 expression had greater survival probability.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that ITLN1 functions as a tumor suppressor that affects the growth, invasion and metastasis of NB through up-regulation of NDRG2.
N-myc downstream regulated gene 2 (Ndrg2) is a candidate suppressor of cancer metastasis. We found that Ndrg2 promoter was frequently hypermethylated in gastric cancer cell lines and in 292 gastric tumor tissues. This resulted in down-regulation of Ndrg2 mRNA and protein. Ndrg2 promoter methylation was associated with H. pylori infection and worse prognosis of gastric cancer patients, which is an independent prognostic factor for the disease-free survival (DFS). We found that H. pylori silenced Ndrg2 by activating the NF-κB pathway and up-regulating DNMT3b, promoting gastric cancer progression. These findings uncover a previously unrecognized role for H. pylori infection in gastric cancer.
Yu C, Wu G, Li R, et al.NDRG2 acts as a negative regulator downstream of androgen receptor and inhibits the growth of androgen-dependent and castration-resistant prostate cancer.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2015; 16(2):287-96 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Castration resistance is a major issue during castration therapy for prostate cancer and thus more effective treatment are needed for castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). NDRG2 (N-Myc downstream regulated gene 2), a recently identified tumor suppressor, was previously shown to inhibit the proliferation and invasion of prostate cancer, but whether NDRG2 is involved in CRPC remains to be known. Because androgen receptor (AR) axis plays an important role in castration resistance, we evaluate the role of NDRG2 in AR signaling and CRPC. Immunohistochemistry examination of prostate cancer tissues demonstrated that the expression of NDRG2 is negatively correlated with that of AR and c-Myc. Furthermore, AR negatively regulates NDRG2, as well as alters levels of c-Myc and prostate specific antigen (PSA). Forced expression of NDRG2 significantly inhibits the in vitro growth of androgen-dependent and castration-resistant prostate cancer cells; this was accompanied by alterations in PSA, but not by those of AR and c-Myc. Finally, by mimicking castration therapy in a xenograft mouse model, we showed that lentivirus-mediated NDRG2 overexpression efficiently overcomes castration resistance. Thus, by acting as a negative regulator downstream of AR, NDRG2 may emerge as a potential therapy molecule for CRPC.
Majchrzak-Celińska A, Paluszczak J, Szalata M, et al.DNA methylation analysis of benign and atypical meningiomas: correlation between RUNX3 methylation and WHO grade.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2015; 141(9):1593-601 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Although meningiomas are common central nervous system tumors, the biomarkers allowing early diagnosis and progression are still needed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the methylation status of 12 cancer-related genes, namely ERCC1, hMLH1, ATM, CDKN2B (p15INK4B), p14ARF, CDKN2A (p16INK4A), RASSF1A, RUNX3, GATA6, NDRG2, PTEN, and RARβ, in 44 meningioma samples of WHO grade I and II.
METHODS: All genes were analyzed using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction, while pyrosequencing (PSQ) was used to study NDRG2 promoter methylation.
RESULTS: The most frequently methylated genes in both types of meningiomas were p14ARF, RASSF1A, and p15INK4B. RUNX3, GATA6, and p16INK4A were methylated to a lesser extent, whereas ATM and RARβ were found to be methylated in a marginal number of patients. The ERCC1, hMLH1, NDRG2, and PTEN genes were unmethylated in all cases. Although tumors of the same grade according to WHO criteria had different genes methylated, the number of methylated genes for each individual patient was low. RUNX3 methylation significantly correlated with meningioma WHO grade, therefore, can be considered as a potential indicator of tumor aggressiveness. The sequence of NDRG2 chosen for PSQ analysis was found methylated in the majority of meningiomas; however, the methylation level was only slightly elevated as compared to non-cancerous brain.
CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the results of this study confirm that DNA methylation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of meningiomas. Further investigations, particularly concerning RUNX3 methylation, are necessary in order to assess the clinical usefulness of the methylation analysis of the studied genes.
Majchrzak-Celińska A, Paluszczak J, Szalata M, et al.The methylation of a panel of genes differentiates low-grade from high-grade gliomas.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(5):3831-41 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Epigenetic changes play an important role in the pathogenesis of gliomas and have the potential to become clinically useful biomarkers. The aim of this study was the evaluation of the profile of promoter methylation of 13 genes selected based on their anticipated diagnostic and/or prognostic value. Methylation-specific PCR (MSP) was used to assess the methylation status of MGMT, ERCC1, hMLH1, ATM, CDKN2B (p15INK4B), p14ARF, CDKN2A (p16INK4A), RASSF1A, RUNX3, GATA6, NDRG2, PTEN, and RARβ in a subset of 95 gliomas of different grades. Additionally, the methylation status of MGMT and NDRG2 was analyzed using pyrosequencing (PSQ). The results revealed that the methylation index of individual glioma patients correlates with World Health Organization (WHO) tumor grade and patient's age. RASSF1A, RUNX3, GATA6, and MGMT were most frequently methylated, whereas the INK4B-ARF-INK4A locus, PTEN, RARβ, and ATM were methylated to a lesser extent. ERCC1, hMLH1, and NDRG2 were unmethylated. RUNX3 methylation correlated with WHO tumor grade and patient's age. PSQ confirmed significantly higher methylation levels of MGMT and NDRG2 as compared with normal, non-cancerous brain tissue. To conclude, DNA methylation of a whole panel of selected genes can serve as a tool for glioma aggressiveness prediction.
Liao H, Wu Z, Huang X, et al.N‑Myc downstream‑regulated gene 2 suppresses proliferation and induces oncosis of OS‑RC‑2 human renal cancer cells.
Mol Med Rep. 2015; 11(2):1240-5 [PubMed
] Related Publications
V‑myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (Myc) regulates cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis in several types of cancer. N‑myc downstream‑regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) is known to exhibit reduced expression in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) tissues compared with adjacent non‑neoplastic tissues and is an independent poor prognostic factor predicting survival in RCC. In the present study, green fluorescent protein (GFP)‑NDRG2 and control GFP recombinant adenovirus plasmids were constructed and used to infect human renal cancer (OS‑RC‑2) cells. NDRG2 expression was measured using western blot analysis and the subcellular localization of NDRG2 was detected using confocal microscopy. The rate of proliferation of the cells was measured using colony formation and MTT assays, and the cell cycle was analyzed using flow cytometry. The results showed that the OS‑RC‑2 cells expressed little NDRG2 prior to infection with GFP‑NDRG2 recombinant adenovirus; however, following infection, NDRG2 was found to be overexpressed, primarily in the mitochondria. The proliferation rate of the OS‑RC‑2 cells was reduced by NDRG2. Approximately 84.8% of the NDRG2‑expressing cells were in S phase compared with 58.7% in the control virus‑infected cells (P<0.05). In addition, the upregulation of NDRG2 induced a higher proportion of OS‑RC‑2 cells to undergo oncosis instead of apoptosis. In conclusion, the results from this study suggest that NDRG2 expressed in mitochondria may arrest renal cancer cells in S phase, decrease cell proliferation and induce oncosis. This indicates that NDRG2 is not only a biomarker, but may also be a therapeutic target for the treatment of RCC.
Li B, Shao Q, Ji D, et al.Combined aberrant expression of N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 2 and CD24 is associated with disease-free survival and overall survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.
Diagn Pathol. 2014; 9:209 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2), as a tumor suppressor, has been demonstrated to inhibit tumor invasion and migration of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by reducing the expression of CD24, which has been identified as a prognostic factor for HCC patients. However, the clinical significance of combined NDRG2 and CD24 expression in HCC remains unclear. Thus, the aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship of NDRG2 and CD24 expression with clinicopathological parameters and patients' survival.
METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect the expression and subcellular localizations of NDRG2 and CD24 proteins in 130 pairs of HCC and adjacent nonneoplastic liver tissues.
RESULTS: NDRG2 protein was strongly expressed in the cytoplasm and plasma membrane of hepatocytes in adjacent nonneoplastic liver tissues, whereas its immunostaining was weak or negative in HCC tissues. In contrast, CD24 protein exhibited the cytoplasm immunostaining in tumor cells of HCC tissues but showed negative expression in adjacent nonneoplastic liver tissues. The statistical analysis also showed that the expression levels of NDRG2 and CD24 proteins in HCC tissues were respectively lower and higher than those in adjacent nonneoplastic liver tissues significantly (both P<0.001). In addition, there was an inverse correlation between NDRG2 expression and CD24 expression in HCC tissues (P=0.02). Moreover, combined NDRG2 downregulation and CD24 upregulation (NDRG2-low/CD24-high) more frequently occurred in HCC tissues with high serum AFP (P=0.03), advanced tumor stage (P=0.001) and high tumor grade (P=0.02). Furthermore, HCC patients with NDRG2-low/CD24-high expression showed shortest 5-year disease-free survival and 5-year overall survival (both P<0.001) of four groups (NDRG2-low/CD24-high, NDRG2-low/CD24-low, NDRG2-high/CD24-high, NDRG2-high/CD24-low). Of note, the multivariate survival analysis showed that the combined aberrant expression of NDRG2 and CD24 proteins was an independent prognostic factor for both 5-year disease-free survival and 5-year overall survival (both P=0.01) in HCC.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the downregulation of NDRG2 combined with the upregulation of CD24 may play a synergistic role in the occurrence and progression of HCC. A combined detection of NDRG2/CD24 expression may benefit us in determining the prognosis in patients with HCC.
VIRTUAL SLIDES: The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/13000_2014_209.
Here we showed that hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines with high metastatic potential had low levels of NDRG2. The iron chelator Dp44mT up-regulated NDRG2, suppressed epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and inhibited tumor metastasis in HCC having high metastatic potential. Also Dp44mT attenuated the TGF-β1-induced EMT in HCC having low metastatic potential. In agreement, silencing endogenous NDRG2 with shNDRG2 in HCC cells attenuated the effect of Dp44mT. We showed that the NDRG2/gp130/STAT3 pathway can mediate Dp44mT effects. In agreement, we found that a combination of NDRG2 expression and p-STAT3 levels is a strong predictor of prognosis in HCC patients. We suggest that up-regulation of NDRG2 by Dp44mT is a promising therapeutic approach in HCC.
N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2), which is known to have tumor suppressor functions, is frequently down-regulated in breast cancers and potentially involved in preventing the migration and invasion of malignant tumor cells. In the present study, we examined the inhibitory effects of NDRG2 overexpression, specifically focusing on the role of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the migration of breast cancer cells. NDRG2 overexpression in MDA-MB-231 cells inhibited the expression of the COX-2 mRNA and protein, the transcriptional activity of COX-2, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production, which were induced by a treatment with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA). Nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling attenuated by NDRG2 expression resulted in a decrease in PMA-induced COX-2 expression. Interestingly, the inhibition of COX-2 strongly suppressed PMA-stimulated migration and invasion in MDA-MB-231-NDRG2 cells. Moreover, siRNA-mediated knockdown of NDRG2 in MCF7 cells increased the COX-2 mRNA and protein expression levels and the PMA-induced COX-2 expression levels. Consistent with these results, the migration and invasion of MCF7 cells treated with NDRG2 siRNA were significantly enhanced following treatment with PMA. Taken together, our data show that the inhibition of NF-κB signaling by NDRG2 expression is able to suppress cell migration and invasion through the down-regulation of COX-2 expression.
Kim MJ, Lim J, Yang Y, et al.N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) suppresses the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in breast cancer cells via STAT3/Snail signaling.
Cancer Lett. 2014; 354(1):33-42 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Although NDRG2 has recently been found to be a candidate tumor suppressor, its precise role in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is not well understood. In the present study, we demonstrated that NDRG2 overexpression in MDA-MB-231 cells down-regulated the expression of Snail, a transcriptional repressor of E-cadherin and a key regulator of EMT, as well as the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), an oncogenic transcription factor that is activated in many human malignancies including breast cancer. In addition, we confirmed that the expression of Snail and phospho-STAT3 was recovered when NDRG2 was knocked down by siRNA in MCF7 cells in which NDRG2 is endogenously expressed. Interestingly, MDA-MB-231-NDRG2 cells showed remarkably decreased Snail expression after treatment with JSI-124 (also known as cucurbitacin I) or Stattic, STAT3 inhibitors, compared to MDA-MB-231-mock cells. Moreover, STAT3 activation by EGF treatment induced higher Snail expression, and NDRG2 overexpression resulted in the inhibition of Snail expression in MDA-MB-231 cells stimulated by EGF in the absence or presence of STAT3 inhibitor. Treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells with STAT3 inhibitor led to a moderate decrease in wound healing and migration capacity, whereas STAT3 inhibitor treatment of MDA-MB-231-NDRG2 cells resulted in a significant attenuation of migration in both resting and EGF-stimulated cells. Collectively, our data demonstrate that the inhibition of STAT3 signaling by NDRG2 suppresses EMT progression of EMT via the down-regulation of Snail expression.
de Groot JS, Pan X, Meeldijk J, et al.Validation of DNA promoter hypermethylation biomarkers in breast cancer--a short report.
Cell Oncol (Dordr). 2014; 37(4):297-303 [PubMed
] Related Publications
PURPOSE: DNA promoter hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes is known to occur early in cancer development, including breast cancer. To improve early breast cancer detection, we aimed to investigate whether the identification of DNA promoter hypermethylation might be of added value.
METHODS: The methylation status of a panel of 19 candidate genes (AKR1B1, ALX1, ARHGEF7, FZD10, GHSR, GPX7, GREM1, GSTP1, HOXD1, KL, LHX2, MAL, MGMT, NDRG2, RASGRF2, SFRP1, SFRP2, TM6SF1 and TMEFF2) was determined in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded normal breast and breast cancer tissue samples using gel-based methylation-specific PCR (MSP).
RESULTS: The promoters of the AKR1B1, ALX1, GHSR, GREM1, RASGRF2, SFRP2, TM6SF1 and TMEFF2 genes were found to be significantly differentially methylated in normal versus malignant breast tissues. Based on sensitivity, specificity and logistic regression analyses the best performing genes for detecting breast cancer were identified. Through multivariate analyses, we found that AKR1B1 and TM6SF1 could detect breast cancer with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.986 in a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) assessment.
CONCLUSIONS: Based on our data, we conclude that AKR1B1 and TM6SF1 may serve as candidate methylation biomarkers for early breast cancer detection. Further studies are underway to evaluate the methylation status of these genes in body fluids, including nipple aspirates and blood.
Zhou B, Tang Z, Deng Y, et al.Tumor suppressor candidate gene, NDRG2 is frequently inactivated in human glioblastoma multiforme.
Mol Med Rep. 2014; 10(2):891-6 [PubMed
] Related Publications
N‑myc downstream regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) is highly expressed in numerous normal tissues, while it is marginally expressed or undetectable in various tumors, including lung and colon cancer. In order to investigate the expression of NDRG2 in human glioma and its downstream regulatory mechanisms, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), immunohistochemistry and western blot analyses were used to assess NDRG2 mRNA and protein expression in different grades of human glioma and adjacent normal tissues. The methylation status of the NDRG2 promoter region was also determined using bisulfite sequencing. NDRG2 mRNA expression was observed to be significantly lower in glioma tissues than in adjacent normal tissues (P<0.05). Furthermore, a significant negative correlation was found between the glioma tumor grade and NDRG2 expression (P<0.05), at the mRNA and protein levels. Moreover, the methylation rate of the NDRG2 promoter region was 46.3% in the glioma tissues compared with 18.2% in the adjacent normal tissues (P<0.05). These findings show that NDRG2 expression is downregulated in human glioma and that the level of NDRG2 expression negatively correlates with the glioma grade. Furthermore, these findings indicate that NDRG2 downregulation may be due to aberrant methylation of the NDRG2 promoter region and subsequent transcriptional inactivation.
Wu Z, Liao H, Su J, et al.Adenovirus-mediated NDRG2 inhibits the proliferation of human renal cell carcinoma cell line OS-RC-2 in vitro.
Cell Biochem Biophys. 2014; 70(1):593-600 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The objective of the study is to investigate the inhibitory effects of adenovirus-mediated N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) on the proliferation of human renal cell carcinoma cell line OS-RC-2 in vitro. NDRG2 was harvested by RT-PCR, confirmed by DNA sequencing, and then cloned into the eukaryotic expression vector pIRES2-EGFP, which encodes green fluorescent protein (GFP), to construct pIRES2-EGFP-NDRG2 plasmid. OS-RC-2 cells with NDRG2 negative expression were transfected with pIRES2-EGFP-NDRG2 plasmid. The growth of transfected OS-RC-2 cells was observed under the light and fluorescence microscopes. After colony-forming cell assays, cell proliferation detection, and MTT assays, the growth curves of cells in each group were plotted to investigate the inhibitory effects of adenovirus-mediated NDRG2 on the proliferation of OS-RC-2 cells. Cell cycle was determined by flow cytometry. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was applied to determine the specific location of NDRG2 protein in subcellular level. A eukaryotic expression vector pIRES2-EGFP-NDRG2 was successfully constructed. After NDRG2 transfection, the growth of OS-RC-2 cells was inhibited. Flow cytometry showed that cells were arrested in S phase but the peak of cell apoptosis was not present, and confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that NDRG2 protein was located in mitochondrion. In conclusion, NDRG2 can significantly inhibit the proliferation of OS-RC-2 cells in vitro and its protein is specifically expressed in the mitochondrion.
INTRODUCTION: N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2), a novel tumour suppressor and cell stress-related gene, is involved in many cell metabolic processes, such as hormone, ion and fluid metabolism. We investigated whether NDRG2 is involved in any glucose-dependent energy metabolism, as well as the nature of its correlation with breast carcinoma.
METHODS: The correlations between NDRG2 expression and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) expression in clinical breast carcinoma tissues were analysed. The effects of NDRG2 on glucose uptake were assessed in breast cancer cells and xenograft tumours. The consequences of NDRG2-induced regulation of GLUT1 at the transcription and translation levels and the interaction between NDRG2 and GLUT1 were examined.
RESULTS: Data derived from clinical breast carcinoma specimens revealed that (1) patients with high NDRG2 expression had better disease-free survival and overall survival than those with low NDRG2 expression and (2) NDRG2 expression was negatively correlated with GLUT1 expression in these breast carcinoma tissues. NDRG2 inhibited glucose uptake by promoting GLUT1 protein degradation without affecting GLUT1 transcription in both breast cancer cells and xenograft tumours. In addition, NDRG2 protein interacted and partly colocalised with GLUT1 protein in cell cytoplasm areas.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study support the notion that NDRG2 plays an important role in tumour glucose metabolism, in which GLUT1 is a likely candidate contributor to glucose uptake suppression and tumour growth. Targeting the actions of NDRG2 in cell glucose-dependent energy delivery may provide an attractive strategy for therapeutic intervention in human breast carcinoma.
Constitutive phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT activation has a causal role in adult T-cell leukaemia-lymphoma (ATLL) and other cancers. ATLL cells do not harbour genetic alterations in PTEN and PI3KCA but express high levels of PTEN that is highly phosphorylated at its C-terminal tail. Here we report a mechanism for the N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2)-dependent regulation of PTEN phosphatase activity via the dephosphorylation of PTEN at the Ser380, Thr382 and Thr383 cluster within the C-terminal tail. We show that NDRG2 is a PTEN-binding protein that recruits protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) to PTEN. The expression of NDRG2 is frequently downregulated in ATLL, resulting in enhanced phosphorylation of PTEN at the Ser380/Thr382/Thr383 cluster and enhanced activation of the PI3K-AKT pathway. Given the high incidence of T-cell lymphoma and other cancers in NDRG2-deficient mice, PI3K-AKT activation via enhanced PTEN phosphorylation may be critical for the development of cancer.
Zhang ZG, Li G, Feng DY, et al.Overexpression of NDRG2 can inhibit neuroblastoma cell proliferation through negative regulation by CYR61.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(1):239-44 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Several recent studies have showed that the n-myc downstream regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) is a new tumor suppressor gene, and that it plays an important role in tumor suppression in several cancers or cancer cell lines. However, few studies focused on its function in neuroblastoma cells. In the present investigation, we demonstrated that NDRG2 overexpression inhibited their proliferation. Using a cDNA microarray, we found that overexpression of NDRG2 inhibited the expression of cysteine-rich protein 61 (CYR61), a proliferation related gene. From our research, CYR61 may partially hinder NDRG2-mediated inhibition of cell proliferation. Overexpression of NDRG2 resulted in accumulation of cells in the G1 phase, which was accompanied by upregulation of p21 and p27 and downregulation of CDK4 and cyclin D1. Taken together, these data indicate that NDRG2 inhibits the proliferation of neuroblastoma cells partially through suppression of CYR61. Our findings offer novel insights into the physiological roles of NDRG2 in neuroblastoma cell proliferation, and NDRG2 may prove to be effective candidate for the treatment of children with neuroblastoma.
Cao W, Zhang JL, Feng DY, et al.The effect of adenovirus-conjugated NDRG2 on p53-mediated apoptosis of hepatocarcinoma cells through attenuation of nucleotide excision repair capacity.
Biomaterials. 2014; 35(3):993-1003 [PubMed
] Related Publications
NDRG2 mRNA and protein levels can be upregulated in a p53-dependent manner. NDRG2 enhances p53-mediated apoptosis, whereas overexpression of NDRG2 suppresses tumor cell growth, regardless of whether p53 is mutated. However, the complicated mechanism by which NDRG2 suppresses tumor cell growth and enhances apoptosis mediated by p53 is not fully understood. Here, we demonstrated that Ad-NDRG2 enhanced the apoptosis of HepG2 cells (wild-type p53). Additionally, Ad-NDRG2 combined with rAd-p53 enhanced the apoptosis of Huh7 cells (mutant p53) after chemotherapy, and the expression of the ERCC6 gene (Cockayne syndrome group B protein gene) was suppressed in this process. Ad-NDRG2 combined with rAd-p53 induced the apoptosis of tumor cells (HepG2 and Huh7 cells); however, apoptosis was attenuated after transfection with ERCC6. Our results indicate that Ad-NDRG2 enhances the p53-mediated apoptosis of hepatocarcinoma cells (HepG2 and Huh7) by attenuating the nucleotide excision repair capacity (i.e., by downregulating ERCC6), and ERCC6 is a NDRG2-inducible target gene that is involved in the p53-mediated apoptosis pathway.
N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) is a candidate tumor suppressor gene, which plays an important role in controlling tumor growth. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of NDRG2 gene in bladder cancer (BC) tissues and several bladder cancer cell lines, and to seek its clinical and pathological significance. Ninety-seven bladder carcinoma and 15 normal bladder tissue sections were analyzed retrospectively with immunohistochemistry. The human bladder cancer cell line T24 was infected with LEN-NDRG2 or LEN-LacZ. The effects of NDRG2 overexpression on T24 cells and T24 nude mouse xenografts were measured via cell growth curves, tumor growth curves, flow cytometric analysis, western blot and Transwell assay. NDRG2 was highly expressed in normal bladder tissue, but absent or rarely expressed in cacinomatous tissues (χ(2)=8.761, p < 0.01). The NDRG2 level was negatively correlated with tumor grade and pathologic stage(r=-0.248, p < 0.05), as well as increased c-myc level (r=-0.454, p< 0.001). The expression of NDRG2 was low in the three BC cell lines. T24 cells infected with LEN-NDRG2 showed inhibition of proliferation both in vitro and in vivo, and NDRG2 overexpression can inhibit tumor growth and invasion in vitro.
Yamamura A, Miura K, Karasawa H, et al.Suppressed expression of NDRG2 correlates with poor prognosis in pancreatic cancer.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013; 441(1):102-7 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Pancreatic cancer is a highly lethal disease with a poor prognosis; the molecular mechanisms of the development of this disease have not yet been fully elucidated. N-myc downstream regulated gene 2 (NDRG2), one of the candidate tumor suppressor genes, is frequently downregulated in pancreatic cancer, but there has been little information regarding its expression in surgically resected pancreatic cancer specimens. We investigated an association between NDRG2 expression and prognosis in 69 primary resected pancreatic cancer specimens by immunohistochemistry and observed a significant association between poor prognosis and NDRG2-negative staining (P=0.038). Treatment with trichostatin A, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, predominantly up-regulated NDRG2 expression in the NDRG2 low-expressing cell lines (PANC-1, PCI-35, PK-45P, and AsPC-1). In contrast, no increased NDRG2 expression was observed after treatment with 5-aza-2' deoxycytidine, a DNA demethylating agent, and no hypermethylation was detected in either pancreatic cancer cell lines or surgically resected specimens by methylation specific PCR. Our present results suggest that (1) NDRG2 is functioning as one of the candidate tumor-suppressor genes in pancreatic carcinogenesis, (2) epigenetic mechanisms such as histone modifications play an essential role in NDRG2 silencing, and (3) the expression of NDRG2 is an independent prognostic factor in pancreatic cancer.
Kim YJ, Kang HB, Yim HS, et al.NDRG2 positively regulates E-cadherin expression and prolongs overall survival in colon cancer patients.
Oncol Rep. 2013; 30(4):1890-8 [PubMed
] Related Publications
To discover the molecular mechanism of N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2), a newly found differentiation-related tumor suppressor, the relationships between NDRG2 and E-cadherin were investigated in tumor cells and tissues. Positive correlations between the expression of E-cadherin and NDRG2 were shown in several colon cancer cell lines as well as in colon cancer tissues. According to the transcription assays using a reporter plasmid containing E-cadherin promoter region (-368~+51), NDRG2 introduction into colon cancer cell lines induced upregulation of E-cadherin promoter activity and its transcription. On the contrary, inhibition of NDRG2 expression by siRNA treatment caused the decrease of E-cadherin transcription. Snail, a zinc-finger transcriptional repressor, was shown to be a mediator of NDRG2-regulated E-cadherin expression. The enhancement of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) activity by NDRG2 overexpression caused proteasomal degradation of Snail transcription factor followed by transcriptional de-repression of E-cadherin. We also found that NDRG2 could mediate cell density-regulated E-cadherin expression. The increase of NDRG2 expression with cell density preceded E-cadherin expression, and the regulation of Snail activity by GSK-3β was also related to this process.
BACKGROUND: It is currently unclear whether a correlation exists between N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) expression and oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). The aim of this study was to examine the underlying clinical significance of NDRG2 expression in ESCC patients and to investigate the effects of NDRG2 up-regulation on ESCC cell growth in vitro and in vivo.
METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the level of NDRG2 expressions in ESCC tissue, which was then compared to specific clinicopathological features in the patient and tissue specimens. Factors associated with patient survival were analysed. Moreover, the effects of up-regulating NDRG2 expression on the growth of an ESCC cell line were examined by MTT, colony formation, DNA replication activity and nude mouse model assays.
RESULTS: Notably low expression of NDRG2 in ESCC patients was inversely associated with clinical stage, NM classification, histological differentiation and patients' vital status (all P < 0.05). ESCC patients expressing high levels of NDRG2 exhibited a substantially higher 5-year overall survival rate than NDRG2-negative patients. Furthermore, NDRG2 over-expression reduced the proliferation, colony formation and DNA replication activity in ESCC cells, as well as inhibiting the growth of ESCC cells in vivo.
CONCLUSION: The present experiments demonstrated that NDRG2 may be a diagnostic and prognostic marker in patients with ESCC, and up-regulation of NDRG2 might act as a promising therapeutic strategy for aggressive ESCC.