NUP214

Gene Summary

Gene:NUP214; nucleoporin 214
Aliases: CAN, CAIN
Location:9q34.13
Summary:The nuclear pore complex is a massive structure that extends across the nuclear envelope, forming a gateway that regulates the flow of macromolecules between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Nucleoporins are the main components of the nuclear pore complex in eukaryotic cells. This gene is a member of the FG-repeat-containing nucleoporins. The protein encoded by this gene is localized to the cytoplasmic face of the nuclear pore complex where it is required for proper cell cycle progression and nucleocytoplasmic transport. The 3' portion of this gene forms a fusion gene with the DEK gene on chromosome 6 in a t(6,9) translocation associated with acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2015]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:nuclear pore complex protein Nup214
Source:NCBIAccessed: 15 March, 2017

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
Show (21)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (1)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 15 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
  • Childhood Cancer
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-abl
  • Homeodomain Proteins
  • Phosphorylation
  • Base Sequence
  • Imatinib Mesylate
  • Recurrence
  • Pyrimidines
  • Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization
  • Cancer RNA
  • Messenger RNA
  • Survival Rate
  • Gene Amplification
  • Adolescents
  • Virus Replication
  • Adult T-Cell Leukemia-Lymphoma
  • ZAP-70 Protein-Tyrosine Kinase
  • Oncogene Fusion Proteins
  • Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Dek
  • Mutation
  • Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma
  • Acute Lymphocytic Leukaemia
  • Nuclear Pore Complex Proteins
  • Chromosome 9
  • Leukemic Gene Expression Regulation
  • Gene Rearrangement
  • ABL1
  • Piperazines
  • SET
  • FISH
  • Oncogene Proteins
  • NOTCH1 Receptor
  • Benzamides
  • Acute Myeloid Leukaemia
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Histone Chaperones
  • Protein Kinase Inhibitors
  • Leukaemia
Tag cloud generated 15 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Entity Topic PubMed Papers
Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (AML)t(6;9)(p23;q34) DEK-NUP214 in Acute Myeloid Leukaemia and Myelodysplastic Syndrome
The recurrent chromosomal translocation t(6;9)(p23;q34) involving the DEK and NUP214 genes occurs in a subset of patients with acute myeloid leukaemia. The DEK-NUP214 fusion protein (cloned by von Lindern et al,1992) consists of almost the whole of the DEK protein fused to the C-terminal two-thirds of the NUP214 protein.
View Publications63
Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (AML)t(9;9)(q34;q34) SET-NUP214 rearrangements in Acute Lyphoblastic Leukaemia
The SET-NUP214 fusion gene resulting from either cryptic t(9;9)(q34;q34) or del(9)(q34.11q34.13)is a relatively rare genetic event in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Eleven of 196 (6%) T-ALLs enrolled in the French GRAALL-2003 and -2005 clinical trials had a SET-NUP214 transcript (Abdelali, 2014).
View Publications46
Acute Lymphocytic Leukaemia (ALL)NUP214-ABL1 rearrangements in T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
The NUP214-ABL1 gene is the second most prevalent fusion gene involving ABL1 in malignant hemopathies, with a frequency of 5% in T-cell ALL. (De Braekeleer et al, 2011)
View Publications39

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: NUP214 (cancer-related)

Chartier C, Raval J, Axelrod F, et al.
Therapeutic Targeting of Tumor-Derived R-Spondin Attenuates β-Catenin Signaling and Tumorigenesis in Multiple Cancer Types.
Cancer Res. 2016; 76(3):713-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
Deregulation of the β-catenin signaling has long been associated with cancer. Intracellular components of this pathway, including axin, APC, and β-catenin, are frequently mutated in a range of human tumors, but the contribution of specific extracellular ligands that promote cancer development through this signaling axis remains unclear. We conducted a reporter-based screen in a panel of human tumors to identify secreted factors that stimulate β-catenin signaling. Through this screen and further molecular characterization, we found that R-spondin (RSPO) proteins collaborate with Wnt proteins to activate β-catenin. RSPO family members were expressed in several human tumors representing multiple malignancies, including ovarian, pancreatic, colon, breast, and lung cancer. We generated specific monoclonal antibody antagonists of RSPO family members and found that anti-RSPO treatment markedly inhibited tumor growth in human patient-derived tumor xenograft models, either as single agents or in combination with chemotherapy. Furthermore, blocking RSPO signaling reduced the tumorigenicity of cancer cells based on serial transplantation studies. Moreover, gene-expression analyses revealed that anti-RSPO treatment in responsive tumors strongly inhibited β-catenin target genes known to be associated with cancer and normal stem cells. Collectively, our results suggest that the RSPO family is an important stimulator of β-catenin activity in many human tumors and highlight a new effective approach for therapeutically modulating this fundamental signaling axis.

Blake J, Hu D, Cain JE, Rosenblum ND
Urogenital development in Pallister-Hall syndrome is disrupted in a cell-lineage-specific manner by constitutive expression of GLI3 repressor.
Hum Mol Genet. 2016; 25(3):437-47 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Pallister-Hall syndrome (PHS) is a rare disorder caused by mutations in GLI3 that produce a transcriptional repressor (GLI3R). Individuals with PHS present with a variably penetrant variety of urogenital system malformations, including renal aplasia or hypoplasia, hydroureter, hydronephrosis or a common urogenital sinus. The embryologic mechanisms controlled by GLI3R that result in these pathologic phenotypes are undefined. We demonstrate that germline expression of GLI3R causes renal hypoplasia, associated with decreased nephron number, and hydroureter and hydronephrosis, caused by blind-ending ureters. Mice with obligate GLI3R expression also displayed duplication of the ureters that was caused by aberrant common nephric duct patterning and ureteric stalk outgrowth. These developmental abnormalities are associated with suppressed Hedgehog signaling activity in the cloaca and adjacent vesicular mesenchyme. Mice with conditional expression of GLI3R were utilized to identify lineage-specific effects of GLI3R. In the ureteric bud, GLI3R expression decreased branching morphogenesis. In Six2-positive nephrogenic progenitors, GLI3R decreased progenitor cell proliferation reducing the number of nephrogenic precursor structures. Using mutant mice with Gli3R and Gli3 null alleles, we demonstrate that urogenital system patterning and development is controlled by the levels of GLI3R and not by an absence of full-length GLI3. We conclude that the urogenital system phenotypes observed in PHS are caused by GLI3R-dependent perturbations in nephric duct patterning, renal branching morphogenesis and nephrogenic progenitor self-renewal.

Abe A, Yamamoto Y, Iba S, et al.
NUP214-RAC1 and RAC1-COL12A1 Fusion in Complex Variant Translocations Involving Chromosomes 6, 7 and 9 in an Acute Myeloid Leukemia Case with DEK-NUP214.
Cytogenet Genome Res. 2015; 146(4):279-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
DEK-NUP214 gene fusion in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is associated with poor prognosis. It is most often a sole translocation and more rarely observed as complex chromosomal forms. We describe an AML case with complex karyotype abnormalities involving chromosome bands 6p23, 6q13, 7p22, and 9q34. RNA sequencing analysis revealed that exon 17 of NUP214 (9q34) was fused to exon 2 of RAC1 (7p22). We also detected that the 5'-end of intron 1 of RAC1 was fused with the antisense strand of intron 5 of COL12A1 (6q13). RT-PCR analysis confirmed the expression of DEK-NUP214, NUP214-RAC1, RAC1-COL12A1, NUP214, and RAC1. These results suggest that the 5'- and 3'-ends of NUP214 from the breakpoint in the same locus were fused to RAC1 and DEK, respectively, and the 5'-end of RAC1 was fused to COL12A1. The reading frame of NUP214 was not matched with RAC1; however, high expression of the RAC1 protein was detected by Western blotting. This study identifies the variant complex fusion genesNUP214-RAC1 and RAC1- COL12A1 in a case of AML.

Yen WC, Fischer MM, Axelrod F, et al.
Targeting Notch signaling with a Notch2/Notch3 antagonist (tarextumab) inhibits tumor growth and decreases tumor-initiating cell frequency.
Clin Cancer Res. 2015; 21(9):2084-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The Notch pathway plays an important role in both stem cell biology and cancer. Dysregulation of Notch signaling has been reported in several human tumor types. In this report, we describe the development of an antibody, OMP-59R5 (tarextumab), which blocks both Notch2 and Notch3 signaling.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We utilized patient-derived xenograft tumors to evaluate antitumor effect of OMP-59R5. Immunohistochemistry, RNA microarray, real-time PCR, and in vivo serial transplantation assays were employed to investigate the mechanisms of action and pharmacodynamic readouts.
RESULTS: We found that anti-Notch2/3, either as a single agent or in combination with chemotherapeutic agents was efficacious in a broad spectrum of epithelial tumors, including breast, lung, ovarian, and pancreatic cancers. Notably, the sensitivity of anti-Notch2/3 in combination with gemcitabine in pancreatic tumors was associated with higher levels of Notch3 gene expression. The antitumor effect of anti-Notch2/3 in combination with gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel was greater than the combination effect with gemcitabine alone. OMP-59R5 inhibits both human and mouse Notch2 and Notch3 function and its antitumor activity was characterized by a dual mechanism of action in both tumor and stromal/vascular cells in xenograft experiments. In tumor cells, anti-Notch2/3 inhibited expression of Notch target genes and reduced tumor-initiating cell frequency. In the tumor stroma, OMP-59R5 consistently inhibited the expression of Notch3, HeyL, and Rgs5, characteristic of affecting pericyte function in tumor vasculature.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that blockade of Notch2/3 signaling with this cross-reactive antagonist antibody may be an effective strategy for treatment of a variety of tumor types.

Sandén C, Gullberg U
The DEK oncoprotein and its emerging roles in gene regulation.
Leukemia. 2015; 29(8):1632-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
The DEK oncogene is highly expressed in cells from most human tissues and overexpressed in a large and growing number of cancers. It also fuses with the NUP214 gene to form the DEK-NUP214 fusion gene in a subset of acute myeloid leukemia. Originally characterized as a member of this translocation, DEK has since been implicated in epigenetic and transcriptional regulation, but its role in these processes is still elusive and intriguingly complex. Similarly multifaceted is its contribution to cellular transformation, affecting multiple cellular processes such as self-renewal, proliferation, differentiation, senescence and apoptosis. Recently, the roles of the DEK and DEK-NUP214 proteins have been elucidated by global analysis of DNA binding and gene expression, as well as multiple functional studies. This review outlines recent advances in the understanding of the basic functions of the DEK protein and its role in leukemogenesis.

Bhattacharjya S, Roy KS, Ganguly A, et al.
Inhibition of nucleoporin member Nup214 expression by miR-133b perturbs mitotic timing and leads to cell death.
Mol Cancer. 2015; 14:42 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Nucleoporins mediate nucleocytoplasmic exchange of macromolecules and several have been assigned active mitotic functions. Nucleoporins can participate in various mitotic functions like spindle assembly, kinetochore organisation and chromosome segregation- important for genome integrity. Pathways to genome integrity are frequently deregulated in cancer and many are regulated in part by microRNAs. Indeed, altered levels of numerous microRNAs have frequently been associated with tumorigenesis. Here, we unveil a microRNA-mediated regulation of the nucleoporin Nup214 and its downstream effect on genome integrity.
METHODS: Databases/bioinformatic tools such as miRBase, Oncomine and RNAhybrid predicted Nup214 as a miR-133b target. To validate this, we used luciferase reporter assays, Real-Time PCR and immuno-blotting. Flow cytometry and immuno-blots of mitotic markers were used to analyse cell cycle pattern upon thymidine synchronization and miR-133b treatment. Mitotic indices and chromosomal abnormalities were assessed by immuno-fluorescence for FITC-tagged phospho-H3 as well as video-microscopy for GFP-tagged histone H4. Annexin V/propidium iodide staining, caspase3/PARP cleavage and colony formation assays were done to investigate cell death upon either miR-133b transfection or NUP214 knockdown by siRNA. UPCI:SCC084, HCT116, HeLa-H4-pEGFP and HEK293 (human oral squamous cell carcinoma, colorectal, cervical carcinomas and embryonic kidney cell lines, respectively) were used. miR-133b and NUP214 expressions were validated in cancer cell lines and tissues by Real-Time PCR.
RESULTS: Examination of head and neck tumour tissues and cancer cell lines revealed that Nup214 and miR-133b expressions are negatively correlated. In vitro, Nup214 was significantly downregulated by ectopic miR-133b. This downregulation elevated mitotic indices and delayed degradation of mitotic marker proteins cyclinB1 and cyclinA and dephosphorylation of H3. Moreover, this mitotic delay enhanced chromosomal abnormalities and apoptosis.
CONCLUSIONS: We have identified NUP214, a member of the massive nuclear pore complex, as a novel miR-133b target. Thus, we have shown a hitherto unknown microRNA regulation of mitosis mediated by a member of the nucleoporin family. Based on observations, we also raise some hypotheses regarding transport-dependent/independent functions of Nup214 in this study. Our results hence attempt to explain why miR-133b is generally downregulated in tumours and lay out the potential for Nup214 as a therapeutic target in the treatment of cancer.

Logan GE, Mor-Vaknin N, Braunschweig T, et al.
DEK oncogene expression during normal hematopoiesis and in Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML).
Blood Cells Mol Dis. 2015; 54(1):123-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
DEK is important in regulating cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation and maintenance of stem cell phenotype. The translocation t(6;9) in Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML), which fuses DEK with NUP214, confers a poor prognosis and a higher risk of relapse. The over-expression of DEK in AML has been reported, but different studies have shown diminished levels in pediatric and promyelocytic leukemias. This study has characterized DEK expression, in silico, using a large multi-center cohort of leukemic and normal control cases. Overall, DEK was under-expressed in AML compared to normal bone marrow (NBM). Studying specific subtypes of AML confirmed either no significant change or a significant reduction in DEK expression compared to NBM. Importantly, the similarity of DEK expression between AML and NBM was confirmed using immunohistochemistry analysis of tissue mircorarrays. In addition, stratification of AML patients based on median DEK expression levels indicated that DEK showed no effect on the overall survival of patients. DEK expression during normal hematopoiesis did reveal a relationship with specific cell types implicating a distinct function during myeloid differentiation. Whilst DEK may play a potential role in hematopoiesis, it remains to be established whether it is important for leukemagenesis, except when involved in the t(6;9) translocation.

Buczkowicz P, Hoeman C, Rakopoulos P, et al.
Genomic analysis of diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas identifies three molecular subgroups and recurrent activating ACVR1 mutations.
Nat Genet. 2014; 46(5):451-6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is a fatal brain cancer that arises in the brainstem of children, with no effective treatment and near 100% fatality. The failure of most therapies can be attributed to the delicate location of these tumors and to the selection of therapies on the basis of assumptions that DIPGs are molecularly similar to adult disease. Recent studies have unraveled the unique genetic makeup of this brain cancer, with nearly 80% found to harbor a p.Lys27Met histone H3.3 or p.Lys27Met histone H3.1 alteration. However, DIPGs are still thought of as one disease, with limited understanding of the genetic drivers of these tumors. To understand what drives DIPGs, we integrated whole-genome sequencing with methylation, expression and copy number profiling, discovering that DIPGs comprise three molecularly distinct subgroups (H3-K27M, silent and MYCN) and uncovering a new recurrent activating mutation affecting the activin receptor gene ACVR1 in 20% of DIPGs. Mutations in ACVR1 were constitutively activating, leading to SMAD phosphorylation and increased expression of the downstream activin signaling targets ID1 and ID2. Our results highlight distinct molecular subgroups and novel therapeutic targets for this incurable pediatric cancer.

Takeda A, Yaseen NR
Nucleoporins and nucleocytoplasmic transport in hematologic malignancies.
Semin Cancer Biol. 2014; 27:3-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hematologic malignancies are often associated with chromosomal rearrangements that lead to the expression of chimeric fusion proteins. Rearrangements of the genes encoding two nucleoporins, NUP98 and NUP214, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several types of hematologic malignancies, particularly acute myeloid leukemia. NUP98 rearrangements result in fusion of an N-terminal portion of NUP98 to one of numerous proteins. These rearrangements often follow treatment with topoisomerase II inhibitors and tend to occur in younger patients. They have been shown to induce leukemia in mice and to enhance proliferation and disrupt differentiation in primary human hematopoietic precursors. NUP214 has only a few fusion partners. DEK-NUP214 is the most common NUP214 fusion in AML; it tends to occur in younger patients and is usually associated with FLT3 internal tandem duplications. The leukemogenic activity of NUP214 fusions is less well characterized. Normal nucleoporins, including NUP98 and NUP214, have important functions in nucleocytoplasmic transport, transcription, and mitosis. These functions and their disruptions by oncogenic nucleoporin fusions are discussed.

Johansson C, Tumber A, Che K, et al.
The roles of Jumonji-type oxygenases in human disease.
Epigenomics. 2014; 6(1):89-120 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The iron- and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent oxygenases constitute a phylogenetically conserved class of enzymes that catalyze hydroxylation reactions in humans by acting on various types of substrates, including metabolic intermediates, amino acid residues in different proteins and various types of nucleic acids. The discovery of jumonji (Jmj), the founding member of a class of Jmj-type chromatin modifying enzymes and transcriptional regulators, has culminated in the discovery of several branches of histone lysine demethylases, with essential functions in regulating the epigenetic landscape of the chromatin environment. This work has now been considerably expanded into other aspects of epigenetic biology and includes the discovery of enzymatic steps required for methyl-cytosine demethylation as well as modification of RNA and ribosomal proteins. This overview aims to summarize the current knowledge on the human Jmj-type enzymes and their involvement in human pathological processes, including development, cancer, inflammation and metabolic diseases.

Ben Abdelali R, Roggy A, Leguay T, et al.
SET-NUP214 is a recurrent γδ lineage-specific fusion transcript associated with corticosteroid/chemotherapy resistance in adult T-ALL.
Blood. 2014; 123(12):1860-3 [PubMed] Related Publications
The SET-NUP214 (TAF1/CAN) fusion gene is a rare genetic event in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Eleven (6%) of 196 T-ALL patients enrolled in the French Group for Research on Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (GRAALL) 2003 and 2005 trials harbored a SET-NUP214 transcript. SET-NUP214-positive patients were predominantly (10 [91%] of 11) T-cell receptor (TCR)-negative and strikingly associated with TCRγδ lineage T-ALLs, as defined by expression of TCRγδ, TCRδ and/or TCRγ rearrangements but no complete TCRβ variable diversity joining rearrangement in surface CD3/TCR-negative cases. When compared with SET-NUP214-negative patients, SET-NUP214-positive patients showed a significantly higher rate of corticosteroid resistance (91% vs 44%; P = .003) and chemotherapy resistance (100% vs 44%; P = .0001). All SET-NUP214-positive patients but one achieved complete remission, and 9 were allografted. Despite the poor early-treatment sensitivity, the outcome of SET-NUP214-positive patients was similar to that of SET-NUP214-negative patients.

Sandahl JD, Coenen EA, Forestier E, et al.
t(6;9)(p22;q34)/DEK-NUP214-rearranged pediatric myeloid leukemia: an international study of 62 patients.
Haematologica. 2014; 99(5):865-72 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Acute myeloid leukemia with t(6;9)(p22;q34) is listed as a distinct entity in the 2008 World Health Organization classification, but little is known about the clinical implications of t(6;9)-positive myeloid leukemia in children. This international multicenter study presents the clinical and genetic characteristics of 62 pediatric patients with t(6;9)/DEK-NUP214-rearranged myeloid leukemia; 54 diagnosed as having acute myeloid leukemia, representing <1% of all childhood acute myeloid leukemia, and eight as having myelodysplastic syndrome. The t(6;9)/DEK-NUP214 was associated with relatively late onset (median age 10.4 years), male predominance (sex ratio 1.7), French-American-British M2 classification (54%), myelodysplasia (100%), and FLT3-ITD (42%). Outcome was substantially better than previously reported with a 5-year event-free survival of 32%, 5-year overall survival of 53%, and a 5-year cumulative incidence of relapse of 57%. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in first complete remission improved the 5-year event-free survival compared with chemotherapy alone (68% versus 18%; P<0.01) but not the overall survival (68% versus 54%; P=0.48). The presence of FLT3-ITD had a non-significant negative effect on 5-year overall survival compared with non-mutated cases (22% versus 62%; P=0.13). Gene expression profiling showed a unique signature characterized by significantly higher expression of EYA3, SESN1, PRDM2/RIZ, and HIST2H4 genes. In conclusion, t(6;9)/DEK-NUP214 represents a unique subtype of acute myeloid leukemia with a high risk of relapse, high frequency of FLT3-ITD, and a specific gene expression signature.

Sandén C, Ageberg M, Petersson J, et al.
Forced expression of the DEK-NUP214 fusion protein promotes proliferation dependent on upregulation of mTOR.
BMC Cancer. 2013; 13:440 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The t(6;9)(p23;q34) chromosomal translocation is found in 1% of acute myeloid leukemia and encodes the fusion protein DEK-NUP214 (formerly DEK-CAN) with largely uncharacterized functions.
METHODS: We expressed DEK-NUP214 in the myeloid cell lines U937 and PL-21 and studied the effects on cellular functions.
RESULTS: In this study, we demonstrate that expression of DEK-NUP214 increases cellular proliferation. Western blot analysis revealed elevated levels of one of the key proteins regulating proliferation, the mechanistic target of rapamycin, mTOR. This conferred increased mTORC1 but not mTORC2 activity, as determined by the phosphorylation of their substrates, p70 S6 kinase and Akt. The functional importance of the mTOR upregulation was determined by assaying the downstream cellular processes; protein synthesis and glucose metabolism. A global translation assay revealed a substantial increase in the translation rate and a metabolic assay detected a shift from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation, as determined by a reduction in lactate production without a concomitant decrease in glucose consumption. Both these effects are in concordance with increased mTORC1 activity. Treatment with the mTORC1 inhibitor everolimus (RAD001) selectively reversed the DEK-NUP214-induced proliferation, demonstrating that the effect is mTOR-dependent.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that the DEK-NUP214 fusion gene increases proliferation by upregulation of mTOR, suggesting that patients with leukemias carrying DEK-NUP214 may benefit from treatment with mTOR inhibitors.

Blackwood E, Epler J, Yen I, et al.
Combination drug scheduling defines a "window of opportunity" for chemopotentiation of gemcitabine by an orally bioavailable, selective ChK1 inhibitor, GNE-900.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2013; 12(10):1968-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
Checkpoint kinase 1 (ChK1) is a serine/threonine kinase that functions as a central mediator of the intra-S and G2-M cell-cycle checkpoints. Following DNA damage or replication stress, ChK1-mediated phosphorylation of downstream effectors delays cell-cycle progression so that the damaged genome can be repaired. As a therapeutic strategy, inhibition of ChK1 should potentiate the antitumor effect of chemotherapeutic agents by inactivating the postreplication checkpoint, causing premature entry into mitosis with damaged DNA resulting in mitotic catastrophe. Here, we describe the characterization of GNE-900, an ATP-competitive, selective, and orally bioavailable ChK1 inhibitor. In combination with chemotherapeutic agents, GNE-900 sustains ATR/ATM signaling, enhances DNA damage, and induces apoptotic cell death. The kinetics of checkpoint abrogation seems to be more rapid in p53-mutant cells, resulting in premature mitotic entry and/or accelerated cell death. Importantly, we show that GNE-900 has little single-agent activity in the absence of chemotherapy and does not grossly potentiate the cytotoxicity of gemcitabine in normal bone marrow cells. In vivo scheduling studies show that optimal administration of the ChK1 inhibitor requires a defined lag between gemcitabine and GNE-900 administration. On the refined combination treatment schedule, gemcitabine's antitumor activity against chemotolerant xenografts is significantly enhanced and dose-dependent exacerbation of DNA damage correlates with extent of tumor growth inhibition. In summary, we show that in vivo potentiation of gemcitabine activity is mechanism based, with optimal efficacy observed when S-phase arrest and release is followed by checkpoint abrogation with a ChK1 inhibitor.

De Keersmaecker K, Porcu M, Cox L, et al.
NUP214-ABL1-mediated cell proliferation in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia is dependent on the LCK kinase and various interacting proteins.
Haematologica. 2014; 99(1):85-93 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The NUP214-ABL1 fusion protein is a constitutively active protein tyrosine kinase that is found in 6% of patients with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and that promotes proliferation and survival of T-lymphoblasts. Although NUP214-ABL1 is sensitive to ABL1 kinase inhibitors, development of resistance to these compounds is a major clinical problem, underlining the need for additional drug targets in the sparsely studied NUP214-ABL1 signaling network. In this work, we identify and validate the SRC family kinase LCK as a protein whose activity is absolutely required for the proliferation and survival of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells that depend on NUP214-ABL1 activity. These findings underscore the potential of SRC kinase inhibitors and of the dual ABL1/SRC kinase inhibitors dasatinib and bosutinib for the treatment of NUP214-ABL1-positive T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. In addition, we used mass spectrometry to identify protein interaction partners of NUP214-ABL1. Our results strongly support that the signaling network of NUP214-ABL1 is distinct from that previously reported for BCR-ABL1. Moreover, we found that three NUP214-ABL1-interacting proteins, MAD2L1, NUP155, and SMC4, are strictly required for the proliferation and survival of NUP214-ABL1-positive T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells. In conclusion, this work identifies LCK, MAD2L1, NUP155 and SMC4 as four new potential drug targets in NUP214-ABL1-positive T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Wang B, Zhang X, Zhao Z
Validation-based insertional mutagenesis for identification of Nup214 as a host factor for EV71 replication in RD cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013; 437(3):452-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lentiviral validation-based insertional mutagenesis (VBIM) is a sophisticated, forward genetic approach that is used for the investigation of signal transduction in mammalian cells. Using VBIM, we conducted function-based genetic screening for host genes that affect enterovirus 71 (EV71) viral replication. This included host factors that are required for the life cycle of EV71 and host restriction factors that inhibit EV71 replication. Several cell clones, resistant to EV71, were produced using EV71 infection as a selection pressure and the nuclear pore protein 214 (Nup214) was identified as a host factor required for EV71 replication. In SD2-2, the corresponding VBIM lentivirus transformed clone, the expression of endogenous Nup214 was significantly down-regulated by the reverse inserted VBIM promoter. After Cre recombinase-mediated excision of the VBIM promoter, the expression of Nup214 recovered and the clone regained sensitivity to the EV71 infection. Furthermore, over-expression of Nup214 in the cells suggested that Nup214 was promoting EV71 replication. Results of this study indicate that a successful mutagenesis strategy has been established for screening host genes related to viral replication.

Shiba N, Ichikawa H, Taki T, et al.
NUP98-NSD1 gene fusion and its related gene expression signature are strongly associated with a poor prognosis in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2013; 52(7):683-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
The cryptic t(5;11)(q35;p15.5) creates a fusion gene between the NUP98 and NSD1 genes. To ascertain the significance of this gene fusion, we explored its frequency, clinical impact, and gene expression pattern using DNA microarray in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. NUP98-NSD1 fusion transcripts were detected in 6 (4.8%) of 124 pediatric AML patients. Supervised hierarchical clustering analyses using probe sets that were differentially expressed in these patients detected a characteristic gene expression pattern, including 18 NUP98-NSD1-negative patients (NUP98-NSD1-like patients). In total, a NUP98-NSD1-related gene expression signature (NUP98-NSD1 signature) was found in 19% (24/124) and in 58% (15/26) of cytogenetically normal cases. Their 4-year overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) were poor (33.3% in NUP98-NSD1-positive and 38.9% in NUP98-NSD1-like patients) compared with 100 NUP98-NSD1 signature-negative patients (4-year OS: 86.0%, 4-year EFS: 72.0%). Interestingly, t(7;11)(p15;p15)/NUP98-HOXA13, t(6;11)(q27;q23)/MLL-MLLT4 and t(6;9)(p22;q34)/DEK-NUP214, which are known as poor prognostic markers, were found in NUP98-NSD1-like patients. Furthermore, another type of NUP98-NSD1 fusion transcript was identified by additional RT-PCR analyses using other primers in a NUP98-NSD1-like patient, revealing the significance of this signature to detect NUP98-NSD1 gene fusions and to identify a new poor prognostic subgroup in AML.

Liu F, Gao L, Jing Y, et al.
Detection and clinical significance of gene rearrangements in Chinese patients with adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Leuk Lymphoma. 2013; 54(7):1521-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study aimed to develop a novel multiplex reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nPCR) assay to accurately and effectively detect 10 common gene rearrangements in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and to examine the clinicopathologic characteristics and other genetic aberrations of patients with ALL expressing different fusion genes. Our RT-nPCR assay had a positive detection rate of 35.15% (90/256) for the 10 fusion genes. BCR-ABL1, FUS-ERG, MLL-AF4, ETV6-RUNX1, E2A-PBX1, dupMLL, MLL-AF10, MLL-ENL, SET-NUP214 and SIL-TAL1 were detected in 36 (14.06%), 14 (5.47%), 14 (5.47%), four (1.56%), four (1.56%), five (1.95%), four (1.56%), two (0.78%), two (0.78%) and five patients (1.95%), respectively. The RT-nPCR results were further confirmed by split-out PCR, and cytogenetic and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis revealed corresponding translocations and fusions in 63 and 74 cases, respectively. JAK2 and IKZF1 mutations were commonly detected in patients with BCR-ABL1 ALL, and HOX overexpression was highly correlated with MLL fusions and SET-NUP214. This study demonstrates that RT-nPCR is an effective method for identifying 10 gene rearrangements in adult ALL, and it could potentially be developed for diagnostic use and prognostic studies of ALL.

Ramirez E, Singh RR, Kunkalla K, et al.
Defining causative factors contributing in the activation of hedgehog signaling in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Leuk Res. 2012; 36(10):1267-73 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is activated in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Genetic abnormalities that explain activation of Hh signaling in DLBCL are unknown. We investigate the presence of amplifications of Hh genes that might result in activation of this pathway in DLBCL. Our data showed few extra copies of GLI1 and SMO due to chromosomal aneuploidies in a subset of DLBCL cell lines. We also showed that pharmacologic inhibition of PI3K/AKT and NF-κB pathways resulted in decreased expression of GLI1 and Hh ligands. In conclusion, our data support the hypothesis that aberrant activation of Hh signaling in DLBCL mainly results from integration of deregulated oncogenic signaling inputs converging into Hh signaling.

Kinoshita Y, Kalir T, Dottino P, Kohtz DS
Nuclear distributions of NUP62 and NUP214 suggest architectural diversity and spatial patterning among nuclear pore complexes.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(4):e36137 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The shape of nuclei in many adherent cultured cells approximates an oblate ellipsoid, with contralateral flattened surfaces facing the culture plate or the medium. Observations of cultured cell nuclei from orthogonal perspectives revealed that nucleoporin p62 (NUP62) and nucleoporin 214 (NUP214) are differentially distributed between nuclear pore complexes on the flattened surfaces and peripheral rim of the nucleus. High resolution stimulated emission depletion (STED) immunofluorescence microscopy resolved individual NPCs, and suggested both heterogeneity and microheterogeneity in NUP62 and NUP214 immunolabeling among in NPC populations. Similar to nuclear domains and interphase chromosome territories, architectural diversity and spatial patterning of NPCs may be an intrinsic property of the nucleus that is linked to the functions and organization of underlying chromatin.

Lee SG, Park TS, Cho SY, et al.
T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia associated with complex karyotype and SET-NUP214 rearrangement: a case study and review of the literature.
Ann Clin Lab Sci. 2011; 41(3):267-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
SET-NUP214 rearrangements have been rarely reported in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), acute undifferentiated leukemia, and acute myeloid leukemia, and most documented cases have been associated with normal karyotypes in conventional cytogenetic analyses. Here, we describe a novel case of T-ALL associated with a mediastinal mass and a SET-NUP214 rearrangement, which was masked by a complex karyotype at the time of initial diagnosis. Using multiplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis, we detected a cryptic SET-NUP214 rearrangement in our patient. As only 11 cases (including the present study) of T-ALL with SET-NUP214 rearrangement have been reported, the clinical features and treatment outcomes have not been fully determined. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the incidence of SET-NUP214 rearrangement in T-ALL patients and the treatment responses as well as prognosis of these patients.

Wang Q, Qiu H, Jiang H, et al.
Mutations of PHF6 are associated with mutations of NOTCH1, JAK1 and rearrangement of SET-NUP214 in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Haematologica. 2011; 96(12):1808-14 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Mutations in the PHF6 gene were recently described in patients with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and in those with acute myeloid leukemia. The present study was designed to determine the prevalence of PHF6 gene alterations in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
DESIGN AND METHODS: We analyzed the incidence and prognostic value of PHF6 mutations in 96 Chinese patients with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. PHF6 deletions were screened by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and array-based comparative genomic hybridization. Patients were also investigated for NOTCH1, FBXW7, WT1, and JAK1 mutations together with CALM-AF10, SET-NUP214, and SIL-TAL1 gene rearrangements.
RESULTS: PHF6 mutations were identified in 11/59 (18.6%) adult and 2/37 (5.4%) pediatric cases of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, these incidences being significantly lower than those recently reported. Although PHF6 is X-linked and mutations have been reported to occur almost exclusively in male patients, we found no sex difference in the incidences of PHF6 mutations in Chinese patients with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. PHF6 deletions were detected in 2/79 (2.5%) patients analyzed. NOTCH1 mutations, FBXW7 mutations, WT1 mutations, JAK1 mutations, SIL-TAL1 fusions, SET-NUP214 fusions and CALM-AF10 fusions were present in 44/96 (45.8%), 9/96 (9.4%), 4/96 (4.1%), 3/49 (6.1%), 9/48 (18.8%), 3/48 (6.3%) and 0/48 (0%) of patients, respectively. The molecular genetic markers most frequently associated with PHF6 mutations were NOTCH1 mutations (P=0.003), SET-NUP214 rearrangements (P=0.002), and JAK1 mutations (P=0.005). No differences in disease-free survival and overall survival between T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients with and without PHF6 mutations were observed in a short-term follow-up.
CONCLUSIONS: Overall, these results indicate that, in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, PHF6 mutations are a recurrent genetic abnormality associated with mutations of NOTCH1, JAK1 and rearrangement of SET-NUP214.

Chae H, Lim J, Kim M, et al.
Phenotypic and genetic characterization of adult T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia with del(9)(q34);SET-NUP214 rearrangement.
Ann Hematol. 2012; 91(2):193-201 [PubMed] Related Publications
SET-NUP214 rearrangement is a recently recognized recurrent chromosomal translocation mostly observed in T-ALL. In order to characterize this rare entity, we performed phenotypic and genetic characterization of SET-NUP214 rearrangement through an investigation of a series of 40 consecutive samples of adult T-ALL that was selected among 229 adult ALL cases during 4 years in a single institution. Four cases (10%) of SET-NUP214 translocation were identified in our study. In all cases, diagnosis of T-ALL was established according to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification, and clonal TCR rearrangements were found. The immunophenotypic markers were indicative of the precursor nature of T lymphoblasts, and they expressed one or both of the myeloid-associated antigens (CD13, CD33). Conventional cytogenetic analysis revealed complex chromosomal aberrations in all four SET-NUP214 rearranged cases and del(12)(p13)/ETV6 was frequently involved. Array-CGH demonstrated additional genomic imbalances in addition to deletion 9q34. The genomic breakpoint sequencing identified breakpoints at SET intron 7 and NUP214 intron 17, and random nucleotide addition was found in two cases at the site of rearrangement. Our independently derived data set from a single institution confirms previous findings of SET-NUP214 rearrangement, indicates the relatively high incidence of SET-NUP214 rearrangement in adult T-ALLs, and also demonstrates comprehensive clinical, phenotypic, and genetic characteristics of this entity. Also, our report on genomic breakpoints demonstrates the homogeneity in the localization of the genomic breakpoints at 9q34. Concurrent chromosomal aberrations identified in this study should provide further areas of interest in investigation of SET-NUP214-mediated leukemogenesis.

Kohler C, Tavelin B, Fan AX, et al.
Assessing the value of CAN-gene mutations using MALDI-TOF MS.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2011; 137(8):1239-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To identify cancer-linked genes, Sjöblom et al. and Wood et al. performed a genome-wide mutation screening in human breast and colorectal cancers. 140 CAN-genes were found in breast cancer, which in turn contained overall 334 mutations. These mutations could prove useful for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.
METHODS: We used a MALDI-TOF MS 40-plex assay for testing 40 loci within 21 high-ranking breast cancer CAN-genes. To confirm mutations, we performed single-plex assays and sequencing.
RESULTS: In general, the mutation rate of the analyzed loci in our sample cohort was very low. No mutation from the 40 loci analyzed could be found in the 6 cell lines. In tissue samples, a single breast cancer tissue sample showed heterozygosity at locus c.5834G>A within the ZFYVE26 gene (Zinc finger FYVE domain-containing gene 26).
CONCLUSIONS: Sjöblom et al./Wood et al. already showed that the vast majority of CAN-genes are mutated at very low frequency. Due to the fact that we only found one mutation in our cohort, we therefore assume that at the selected loci, mutations might be low-frequency events and therefore, more rarely detectable. However, further evaluation of the CAN-gene mutations in larger cohorts should be the aim of further studies.

Kleppe M, Soulier J, Asnafi V, et al.
PTPN2 negatively regulates oncogenic JAK1 in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Blood. 2011; 117(26):7090-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
We have recently reported inactivation of the tyrosine phosphatase PTPN2 (also known as TC-PTP) through deletion of the entire gene locus in ∼ 6% of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cases. T-ALL is an aggressive disease of the thymocytes characterized by the stepwise accumulation of chromosomal abnormalities and gene mutations. In the present study, we confirmed the strong association of the PTPN2 deletion with TLX1 and NUP214-ABL1 expression. In addition, we found cooperation between PTPN2 deletion and activating JAK1 gene mutations. Activating mutations in JAK1 kinase occur in ∼ 10% of human T-ALL cases, and aberrant kinase activity has been shown to confer proliferation and survival advantages. Our results reveal that some JAK1 mutation-positive T-ALLs harbor deletions of the tyrosine phosphatase PTPN2, a known negative regulator of the JAK/STAT pathway. We provide evidence that down-regulation of Ptpn2 sensitizes lymphoid cells to JAK1-mediated transformation and reduces their sensitivity to JAK inhibition.

De Braekeleer E, Douet-Guilbert N, Rowe D, et al.
ABL1 fusion genes in hematological malignancies: a review.
Eur J Haematol. 2011; 86(5):361-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chromosomal rearrangements involving the ABL1 gene, leading to a BCR-ABL1 fusion gene, have been mainly associated with chronic myeloid leukemia and B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). At present, six other genes have been shown to fuse to ABL1. The kinase domain of ABL1 is retained in all chimeric proteins that are also composed of the N-terminal part of the partner protein that often includes a coiled-coil or a helix-loop-helix domain. These latter domains allow oligomerization of the protein that is required for tyrosine kinase activation, cytoskeletal localization, and neoplastic transformation. Fusion genes that have a break in intron 1 or 2 (BCR-ABL1, ETV6-ABL1, ZMIZ1-ABL1, EML1-ABL1, and NUP214-ABL1) have transforming activity, although NUP214-ABL1 requires amplification to be efficient. The NUP214-ABL1 gene is the second most prevalent fusion gene involving ABL1 in malignant hemopathies, with a frequency of 5% in T-cell ALL. Both fusion genes (SFPQ-ABL1 and RCSD1-ABL1) characterized by a break in intron 4 of ABL1 are associated with B-cell ALL, as the chimeric proteins lacked the SH2 domain of ABL1. Screening for ABL1 chimeric genes could be performed in patients with ALL, more particularly in those with T-cell ALL because ABL1 modulates T-cell development and plays a role in cytoskeletal remodeling processes in T cells.

Herzlinger D
Upper urinary tract pacemaker cells join the GLI club.
J Clin Invest. 2011; 121(3):836-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mutations in GLI3, a component of the Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway, cause a variety of human developmental syndromes. In this issue of the JCI, Cain and colleagues show that tightly regulated GLI3 repressor activity is essential for Shh-dependent differentiation of upper urinary tract pacemaker cells and the efficient flow of urine from the kidney to the bladder. These results link defective pacemaker cell differentiation with hydronephrosis and provide a cellular basis for one of the abnormal renal defects observed in humans with the GLI3-linked disease Pallister-Hall syndrome.

Asleson AD, Morgan V, Smith S, Velagaleti GV
Amplification of the RARA gene in acute myeloid leukemia: significant finding or coincidental observation?
Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2010; 202(1):33-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Oncogene amplification resulting in aberrant expression, although common in solid tumors, is rare in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and is mostly associated with amplification of MYC, RUNX1, and MLL genes. Retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARA) and other target sequences at 17p11.2 often represent the amplicons expressed in breast cancer, not in AML. We present a unique case of a 59-year-old female with a history of breast cancer, now presenting with pancytopenia and bilateral infiltration with effusion in nodules of the right upper lobe of the lung. She was diagnosed with AML-M5. Chromosome analysis demonstrated a hypodiploid clone with complex numerical/structural abnormalities including 5q deletion, monosomy 7, as well as structurally rearranged chromosome 11 and several marker chromosomes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis showed amplification of RARA, loss of 7q, monosomy 7, loss of DEK (6p23), and additional copies of NUP214 (9q34) and MLL (11q23). Additional FISH studies showed both ERBB2 and TOP2A genes, which were co-amplified on one of the marker chromosomes. The follow-up bone marrow did not yield any metaphases, but FISH was normal for all probes, including RARA. After a short remission, the patient relapsed and showed clonal evolution. Additional case reports are necessary to assess whether RARA amplification in hematologic malignancies serves as an independent prognostic factor.

Cools J
Identification and characterization of novel oncogenes in chronic eosinophilic leukemia and T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Verh K Acad Geneeskd Belg. 2010; 72(1-2):55-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
Research conducted in my group in the period 2006-2009 has led to a better understanding of the oncogenic mechanisms of the FIP1L1-PDGFRA and NUP214-ABL1 oncogenes. Insights into these mechanisms may help us to design novel strategies to treat leukemia. In addition, we have identified the small molecule inhibitor sorafenib as a potent inhibitor of the FIP1L1-PDGFRA and its T674I imatinib resistant mutant. Sorafenib was originally developed as a BRAF inhibitor, but our work demonstrates that sorafenib can also be used to treat FIP1L1-PDGFRA positive leukemia, demonstrating that new therapies to treat rare leukemias may be simply found by testing drugs that are already in use for the treatment of other diseases. Finally, using genome-wide screening approaches, we have identified the MYB gene as a novel oncogene implicated in the pathogenesis of T-ALL, and we suggest that MYB may represent a novel target for therapy in T-ALL as well as in other cancers.

Kim J, Lee SG, Song J, et al.
Molecular characterization of alternative SET-NUP214 fusion transcripts in a case of acute undifferentiated leukemia.
Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2010; 201(2):73-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cryptic deletions are occasionally reported in hematologic malignancies. The SET-NUP214 fusion gene has been rarely reported in acute myeloid leukemia, acute undifferentiated leukemia, and recurrently in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The fusion product is generated by a submicroscopic deletion in the vicinity of 9q34. Herein we present a novel case of acute undifferentiated leukemia with SET-NUP214 rearrangement due to the cryptic deletion of the 9q34 region producing two different types of fusion transcripts by alternative splicing and molecular characterization of the fusion transcripts by fluorescence in situ hybridization, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, and array comparative genomic hybridization analyses.

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