Gene Summary

Gene:PERP; p53 apoptosis effector related to PMP22
Aliases: THW, KCP1, PIGPC1, KRTCAP1, dJ496H19.1
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:p53 apoptosis effector related to PMP-22
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (12)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Breast Cancer
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Eye Cancer
  • Signal Transduction
  • bcl-2-Associated X Protein
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • p53 Protein
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Phosphorylation
  • Tumor Suppressor Gene
  • Melanoma
  • beta Catenin
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Apoptosis
  • Loss of Heterozygosity
  • Vulvar Cancer
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Ultraviolet Rays
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Chromosome 6
  • Esophageal Cancer
  • Transcriptional Activation
  • CDKN1A
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Receptor, erbB-2
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • TP53
  • Desmosomes
  • Transcriptome
  • Western Blotting
  • TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand
  • Down-Regulation
  • RT-PCR
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Mutation
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Transcription Factors
  • Up-Regulation
  • Trans-Activators
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: PERP (cancer-related)

Chen B, Li Z, Feng Y, et al.
Myocardin-related transcription factor A (MRTF-A) mediates doxorubicin-induced PERP transcription in colon cancer cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 503(3):1732-1739 [PubMed] Related Publications
Doxorubicin (DOX) is a cytotoxic compound capable of instigating apoptosis in cancer cells. TP53 apoptosis effector (PERP) is a key mediator of apoptosis in multiple cell types. PERP transcription is activated by a range of pro-apoptotic stimuli. In the present study, we investigated the regulation of DOX-induced PERP transcription in colon cancer cells (SW480) by the transcriptional modulator myocardin-related transcription factor A (MRTF-A). We report that DOX treatment up-regulated MRTF-A expression paralleling PERP activation. DOX also promoted nuclear translocation of MRTF-A. On the contrary, MRTF-A depletion or inhibition attenuated DOX-induced apoptosis as evidenced by the MTT assay and caspase 3 cleavage. In accordance, MRTF-A depletion or inhibition dampened PERP transcription. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay showed that DOX treatment promoted the binding of MRTF-A on the PERP promoter. Mechanistically, MRTF-A was recruited to the PERP promoter by activator protein 1 (AP-1). AP-1 interacted and cooperated with MRTF-A to activate PERP transcription. AP-1 silencing weakened PERP trans-activation by DOX presumably by compromising MRTF-A recruitment to the PERP promoter. In conclusion, our data suggest that MRTF-A might be a key regulator of DOX-induced PERP transcription in colon cancer cells.

Xia L, Xiao X, Liu WL, et al.
Coactosin-like protein CLP/Cotl1 suppresses breast cancer growth through activation of IL-24/PERP and inhibition of non-canonical TGFβ signaling.
Oncogene. 2018; 37(3):323-331 [PubMed] Related Publications
Coactosin-like protein (CLP, or Cotl1), is an F-actin-binding protein, whose role in cancer is largely unknown. Here we show that CLP/Cotl1 is highly expressed in a rat epithelial breast cancer cell line (FE1.3) compared with its mesenchymal counterpart (FE1.2). Knockdown of CLP/Cotl1 in FE1.3 cells increased cell proliferation, whereas its overexpression in FE1.2 cells inhibited proliferation in culture and reduced tumor growth in xenograft assays in mice. Mechanistically, we identified two major pathways through which CLP/Cotl1 exerts its suppressive effects. First, CLP/Cotl1 re-expression in FE1.2 and in human MCF7 breast cancer cells induced expression of the growth-suppressor gene interleukin-24 (IL-24), which independently of p53 upregulates the tumor-suppressor genes p53 apoptosis effector related to PMP-22 (PERP) and p21

Chen S, Liang H, Yang H, et al.
Long non-coding RNAs: The novel diagnostic biomarkers for leukemia.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2017; 55:81-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
Long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) are a category of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) with a length of 200nt-100kb lacking a significant open reading frame. The study of lncRNAs is a newly established field, due in part to their capability to act as the novel biomarkers in disease. A growing body of research shows that lncRNAs may not only useful as biomarkers for the diagnosis and clinical typing and prognosis of cancers, but also as potential targets for novel therapies. Differential expression of lncRNAs has been found in leukemia in the last two years, however, the majority of the lncRNAs described here are transcripts of unknown function and their role in leukemogenesis is still unclear. Here, we summarize the lncRNAs associated with leukemia in order to find a potential classification tool for leukemia, and a new field of research is being explored.

Chen S, Liang H, Yang H, et al.
LincRNa-p21: function and mechanism in cancer.
Med Oncol. 2017; 34(5):98 [PubMed] Related Publications
In view of the rapid development of gene chips and high-throughput sequencing technology, noncoding RNAs (ncRNas) form a high percentage of the mammalian genome. Two major subgroups of ncRNAs that have been identified are the long ncRNAs (lncRNas) and the microRNAs. A number of studies in the past few years have showed crucial functions for lncRNas in cancer. LincRNa-p21 as a p53-dependent transcriptional target gene and a potential diagnostic marker is involved in proliferation, cell cycle, metabolism and reprogramming. In addition, more researches revealed that lincRNa-p21 is associated with cancer progression and contributed to the treatment and prognosis of cancer. In this review, we briefly summarize the function and molecular mechanisms of lincRNa-p21 in cancer and its regulation for the genes expression .

Wang YW, Cheng HL, Ding YR, et al.
EMP1, EMP 2, and EMP3 as novel therapeutic targets in human cancer.
Biochim Biophys Acta Rev Cancer. 2017; 1868(1):199-211 [PubMed] Related Publications
The epithelial membrane protein genes 1, 2, and 3 (EMP1, EMP2, and EMP3) belong to the peripheral myelin protein 22-kDa (PMP22) gene family, which consists of at least seven members: PMP22, EMP1, EMP2, EMP3, PERP, brain cell membrane protein 1, and MP20. This review addresses the structural and functional features of EMPs, detailing their tissue distribution and functions in the human body, their expression pattern in a variety of tumors, and highlighting the underlying mechanisms involved in carcinogenesis. The implications in cancer biology, patient prognosis prediction, and potential application in disease therapy are discussed. For example, EMP1 was reported to be a biomarker of gefitinib resistance in lung cancer and contributes to prednisolone resistance in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients. EMP2 functions as an oncogene in human endometrial and ovarian cancers; however, characteristics of EMP2 in urothelial cancer fulfill the criteria of a suppressor gene. Of particular interest, EMP3 overexpression in breast cancer is significantly related to strong HER-2 expression. Co-expression of HER-2 and EMP3 is the most important indicator of progression-free and metastasis-free survival for patients with urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract. Altogether, discovery of pharmacological inhibitors and/or regulators of EMP protein activity could open novel strategies for enhanced therapy against EMP-mediated human diseases.

Kiseljak-Vassiliades K, Mills TS, Zhang Y, et al.
Elucidating the Role of the Desmosome Protein p53 Apoptosis Effector Related to PMP-22 in Growth Hormone Tumors.
Endocrinology. 2017; 158(5):1450-1460 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Densely granulated and sparsely granulated (SG) growth hormone (GH) pituitary adenomas differ in biological behavior, which may be correlated with their known differences in cytoplasmic keratin distribution and E-cadherin expression. We wanted to explore candidate genes that might further explain this behavior. Exon expression microarray was performed on 21 GH tumors (10 SG and 11 densely granulated) and 20 normal control pituitaries from autopsy. Bioinformatic analyses confirmed a differential molecular signature between normal pituitary and GH tumors as well as between the GH tumor subtypes. There was a consistent downregulation of transcripts involved in the structure and function of the desmosome, including desmoplakin (eightfold), desmoglein 2 (sixfold), plakophilin 2 (sevenfold), and p53 apoptosis effector related to PMP-22 (PERP; sixfold) in SG tumors compared with normal pituitary. PERP is lost in more aggressive SG human GH pituitary tumors. PERP re-expression in GH3 rat GH tumor cells resulted in decreased colony formation compared with vector transfectants, confirming the role of PERP as a tumor suppressor with no effects on proliferation. Increased PERP expression was associated with loss of a survival advantage in a hypoxic environment, as assessed by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (P < 0.05) and cleaved caspase-3 (P < 0.05). Downregulation of desmosomal formation transcripts including PERP may contribute to the aggressive phenotype seen in SG GH pituitary tumors and their behavior in response to surgery and medical therapy.

Khan IA, Yoo BH, Masson O, et al.
ErbB2-dependent downregulation of a pro-apoptotic protein Perp is required for oncogenic transformation of breast epithelial cells.
Oncogene. 2016; 35(44):5759-5769 [PubMed] Related Publications
The ability of breast cancer cells to resist anoikis, apoptosis caused by detachment of the non-malignant epithelial cells from the extracellular matrix (ECM), is thought to be critical for breast tumor growth, invasion and metastasis. ErbB2, an oncoprotein that is often overproduced in breast tumors, can block breast cancer cell anoikis via mechanisms that are understood only in part. In an effort to understand them better we found that detachment of the non-malignant human breast epithelial cells from the ECM upregulates a protein Perp in these cells. Perp is a component of the desmosomes, multiprotein complexes involved in cell-to-cell adhesion. Perp can cause apoptosis via unknown mechanisms. We demonstrated that Perp upregulation by cell detachment is driven by detachment-induced loss of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). We also found that Perp knockdown by RNA interference (RNAi) rescues detached cells from death which indicates that Perp contributes to their anoikis. We observed that ErbB2, when overexpressed in detached breast epithelial cells, causes Perp downregulation. Furthermore, ErbB2-directed RNAi or treatment with lapatinib, an ErbB2/EGFR small-molecule inhibitor used for breast cancer therapy, upregulated Perp in ErbB2-positive human breast and ovarian carcinoma cells. We established that ErbB2 downregulates Perp by activating an ErbB2 effector protein kinase Mek that blocks detachment-induced EGFR loss in a manner that requires the presence of a signaling protein Sprouty-2. Finally, we observed that restoration of the wild-type Perp levels in ErbB2-overproducing breast epithelial cells increases their anoikis susceptibility and blocks their clonogenicity in the absence of adhesion to the ECM. In summary, we have identified a novel mechanism of ErbB2-mediated mechanism of anoikis resistance of ErbB2-overproducing breast epithelial cells. This mechanism allows such cells to grow without adhesion to the ECM and is driven by ErbB2-induced activation of Mek, subsequent EGFR upregulation and further EGFR-dependent Perp loss.

Awais R, Spiller DG, White MR, Paraoan L
p63 is required beside p53 for PERP-mediated apoptosis in uveal melanoma.
Br J Cancer. 2016; 115(8):983-992 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: PERP (p53 apoptosis effector related to PMP-22), a transcriptional target of p53, is downregulated and contributes to the impairment of apoptosis in uveal melanoma (UM). Intriguingly, PERP is not induced in UM despite functional p53. p63, located on chromosome 3, which is characteristically altered in high-risk UM, can transactivate PERP. Here, we determine the functional role of p63 expression in the initiation of p53/PERP-mediated apoptosis in UM.
METHODS: PERP expression was monitored by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and immunoblotting in UM cell lines treated with DNA-damaging agents. The functional role of p63 was assessed by transient expression of p63-turbo GFP (p63-tGFP) in the apoptosis- resistant, 3q-deficient OCM-1 cells. Expression and localisation of p63, PERP and p53, and induction of apoptosis were characterised by qPCR, immunoblotting and live cell confocal microscopy.
RESULTS: PERP expression was significantly downregulated in all UM cell lines. DNA-damaging treatments failed to induce apoptosis and activate PERP in OCM-1 cells, which displayed non-functional levels of p63. Expression of p63-tGFP induced apoptosis with marked increase in PERP expression and associated p53 accumulation.
CONCLUSIONS: Lack of p63 contributes to reduced PERP levels and impaired p53-mediated apoptosis in UM. p63 expression is required for PERP-mediated apoptosis in UM.

Chen Y, Chen J, Yun L, et al.
Hydroquinone-induced malignant transformation of TK6 cells by facilitating SIRT1-mediated p53 degradation and up-regulating KRAS.
Toxicol Lett. 2016; 259:133-142 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hydroquinone (HQ), known as one of the metabolic products of benzene, causes a number of hematologic malignancies. The study evaluated the potential mechanism of Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) in HQ-induced TK6 cell malignant transformation. The data of our study show that short term exposure of TK6 cells to HQ led to a decrease expression of SIRT1. Knockdown of SIRT1 sensitized to the HQ-induced apoptosis in vitro and increased the expression of p53, p21 and γ-H2AX. Furthermore, chronic HQ-treated (20μM once a week for 19 weeks) caused carcinogenic transformation and was confirmed by abnormal cell proliferation, matrix metalloproteinase 9(MMP9) and subcutaneous tumor formation in nude mice. SIRT1 increased KRAS expression, and decreased H3K9 and H3K18 acetylation, inhibited p53 signaling and the level of caspase-3 in HQ-induced transformation cells. Taken together, these data suggest that SIRT1 is involved in HQ-induced malignant transformation associated with suppressing p53 signaling and activation of KRAS.

Belinsky MG, Rink L, Cai KQ, et al.
Somatic loss of function mutations in neurofibromin 1 and MYC associated factor X genes identified by exome-wide sequencing in a wild-type GIST case.
BMC Cancer. 2015; 15:887 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Approximately 10-15 % of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) lack gain of function mutations in the KIT and platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) genes. An alternate mechanism of oncogenesis through loss of function of the succinate-dehydrogenase (SDH) enzyme complex has been identified for a subset of these "wild type" GISTs.
METHODS: Paired tumor and normal DNA from an SDH-intact wild-type GIST case was subjected to whole exome sequencing to identify the pathogenic mechanism(s) in this tumor. Selected findings were further investigated in panels of GIST tumors through Sanger DNA sequencing, quantitative real-time PCR, and immunohistochemical approaches.
RESULTS: A hemizygous frameshift mutation (p.His2261Leufs*4), in the neurofibromin 1 (NF1) gene was identified in the patient's GIST; however, no germline NF1 mutation was found. A somatic frameshift mutation (p.Lys54Argfs*31) in the MYC associated factor X (MAX) gene was also identified. Immunohistochemical analysis for MAX on a large panel of GISTs identified loss of MAX expression in the MAX-mutated GIST and in a subset of mainly KIT-mutated tumors.
CONCLUSION: This study suggests that inactivating NF1 mutations outside the context of neurofibromatosis may be the oncogenic mechanism for a subset of sporadic GIST. In addition, loss of function mutation of the MAX gene was identified for the first time in GIST, and a broader role for MAX in GIST progression was suggested.

Li YJ, Liu G, Xia L, et al.
Suppression of Her2/Neu mammary tumor development in mda-7/IL-24 transgenic mice.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(35):36943-54 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Melanoma differentiation associated gene-7/interleukin-24 (mda-7/IL-24) encodes a tumor suppressor gene implicated in the growth of various tumor types including breast cancer. We previously demonstrated that recombinant adenovirus-mediated mda-7/IL-24 expression in the mammary glands of carcinogen-treated (methylnitrosourea, MNU) rats suppressed mammary tumor development. Since most MNU-induced tumors in rats contain activating mutations in Ha-ras, which arenot frequently detected in humans, we presently examined the effect of MDA-7/IL-24 on Her2/Neu-induced mammary tumors, in which the RAS pathway is induced. We generated tet-inducible MDA-7/IL-24 transgenic mice and crossed them with Her2/Neu transgenic mice. Triple compound transgenic mice treated with doxycycline exhibited a strong inhibition of tumor development, demonstrating tumor suppressor activity by MDA-7/IL-24 in immune-competent mice. MDA-7/IL-24 induction also inhibited growth of tumors generated following injection of Her2/Neu tumor cells isolated from triple compound transgenic mice that had not been treated with doxycycline, into the mammary fat pads of isogenic FVB mice. Despite initial growth suppression, tumors in triple compound transgenic mice lost mda-7/IL-24 expression and grew, albeit after longer latency, indicating that continuous presence of this cytokine within tumor microenvironment is crucial to sustain tumor inhibitory activity. Mechanistically, MDA-7/IL-24 exerted its tumor suppression effect on HER2+ breast cancer cells, at least in part, through PERP, a member of PMP-22 family with growth arrest and apoptosis-inducing capacity. Overall, our results establish mda-7/IL-24 as a suppressor of mammary tumor development and provide a rationale for using this cytokine in the prevention/treatment of human breast cancer.

Wang SS, Hsiao R, Limpar MM, et al.
Destabilization of MYC/MYCN by the mitochondrial inhibitors, metaiodobenzylguanidine, metformin and phenformin.
Int J Mol Med. 2014; 33(1):35-42 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In the present study, we investigated the anticancer effects of the mitochondrial inhibitors, metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), metformin and phenformin. 131I-MIBG has been used for scintigraphic detection and the targeted radiotherapy of neuroblastoma (NB), a pediatric malignancy. Non-radiolabeled MIBG has been reported to be cytotoxic to NB cells in vitro and in vivo. However, the mechanisms behind its growth suppressive effects have not yet been fully elucidated. Metformin and phenformin are diabetes medications that are being considered in anticancer therapeutics. We investigated the anticancer mechanisms of action of MIBG and metformin in NB. Our data revealed that both drugs suppressed NB cell growth and that the combination drug treatment was more potent. MIBG reduced MYCN and MYC expression in MYCN-amplified and non-MYCN-amplified NB cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Metformin was less effective than MIBG in destabilizing MYC/MYCN. The treatment of NB cells with metformin or MIBG resulted in an increased expression of genes encoding biomarkers for favorable outcome in NB [(ephrin (EFN)B2, EFNB3, EPH receptor B6 (EPHB6), neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor, type 1 (NTRK1), CD44 and Myc-interacting zinc finger protein (MIZ-1)] and tumor suppressor genes [(early growth response 1 (EGR1), EPH receptor A2 (EPHA2), growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible, beta (GADD45B), neuregulin 1 (NRG1), TP53 apoptosis effector (PERP) and sel-1 suppressor of lin-12-like (C. elegans) (SEL1L)]. Accordingly, metformin and MIBG augmented histone H3 acetylation in these cells. Phenformin also exhibited histone modification and was more effective than metformin in destabilizing MYC/MYCN in NB cells. Our data suggest that the destabilization of MYC/MYCN by MIBG, metformin and phenformin and their effects on histone modification are important mechanisms underlying their anticancer effects.

Coenen EA, Zwaan CM, Reinhardt D, et al.
Pediatric acute myeloid leukemia with t(8;16)(p11;p13), a distinct clinical and biological entity: a collaborative study by the International-Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster AML-study group.
Blood. 2013; 122(15):2704-13 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML), cytogenetic abnormalities are strong indicators of prognosis. Some recurrent cytogenetic abnormalities, such as t(8;16)(p11;p13), are so rare that collaborative studies are required to define their prognostic impact. We collected the clinical characteristics, morphology, and immunophenotypes of 62 pediatric AML patients with t(8;16)(p11;p13) from 18 countries participating in the International Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster (I-BFM) AML study group. We used the AML-BFM cohort diagnosed from 1995-2005 (n = 543) as a reference cohort. Median age of the pediatric t(8;16)(p11;p13) AML patients was significantly lower (1.2 years). The majority (97%) had M4-M5 French-American-British type, significantly different from the reference cohort. Erythrophagocytosis (70%), leukemia cutis (58%), and disseminated intravascular coagulation (39%) occurred frequently. Strikingly, spontaneous remissions occurred in 7 neonates with t(8;16)(p11;p13), of whom 3 remain in continuous remission. The 5-year overall survival of patients diagnosed after 1993 was 59%, similar to the reference cohort (P = .14). Gene expression profiles of t(8;16)(p11;p13) pediatric AML cases clustered close to, but distinct from, MLL-rearranged AML. Highly expressed genes included HOXA11, HOXA10, RET, PERP, and GGA2. In conclusion, pediatric t(8;16)(p11;p13) AML is a rare entity defined by a unique gene expression signature and distinct clinical features in whom spontaneous remissions occur in a subset of neonatal cases.

Gerber JM, Gucwa JL, Esopi D, et al.
Genome-wide comparison of the transcriptomes of highly enriched normal and chronic myeloid leukemia stem and progenitor cell populations.
Oncotarget. 2013; 4(5):715-28 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The persistence leukemia stem cells (LSCs) in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) despite tyrosine kinase inhibition (TKI) may explain relapse after TKI withdrawal. Here we performed genome-wide transcriptome analysis of highly refined CML and normal stem and progenitor cell populations to identify novel targets for the eradication of CML LSCs using exon microarrays. We identified 97 genes that were differentially expressed in CML versus normal stem and progenitor cells. These included cell surface genes significantly upregulated in CML LSCs: DPP4 (CD26), IL2RA (CD25), PTPRD, CACNA1D, IL1RAP, SLC4A4, and KCNK5. Further analyses of the LSCs revealed dysregulation of normal cellular processes, evidenced by alternative splicing of genes in key cancer signaling pathways such as p53 signaling (e.g. PERP, CDKN1A), kinase binding (e.g. DUSP12, MARCKS), and cell proliferation (MYCN, TIMELESS); downregulation of pro-differentiation and TGF-β/BMP signaling pathways; upregulation of oxidative metabolism and DNA repair pathways; and activation of inflammatory cytokines, including CCL2, and multiple oncogenes (e.g., CCND1). These data represent an important resource for understanding the molecular changes in CML LSCs, which may be exploited to develop novel therapies for eradication these cells and achieve cure.

Kong CS, Cao H, Kwok S, et al.
Loss of the p53/p63 target PERP is an early event in oral carcinogenesis and correlates with higher rate of local relapse.
Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2013; 115(1):95-103 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: PERP is a p53/p63-regulated gene encoding a desmosomal protein that plays a critical role in cell-cell adhesion and tumor suppression.
STUDY DESIGN: We evaluated PERP expression in different grades of oral dysplasia (34 cases) and at different stages of invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and correlated the latter with clinical outcome. A tissue microarray consisting of nondysplastic mucosa, carcinoma in situ, SCC, and nodal metastases from 33 patients with human papilloma virus-negative SCC was stained for PERP and E-cadherin.
RESULTS: Complete loss of PERP expression was associated with worse local control in patients with SCC. The 5-year local control rate was 91% for patients with partial PERP loss versus 31% for those with complete loss (P = .01).
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to show that loss of PERP expression correlates with the transition to SCC and with increased local relapse in patients with oral cavity SCC.

Proestling K, Hebar A, Pruckner N, et al.
The Pro allele of the p53 codon 72 polymorphism is associated with decreased intratumoral expression of BAX and p21, and increased breast cancer risk.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(10):e47325 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The TP53 Arg72Pro polymorphism encodes two p53 variants with different biochemical properties. Here we investigated the impact of this polymorphism on the expression of key p53 target genes in a panel of human breast carcinomas, breast cancer risk, and age at onset.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The Arg72Pro polymorphism was genotyped in 270 breast cancer patients and 221 control subjects. In addition, the Arg72Pro genotype of 116 breast tumors was determined, and correlated with intratumoral mRNA expression of TP53 and its key target genes MDM2, p21, BAX, and PERP, as quantified by qRT-PCR. We found a significantly increased breast cancer risk associated with the Pro-allele (per-allele odds ratio, 1.46; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.99), and a significantly later mean age at breast cancer onset for Pro/Pro patients (63.2±18 years) compared to Arg/Arg patients (58.2±15 years). The frequency of somatic TP53 inactivation was 25.4% in Arg/Arg, 20.9% in Arg/Pro, and 16.7% in Pro/Pro patients, which may reflect a higher selective pressure to mutate the Arg-allele. The median mRNA levels of p21 and BAX in the tumors of Pro-allele carriers were significantly reduced to 55.7% and 76.9% compared to Arg/Arg patients, whereas p53, MDM2 and PERP expression were hardly altered.
CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The p53(72Arg) variant appears to be a more potent in vivo transcription factor and tumor suppressor in human breast cancer than the p53(72Pro) variant. The Arg72Pro genotype has no significant effects in patients with TP53 mutated tumors, in which p53 is non-functional.

Kowalewska M, Radziszewski J, Goryca K, et al.
Estimation of groin recurrence risk in patients with squamous cell vulvar carcinoma by the assessment of marker gene expression in the lymph nodes.
BMC Cancer. 2012; 12:223 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Regional lymph node (LN) status is a well-known prognostic factor for vulvar carcinoma (VC) patients. Although the reliable LN assessment in VC is crucial, it presents significant diagnostic problems. We aimed to identify specific mRNA markers of VC dissemination in the LN and to address the feasibility of predicting the risk of nodal recurrence by the patterns of gene expression.
METHODS: Sentinel and inguinal LN samples from 20 patients who had undergone surgery for stage T(1-3), N(0-2), M(0) primary vulvar squamous cell carcinoma were analyzed. Gene expression profiles were assessed in four metastatic [LN(+)] and four histologically negative [LN(-)] lymph node samples obtained from four VC patients, by the Affymetrix U133 Plus 2.0 gene expression microarrays. Of the set of genes of the highest expression in the metastatic LNs compared to LN(-), seven candidate marker genes were selected: PERP, S100A8, FABP5, SFN, CA12, JUP and CSTA, and the expression levels of these genes were further analyzed by the real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in 71 LN samples.
RESULTS: All of the seven genes in question were significantly increased in LN(+) compared to LN(-) samples. In the initial validation of the seven putative markers of metastatic LN, the Cox proportional hazard model pointed to SFN, CA12 and JUP expression to significantly relate to the time to groin recurrence in VC patients.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings first provided evidence that SFN, CA12 and JUP have a potential of marker genes for the prediction of the groin recurrence LN in VC patients.

Chen K, Luo Z, Li Z, et al.
PERP gene therapy attenuates lung cancer xenograft via inducing apoptosis and suppressing VEGF.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2011; 12(12):1114-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Inducing apoptosis is an attractive antitumor strategy. PERP is an apoptosis-associated target of p53, and its activation alone is sufficient to induce apoptotic pathway leading to cell death. We have previously demonstrated that overexpression of PERP in tumor cell lines with low intrinsic PERP activity suppressed cancer cell growth and enhanced sensitivity to chemotherapeutical agents. We further identified that PERP was present in surgical normal lung tissue, but absent in cancerous tissue of the same patient. Here, we sought to investigate the anti-tumor effects of PERP gene therapy in vivo. Then nude mice were transplanted with p53-mutanted Anip973 human lung cancer xenografts and treated with normal saline, pcDNA3.1 (vector) and pcDNA3.1-PERP, respectively. Successful transfection and robust expression of PERP was detected. Treatment with pcDNA3.1-PERP increased apoptosis and retarded growth in the xenografts, which contributed to a 55% decrease in tumor volume compared with controls. Furthermore, PERP gene therapy activated pro-apoptotic Caspase-3 cascade and upregulated the expression of the second mitochondria-derived activator of caspase (Smac) and human TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), while suppressed vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, indicating apoptosis and anti-angiogenesis are involved in the inhibitory effect of the PERP gene therapy. Taken together, our results suggest PERP gene therapy may supply an alternative strategy for lung adenocarcinoma management. Furthermore, Anip973 is a p53-mutanted cell line and the findings of this study provide reference value for other p53-mutanted cancers which is common among malignant tumors.

Rao S, Welsh L, Cunningham D, et al.
Correlation of overall survival with gene expression profiles in a prospective study of resectable esophageal cancer.
Clin Colorectal Cancer. 2011; 10(1):48-56 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Preoperative chemotherapy has demonstrated a survival benefit for patients with potentially resectable esophageal cancer; however, currently it is not possible to predict the benefit of this treatment for an individual patient. This prospective study was designed to correlate gene expression profiles with clinical outcome in this setting.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eligible patients were deemed to have resectable disease after staging by computed tomography, endoscopic ultrasound, and laparoscopy as indicated and following discussion at the multidisciplinary team meeting. All patients received neoadjuvant platinum and fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy; and clinical data were entered prospectively onto a study-specific database. Total RNA was isolated from pretreatment tumor biopsies obtained at baseline endoscopy and analyzed using a cDNA array consisting of 22,000 cDNA clones.
RESULTS: Of the patients with adequate follow-up accrued between 2002 and 2005, 35 satisfied the quality control measures for the microarray profiling. Median follow-up was 938 days. Supervised hierarchical clustering of normalized data revealed 165 significantly differentially expressed genes based on overall survival (OS; P < .01) with 2 distinct clusters: a poor outcome group: N = 17 (1 year OS 46.2%) and a good outcome group: N = 18 (1 year OS 100%). Genes identified included those previously associated with esophageal cancer and, interestingly, a group of genes encoding proteins involved in the regulation of the TOLL receptor-signaling pathway.
CONCLUSION: This initial study has highlighted groups of tumors with distinct gene expression profiles based on survival and warrants further validation in a larger cohort. This approach may further our understanding of individual tumor biology and thus facilitate the development of tailored treatment.

Davies L, Spiller D, White MR, et al.
PERP expression stabilizes active p53 via modulation of p53-MDM2 interaction in uveal melanoma cells.
Cell Death Dis. 2011; 2:e136 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The activation and regulation of target genes by the tumour-suppressor p53 dictates the fate of a cell, with cell cycle arrest or apoptosis being two distinct outcomes. PERP (p53 apoptosis effector related to PMP-22), a p53 transcriptional target, is induced specifically during apoptosis but not cell cycle arrest. Downregulation of PERP is associated with the aggressive, monosomy 3-type of uveal melanoma (UM), the most common primary intraocular tumour in adults, and increased PERP expression has a pro-apoptotic effect in UM cells. Here, we identify a novel effect of PERP expression, as elevated PERP protein positively influences active levels of its own transcriptional regulator, p53. Using fluorescent fusion proteins of PERP, p53 and MDM2, we demonstrate in single living UM cells that PERP expression significantly enhances p53 activity and its nuclear localization, increases p53-dependent transcription (including that of MDM2) while allowing oscillatory nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling of p53/MDM2 complexes. Phosphorylation of p53 serine residues that interfere with the interaction between p53 and its negative regulator MDM2 and enhance pro-apoptotic gene transcription also occurs subsequent to PERP expression. These results implicate a role for PERP in amplifying functional p53 levels that promote p53-dependent apoptosis, and reveal a potential target for exploitation in enhancing p53 activity.

Wu IC, Zhao Y, Zhai R, et al.
Interactions between genetic polymorphisms in the apoptotic pathway and environmental factors on esophageal adenocarcinoma risk.
Carcinogenesis. 2011; 32(4):502-6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
How genetic variations in apoptosis pathway interact with environmental factors to contribute to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) risk has not been comprehensively investigated. We conducted a case-only analysis in 335 Caucasian EA patients that were genotyped for 242 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 43 apoptotic genes. Gene-environment interactions were assessed using a two-step approach. First, random forest algorithm was used to screen for the potential interacting markers. Next, we used case-only logistic regression model to estimate the effects of gene-environment interactions on EA risk. Four SNPs (PERP rs648802; PIK3CA rs4855094, rs7644468 and TNFRSF1A rs4149579) had significant interaction with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The presence of variant alleles in TP53BP1 rs560191, CASP7 rs7907519 or BCL2 rs12454712 enhanced the risk of smoking by 2.08-2.58 times [interaction odds ratio (ORi)=2.08-2.58, adjusted P-value (Padj)=0.02-0.04]. Compared with patients carrying ≤1 risk genotype, the risk of GERD on EA was increased in persons with two (ORi=1.89, Padj=0.016) or ≥3 (ORi=4.30, Padj<0.0001) risk genotypes. Compared with cases with ≤1 risk genotype, smoking-associated EA risk increased by 3.15 times when ≥2 risk genotypes were present (ORi=3.15, Padj<0.0001). In conclusion, interactions among apoptotic SNPs and GERD or smoking play an important role in EA development.

Beaudry VG, Jiang D, Dusek RL, et al.
Loss of the p53/p63 regulated desmosomal protein Perp promotes tumorigenesis.
PLoS Genet. 2010; 6(10):e1001168 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Dysregulated cell-cell adhesion plays a critical role in epithelial cancer development. Studies of human and mouse cancers have indicated that loss of adhesion complexes known as adherens junctions contributes to tumor progression and metastasis. In contrast, little is known regarding the role of the related cell-cell adhesion junction, the desmosome, during cancer development. Studies analyzing expression of desmosome components during human cancer progression have yielded conflicting results, and therefore genetic studies using knockout mice to examine the functional consequence of desmosome inactivation for tumorigenesis are essential for elucidating the role of desmosomes in cancer development. Here, we investigate the consequences of desmosome loss for carcinogenesis by analyzing conditional knockout mice lacking Perp, a p53/p63 regulated gene that encodes an important component of desmosomes. Analysis of Perp-deficient mice in a UVB-induced squamous cell skin carcinoma model reveals that Perp ablation promotes both tumor initiation and progression. Tumor development is associated with inactivation of both of Perp's known functions, in apoptosis and cell-cell adhesion. Interestingly, Perp-deficient tumors exhibit widespread downregulation of desmosomal constituents while adherens junctions remain intact, suggesting that desmosome loss is a specific event important for tumorigenesis rather than a reflection of a general change in differentiation status. Similarly, human squamous cell carcinomas display loss of PERP expression with retention of adherens junctions components, indicating that this is a relevant stage of human cancer development. Using gene expression profiling, we show further that Perp loss induces a set of inflammation-related genes that could stimulate tumorigenesis. Together, these studies suggest that Perp-deficiency promotes cancer by enhancing cell survival, desmosome loss, and inflammation, and they highlight a fundamental role for Perp and desmosomes in tumor suppression. An understanding of the factors affecting cancer progression is important for ultimately improving the diagnosis, prognostication, and treatment of cancer.

Mundt HM, Stremmel W, Melino G, et al.
Dominant negative (DeltaN) p63alpha induces drug resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma by interference with apoptosis signaling pathways.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010; 396(2):335-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
p63 belongs to the family of p53-related transcription factors expressing a variety of isoforms. The Trp63 gene has two promoters that drive the expression of two major p63 isoform subfamilies. Isoforms of the TAp63 subfamily show pro-apoptotic activities, whereas members of the N-terminally truncated (DeltaN) p63 subfamily have anti-apoptotic functions. We have previously shown an important role for TAp63alpha in the induction of apoptosis and chemosensitivity of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we investigated the molecular mechanisms accounting for the oncogenic role of DeltaNp63alpha in HCC. DeltaNp63alpha can directly interfere with the transcriptional activation function of the TA (containing the transactivation domain) isoforms of the p53 family and consequently inhibit transactivation of pro-apoptotic target genes. DeltaNp63alpha negatively regulates the genes encoding for the death receptor CD95 and the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member BAX. Thus, DeltaNp63alpha expression in HCC interferes with both the death receptor and the mitochondrial apoptosis activity of the TA isoforms. In addition and of clinical relevance, DeltaNp63alpha inhibits activation of p53 family target genes and apoptosis induced by chemotherapeutic drugs. Chemotherapeutic treatment induces expression of Bax, Bim, Noxa, Puma and Perp; this is antagonized by DeltaNp63alpha. Our data suggest that the DeltaNp63alpha isoform represses apoptosis-related genes of the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis signaling pathways, thereby contributing to chemoresistance of HCC.

Das KM, Kong Y, Bajpai M, et al.
Transformation of benign Barrett's epithelium by repeated acid and bile exposure over 65 weeks: a novel in vitro model.
Int J Cancer. 2011; 128(2):274-82 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The mechanism by which gastroesophageal reflux promotes metaplasia→dysplasia→carcinoma is unknown. The aim of the study is to determine if repeated exposure to acid and bile confers a tumorigenic phenotype in a telomerase (hTERT)-immortalized benign Barrett's cell line (BAR-T). BAR-T cells were exposed to acid (pH 4) (A) and bile salt (200 μM glycochenodeoxycholic acid) (B) daily for 5 min up to 65+ weeks. The control cells were grown in parallel without any A or B treatment. Cell morphology, proliferation, transformation, and molecular changes in the gene expression for COX-2, TC22, p53 and p53 target genes were analyzed at 8-12 weeks intervals. At 46 weeks BAR-T cells exposed to (A+B) showed distinct phenotypic changes: forming clusters and acini, and at 65 weeks displayed foci in monolayer, and formed distinct colonies in soft agar. Untreated cells did not show any such changes. In A+B-treated BAR-T cells, COX-2 mRNA increased 10- to 20-fold, TC22 mRNA increased by 2- to 3-fold at 22-65 weeks, p53, MDM2, PERP, and p21mRNA increased 2.5-, 6.4-, 4-, and 2.6-fold respectively when compared to untreated cells at 34 weeks. However, at 58 weeks onward, there was a sharp decline of p53 and its target genes to the baseline level. At 65 weeks A+B-treated BAR-T cells formed tumor in nude mice whereas untreated cells did not. We demonstrate a novel in vitro model of transformation of a benign Barrett's cell line following repeated exposure to A+B over the course of 65 weeks.

Yarden RI, Friedman E, Metsuyanim S, et al.
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the p53 pathway genes modify cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers of Jewish-Ashkenazi descent.
Mol Carcinog. 2010; 49(6):545-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
Germline mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are associated with a significantly increased lifetime risk for developing breast and/or ovarian cancer. However, incomplete penetrance and substantial variability in age of disease onset among carriers of the same mutation suggests the involvement of additional modifier genes and/or environmental factors. Somatic inactivating mutations in the p53 gene and genes of the p53 pathway often accompany BRCA1/2-associated tumors. Therefore, we assessed whether these genes are modifiers of penetrance. We genotyped Jewish-Ashkenazi women for functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the AKT1 (C>T rs3730358) and the PERP (C>T rs2484067) genes that affect p53-mediated apoptosis, as well as two tag-SNPs in the CHEK2 (C>T rs743184) and the ZBRK1/ZNF350 (G>A rs2278414) genes that encode for proteins involved in growth arrest following DNA damage. The study population included 138 healthy women, 148 breast/ovarian cancer BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, 121 asymptomatic BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, and 210 sporadic noncarrier breast cancer patients. Utilizing lambda(2) and Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a hazard ratio (HR) of 3.23 (95% CI: 1.44-54, P = 0.0184) for the TT genotype of AKT (rs3730358), HR = 2.105 (95% CI: 1.049-7.434, P = 0.039) for CHEK2 CC genotype (rs743184), and HR = 2.4743 (95% CI: 1.205-11.53, P = 0.022) for the AG genotype of ZBRK1/ZNF350 (rs2278414). No significant association between PERP variants and cancer was identified HR = 0.662 (95% CI: 0.289-1.324, P = 0.261). Our results suggest that genes that act upstream of p53, or participate in the DNA damage response, may modify the risk of cancer in women with mutant BRCA1/2 alleles.

Jiang H, Xia J, Kang J, et al.
Short hairpin RNA targeting beta-catenin suppresses cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in human gastric carcinoma cells.
Scand J Gastroenterol. 2009; 44(12):1452-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Aberrant activation of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is involved in various cancers, including human gastric cancer. Here we investigate the role of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in regulating gastric cancer cell apoptosis.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Expression of beta-catenin was investigated after transfection with beta-catenin short hairpin RNA (shRNA) in gastric cancer cells by Western blotting and immunofluorescence analysis. beta-catenin/T-cell factor transcriptional activity was also investigated by using a luciferase reporter assay. Next, the effects of beta-catenin shRNA on cell proliferation and apoptosis were evaluated by the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-Yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide assay and flow cytometric analysis. To investigate the precise mechanism of these effects, a comprehensive analysis was performed using a cDNA microarray.
RESULTS: shRNA targeting beta-catenin resulted in a significant decrease in beta-catenin expression, and its nuclear localization and cell proliferation. Meanwhile, increased cell apoptosis was confirmed. The comprehensive analysis showed that shRNA targeting beta-catenin upregulated 26 apoptosis-related genes (including PERP, TRAF3, PDCD2, TNFRSF25, AKT2 and YWHAZ) and downregulated 48 apoptosis-related genes (including MALT1, IRAK1, TNFAIP3, PPP1R13L, TRIP and YWHAB) in gastric cancer cells. Pathway analysis suggested that the nuclear factor-kappaB pathway was involved in beta-catenin knockdown-induced apoptosis.
CONCLUSIONS: Attenuation of beta-catenin by shRNA resulted in suppressed cell proliferation and apparent apoptosis, suggesting that beta-catenin may be a target for therapy of gastric cancer.

Amano T, Nakamizo A, Mishra SK, et al.
Simultaneous phosphorylation of p53 at serine 15 and 20 induces apoptosis in human glioma cells by increasing expression of pro-apoptotic genes.
J Neurooncol. 2009; 92(3):357-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
Understanding the mechanism underlying p53's ability to induce cell cycle arrest versus apoptosis is critical to treating human gliomas, 70% of which contain wild-type p53. Although N-terminal phosphorylation results in activation of p53, the role of N-terminal phosphorylation, particularly at serines 15 and 20, in p53's ability to induce cell cycle arrest versus apoptosis remains controversial. Here we test the hypothesis that phosphorylation of serine 15 and/or 20 is causally related to p53-mediated apoptosis in human gliomas. Introduction of p53 plasmids containing alanine mutations at serine 15 or/and serine 20 (which block phosphorylation) or aspartate mutations (which mimic phosphorylation) at the same sites, implicated simultaneous phosphorylation of both sites in the induction of apoptosis. When a double phosphorylation-mimicking adenoviral p53 vector (Ad-p53-15D20D) was compared with an unphosphorylated p53 vector (Ad-p53), treatment with Ad-p53 resulted in G1-arrest, whereas Ad-p53-15D20D induced apoptosis. These effects occurred independent of phosphorylation of other N-terminal serine (i.e., serines 6, 9, 33, 37, 46) indicating that phosphorylation of S15 and S20 is sufficient for inducing apoptosis. Mechanistically, Ad-p53 was capable only of increasing the expression of p21/CIP, whereas Ad-p53-15D20D increased the binding to and expression of the pro-apoptotic genes Fas, Puma and PIG3. However, Ad-p53-15D20D did not alter the expression of Noxa, Bid, IGFBP3, PERP and Killer/DR5, suggesting that phosphorylation of S15 and S20 resulted in the expression of specific pro-apoptotic gene. In conclusion, simultaneous phosphorylation of S15 and S20 is causally associated with apoptosis, resulting in increased expression of specific p53-responsive pro-apoptotic genes.

Davies L, Gray D, Spiller D, et al.
P53 apoptosis mediator PERP: localization, function and caspase activation in uveal melanoma.
J Cell Mol Med. 2009; 13(8B):1995-2007 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
p53 apoptosis effector related to PMP-22 (PERP) is a transcriptional target gene of p53 tumour suppressor that is specifically induced during apoptosis and not during cell cycle arrest. In primary uveal melanoma (UM), the most common intraocular malignancy in adults that has a reportedly unaffected signalling pathway upstream of and including p53, PERP expression is down-regulated in the metastatic monosomy 3-type tumours, compared with the less aggressive disomy 3-type tumours. Here, we demonstrate experimentally, by the use of full-length PERP-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusions and real-time confocal microscopy, the intracellular targeting and plasma membrane localization of PERP in living UM cells and show that expression of PERP induces caspase-mediated apoptosis in UM cells. Induction of PERP expression in GFP-PERP-transfected UM cells leads to increased levels of cleaved caspase-8 forms, as well as to reduction of its full-length substrate Bid, but not to detectable processing of caspase-9. The levels of mature caspase-8, -9 and -3 proteins significantly correlate with PERP expression levels in primary UMs. Transcriptional profiling of PERP and caspase-8 in tumour specimens indicates that the positive association of PERP and caspase-8 proteins is a consequence of post-translational processing, most likely at the level of caspase-8 cleavage, and not of increased transcription of pro-caspase-8. We conclude that PERP expression leads to activation of an extrinsic receptor-mediated apoptotic pathway, with a possible subsequent engagement of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. The findings underline the apoptotic pathway mediated by PERP as a critical mechanism employed by UM tumours to modulate susceptibility to apoptosis.

Ross CW, Ouillette PD, Saddler CM, et al.
Comprehensive analysis of copy number and allele status identifies multiple chromosome defects underlying follicular lymphoma pathogenesis.
Clin Cancer Res. 2007; 13(16):4777-85 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Follicular lymphoma (FL) constitutes the second most common non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in the Western world. The clinical course is variable and only in part explained by known tumor-intrinsic or -extrinsic factors. FL carries the hallmark chromosomal translocation t(14;18), deregulating the expression of Bcl-2, but this is not sufficient to explain either FL biology or clinical behavior.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We have employed high-density genomic profiling technology using the Affymetrix 50K-XbaI oligonucleotide single nucleotide polymorphism-chip platform to interrogate the genomes of 58 fluorescence-activated cell-sorted (FACS) FL specimens for chromosomal copy number changes and 46 specimens for loss of heterozygosity (LOH).
RESULTS: We report (a) previously unknown high-frequency copy-neutral LOH (uniparental disomy) in FL on chromosomes 1p (approximately 50%) and 6p (approximately 30%); (b) that del6q is complex, as reported, with at least two regions of minimal common loss at 6q13-15 and 6q23-24, and that in addition, approximately 8% of FL specimens contain a homozygous deletion at 6q23.3-24.1 that spans the negative NFkappaB regulator A20 and the p53 apoptosis effector PERP; (c) that combined analysis of chromosome 17p for LOH, copy number, and p53 mutations shows that most p53 mutations in FL do not involve del17p. Finally, we map high-frequency LOH with and without copy loss on chromosomes 9p, 10q, and 16p and genomic gains on 2p15-16 and 8q24.22-24.3.
CONCLUSIONS: This comprehensive description of the pathologic anatomy of the FL genome uncovers novel genetic lesions and should aid with identification of genes relevant to FL biology and clinical behavior.

Vikhanskaya F, Lee MK, Mazzoletti M, et al.
Cancer-derived p53 mutants suppress p53-target gene expression--potential mechanism for gain of function of mutant p53.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2007; 35(6):2093-104 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tumour-derived p53 mutants are thought to have acquired 'gain-of-function' properties that contribute to oncogenicity. We have tested the hypothesis that p53 mutants suppress p53-target gene expression, leading to enhanced cellular growth. Silencing of mutant p53 expression in several human cell lines was found to lead to the upregulation of wild-type p53-target genes such as p21, gadd45, PERP and PTEN. The expression of these genes was also suppressed in H1299-based isogenic cell lines expressing various hot-spot p53 mutants, and silencing of mutant p53, but not TAp73, abrogated the suppression. Consistently, these hot-spot p53 mutants were able to suppress a variety of p53-target gene promoters. Analysis using the proto-type p21 promoter construct indicated that the p53-binding sites are dispensable for mutant p53-mediated suppression. However, treatment with the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin-A resulted in relief of mutant p53-mediated suppression, suggesting that mutant p53 may induce hypo-acetylation of target gene promoters leading to the suppressive effects. Finally, we show that stable down-regulation of mutant p53 expression resulted in reduced cellular colony growth in human cancer cells, which was found to be due to the induction of apoptosis. Together, the results demonstrate another mechanism through which p53 mutants could promote cellular growth.

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