Research IndicatorsGraph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (15)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: PIK3CA (cancer-related)
Riyahi N, Safaroghli-Azar A, Sheikh-Zeineddini N, et al.Synergistic Effects of PI3K and c-Myc Co-targeting in Acute Leukemia: Shedding New Light on Resistance to Selective PI3K-δ Inhibitor CAL-101.
Cancer Invest. 2019; 37(7):311-324 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Enthusiasms into the application of PI3K-δ inhibitor CAL-101 has been muted due to the over-activation of compensatory molecules. Our results delineated that c-Myc suppression using 10058-F4 enhanced CAL-101 cytotoxicity in less sensitive cells through different mechanisms based on p53 status; while CAL-101-plus-10058-F4 induced G1 arrest in wild-type p53-expressing leukemic cells, no conspicuous increase in G1 was noted in U937 cells harboring mutant p53. Conclusively, this study shed lights on the role of c-Myc oncoprotein in acute leukemia cells sensitivity to PI3K inhibitor and outlined that the combination of c-Myc inhibitor and CAL-101 may be a promising therapeutic approach in leukemia.
Kang BW, Baek DW, Kang H, et al.Novel Therapeutic Approaches for Epstein-Barr Virus Associated Gastric Cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(8):4003-4010 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated gastric cancer (GC) (EBVaGC) is classified as one of four GC subtypes by comprehensive molecular characterization. Though the mechanism of tumorigenesis by EBV infection has not yet been fully clarified, EBV infection might contribute to the malignant transformation of GC cells by involving various cellular processes and signaling pathways. EBVaGC has shown the following distinct characteristics in contrast to other subtypes: extreme DNA hypermethylation, recurrent phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha isoform (PIK3CA) mutations, overexpression of programmed cell death ligand 1/2 (PD-L1/2), and occasional immune cell signaling activation. Therefore, using these molecular features as guides, targeted agents need to be evaluated in clinical trials for EBVaGC. Accordingly, this review uses the best available evidence to focus on novel therapeutic approaches using the distinct pathologic characteristics of EBVaGC patients.
Kutahyalioglu M, Nguyen HT, Kwatampora L, et al.Genetic profiling as a clinical tool in advanced parathyroid carcinoma.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2019; 145(8):1977-1986 [PubMed
] Related Publications
CONTEXT: Parathyroid carcinoma (PC) is a rare endocrine malignancy with no approved systemic therapies for unresectable locally invasive or distant metastatic disease. Understanding the molecular changes in advanced PC can provide better understanding of this disease and potentially help directing targeted therapy.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate tumor-specific genetic changes using next-generation sequencing (NGS) panels.
DESIGN: All patients with advanced PC were tested for hot-spot panels using NGS panels including a 50-gene panel, a 409-gene panel if the standard 50-gene panel (Ion Torrent, Life Technology) was negative or a FoundationOne panel.
SETTING: The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA.
PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: 11 patients with advanced PC were selected to undergo molecular testing.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Genetic profiles of advanced PC.
RESULTS: Among the 11 patients, 4 patients had the 50-gene panel only, 6 had 409-gene panel after a negative 50-gene panel and 1 had FoundationOne. One patient who had 50-gene panel only also had his metastatic site (esophagus) of his tumor tested with FoundationOne. The most common mutations identified were in the PI3 K (PIK3CA, TSC1 and ATM) (4/11 patients) and TP53 (3/11) pathways. Genes not previously reported to be mutated in PC included: SDHA, TERT promoter and DICER1. Actionable mutations were found in 54% (6/11) of the patients.
CONCLUSIONS: Mutational profiling using NGS panels in advanced PC has yielded important potentially targetable genetic alterations. Larger studies are needed to identify commonly mutated genes in advanced PC patients. Development of novel therapies targeting these cellular pathways should be considered.
Naghizadeh S, Mohammadi A, Baradaran B, Mansoori BOvercoming multiple drug resistance in lung cancer using siRNA targeted therapy.
Gene. 2019; 714:143972 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Among cancers, lung cancer is the most morbidity and mortality disease that is remaining the fatalist. Generally, there are multiple treatment procedures for lung cancer, such as surgery, immunotherapy, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. There is, therefore, an urgent need for more specified and efficient methods for treatment of lung cancer such as RNAi, which in combination with traditional therapies could silence genes that are involved in the drug resistance. These genes may either be motivators of apoptosis inhibition, EMT and DNA repair system promoters or a member of intracellular signaling pathways, such as JAK/STAT, RAS/RAF/MEK, PI3K/AKT, NICD, B-catenin/TCF/LEF and their stimulator receptors including IGFR, EGFR, FGFR, VEGFR, CXCR4, MET, INTEGRINS, NOTCH1 and FRIZZLED, so could be considered as appropriate targets. In current review, the results of multiple studies which have employed drug application after one specific gene silencing or more than one gene from distinct pathways also simultaneous drug and RNAi usage in vitro and in vivo in lung cancer were summarized.
Wu TK, Chen CH, Pan YR, et al.Cetrimonium Bromide Inhibits Cell Migration and Invasion of Human Hepatic SK-HEP-1 Cells Through Modulating the Canonical and Non-canonical TGF-β Signaling Pathways.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(7):3621-3631 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Cetrimonium bromide (CTAB), a quaternary ammonium surfactant, is an antiseptic agent against bacteria and fungi. However, the mechanisms by which its pharmacological actions affect epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, such as adenocarcinoma in SK-HEP-1 cells, have not been investigated. We, thereby, investigated whether CTAB inhibits cellular mobility and invasiveness of human hepatic adenocarcinoma in SK-HEP-1 cells.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: SK-HEP-1 cells were treated with CTAB, and subsequent migration and invasion were measured by wound healing and transwell assays. Protein expression was detected by immunoblotting analysis.
RESULTS: Our data revealed that treatment of SK-HEP-1 cells with CTAB altered their mesenchymal spindle-like morphology. CTAB exerted inhibitory effects on the migration and invasion of SK-HEP-1 cells dose-dependently, and reduced protein levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9, snail, slug, twist, vimentin, fibronectin, N-cadherin, Smad2, Smad3, Smad4, phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K), p-PI3K, Akt, p-Akt, β-catenin, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), p-mTOR, p-p70S6K, p-extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)1/2, p-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and p-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), but increased protein levels of tissue inhibitor matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), TIMP-2, claudin-1 and p-GSK3β. Based on these observations, we suggest that CTAB not only inhibits the canonical transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling pathway though reducing SMADs (an acronym from the fusion of Caenorhabditis elegans Sma genes and the Drosophila Mad, Mothers against decapentaplegic proteins), but also restrains the non-canonical TGF-β signaling including MAPK pathways like ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, JNK and PI3K.
CONCLUSION: CTAB is involved in the suppression of TGF-β-mediated mesenchymal phenotype and could be a potent medical agent for use in controlling the migration and invasion of hepatic adenocarcinoma.
Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) and advanced differentiated thyroid cancers (DTCs) show fatal outcomes, unlike DTCs. Here, we demonstrate mutational landscape of 27 ATCs and 86 advanced DTCs by massively-parallel DNA sequencing, and transcriptome of 13 ATCs and 12 advanced DTCs were profiled by RNA sequencing. TERT, AKT1, PIK3CA, and EIF1AX were frequently co-mutated with driver genes (BRAF
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common malignant tumor for men. But the mechanism is unclear.
Masoodi TA, Shaik NA, Burhan S, et al.Structural prediction, whole exome sequencing and molecular dynamics simulation confirms p.G118D somatic mutation of PIK3CA as functionally important in breast cancer patients.
Comput Biol Chem. 2019; 80:472-479 [PubMed
] Related Publications
To understand the structural and functional importance of PIK3CA somatic mutations, whole exome sequencing, molecular dynamics simulation techniques in combination with in silico prediction algorithms such as SIFT, PolyPhen, Provean and CADD were employed. Twenty out of eighty missense somatic mutations in PIK3CA gene were found to be pathogenic by all the four algorithms. Most recurrent mutations found were known hotspot PIK3CA mutations with known clinical significance like p.E545 K, p.E545A, p.E545 G and p.C420R. A missense mutation p.G118D was found to be recurrently mutated in 5 cases. Interestingly, this mutation was observed in one of the patients who underwent whole exome sequencing and was completely absent from the controls. To see the effect of this mutation on the structure of PIK3CA protein, molecular dynamics simulation was performed. By molecular dynamics approach, we have shown that p.G118D mutation deviated from the native structure which was supported by the decrease in the number of hydrogen bonds, difference in hydrogen bond distance and angle, difference in root mean square deviation between the native and the mutant structures.
Recagni M, Greco ML, Milelli A, et al.Distinct biological responses of metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer cells upon exposure to G-quadruplex interacting naphthalenediimide derivatives.
Eur J Med Chem. 2019; 177:401-413 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Small molecules able to bind non-canonical G-quadruplex DNA structures (G4) have been recently tested as novel potential agents for the treatment of prostate cancer thanks to their repression of aberrant androgen receptor gene. However, metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), a letal form of prostate cancer, is still incurable. Here we tested two naphthalenediimide derivatives, previously reported as multitarget agents, on a couple of relevant mCRPC cell models (DU145 and PC-3). We showed that these compounds interfere with the RAS/MEK/ERK and PI3K/AKT pathways. Interestingly, both these two biological processes depend upon Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) activation. By means of biological and analytical tools we showed that our compounds are efficient inducers of the structural transition of the EGFR promoter towards a G-quadruplex conformation, ultimately leading to a reduction of the receptor production. The overall result is an interesting cytotoxic profile for these two derivatives. Thanks to their activity at different steps, these compounds can open the way to novel therapeutic approaches for mCRPC that could contribute to escape resistance to selective treatments.
Zhang P, Lu X, Shi Z, et al.miR-205-5p regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition by targeting PTEN via PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in cisplatin-resistant nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.
Gene. 2019; 710:103-113 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) symbolizes the predominant program of advanced-stage cancer, it is critical in cancer progression, metastasis, and chemotherapy resistance. In this study, the metastatic properties of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells were evaluated by morphological examination, wound healing assay, migration and invasion assay. Western blotting and qRT-PCR were used to ascertain the expression of markers which were associated with EMT. The effects of miR-205-5p on invasion, migration, EMT and proliferation of NPC cells were evaluated and the molecular mechanisms of their interaction were explored. In this study, we manifested firstly that the expression of miR-205-5p in cisplatin-resistant NPC cell line HNE1/DDP was obviously up-regulated than that in its parental cell line HNE1. Then we analyzed the specific role of miR-205-5p through functional assays by transfecting specific mimics and inhibitors. The results indicated that low expression of miR-205-5p restrained EMT progression of HNE1/DDP cells. Further studies on the mechanism of miR-205-5p manifested that PTEN was a downstream candidate gene of miR-205-5p, down-regulated PTEN expression could counteract the effect of miR-205-5p inhibitors, and the regulation of EMT by miR-205-5p on HNE1/DDP cells depended on the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Overall, our results indicated that miR-205-5p was targeting PTEN to regulate EMT through the PI3K/AKT pathway. This study will supply a new treatment target for advanced NPC.
The landscape of genetic alterations in disease models such as transgenic mice or mice with carcinogen-induced tumors has provided a huge amount of information that has shed light on the process of tumorigenesis in human non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We have previously identified stratifin (SFN) as a potent oncogene, and generated SFN-transgenic (Tg-SPC-SFN
The tumor microenvironment is associated with various tumor progressions, including cancer metastasis, immunosuppression, and tumor sustained growth. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are considered an indispensable component of the tumor microenvironment, participating in the progression of tumor microenvironment remodeling and creating various compounds to regulate tumor activities. This study aims to observe enriched TAMs in tumor tissues during bladder cancer development, which markedly facilitated the proliferation of bladder cancer cells and promoted tumor growth in vivo. We determined that TAMs regulate tumor sustained growth by secreting type I collagen, which can activate the prosurvival integrin α2β1/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Furthermore, traditional chemotherapeutic drugs combined with integrin α2β1 inhibitor showed intensive anticancer effects, revealing an innovative approach in clinical bladder cancer treatment.
Liu JF, Gray KP, Wright AA, et al.Results from a single arm, single stage phase II trial of trametinib and GSK2141795 in persistent or recurrent cervical cancer.
Gynecol Oncol. 2019; 154(1):95-101 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Improved treatment for advanced cervical cancer is needed; currently, treatment options include combined chemotherapy and bevacizumab or pembrolizumab monotherapy for PD-L1 positive disease. PIK3CA and KRAS mutations have been reported in cervical cancers; this study therefore tested dual inhibition of PI3K and RAS signaling by combining the MEK inhibitor trametinib and the AKT inhibitor GSK2141795 in recurrent cervical cancer.
METHODS: This was an investigator-initiated phase II study combining trametinib and GSK2141795 in patients with recurrent cervical cancer. Primary endpoint was best tumor response; secondary endpoints included progression free survival, overall survival, and safety assessment. Translational objectives included characterization of molecular alterations in PI3K and RAS signaling pathway genes.
RESULTS: Planned accrual was 35 patients; 14 patients were enrolled and received at least one dose of study drug before the study was terminated due to discontinuation of GSK2141795 development. There were no confirmed responses; 1 patient had an unconfirmed PR, 8 had stable disease, 3 had progression as best response, and 2 were unevaluable. Toxicities were mostly grade 1 and 2, although 57% of patients experienced grade 3/4 adverse events and 50% patients required a dose reduction.
CONCLUSIONS: The combination of trametinib and GSK2141795 was feasible but required dose holds and modifications for adverse events; however, anti-cancer activity was minimal, even in patients with PI3K or RAS pathway alterations. Although the study was terminated early after GSK2141795 development was halted, the findings in these 14 patients do not support further development of this combination in cervical cancer.
Chi G, Xu D, Zhang B, Yang FMatrine induces apoptosis and autophagy of glioma cell line U251 by regulation of circRNA-104075/BCL-9.
Chem Biol Interact. 2019; 308:198-205 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Matrine, a traditional Chinese medicine, has been reported to exert anti-tumor effects in several types of cancers. Here, we explored the anti-tumor effects of matrine on the glioma cells.
METHODS: Glioma cell line U251 cells were treated with matrine to assess viability and proliferation using CCK8 and EdU assays. PI/FITC staining was performed for apoptosis assay. Transfections were performed for circRNA-104075 or Bcl-9 overexpression. Western blot analysis was performed to evaluate changes of protein levels and changes of gene level were detected by qRT-PCR in U251 cells.
RESULTS: Matrine suppressed cell viability while induced apoptosis and autophagy in U251 cells. Matrine also decreased circRNA-104075 expression significantly. Overexpression of circRNA-104075 was found to counteract the inhibitory effects of matrine on cell proliferation and promoting effects on apoptosis and autophagy in U251 cells. Moreover, the suppressed Wnt/β-catenin and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways by matrine were activated by circRNA-104075 overexpression. Furthermore, Bcl-9 expression was also down-regulated by matrine treatment. Bcl-9 overexpression elevated the decreased cell proliferation while suppressed the increased apoptosis and autophagy induced by matrine in U251 cells.
CONCLUSION: Taken together, the present findings suggested that matrine induced apoptosis and autophagy through down-regulating circ-104075 and Bcl-9 expression via inhibition of PI3K/AKT and Wnt-β-catenin pathways in glioma cells. The present study provides a foundation for further preclinical and clinical evaluations of matrine as a glioma therapy.
Lineage commitment and tumorigenesis, traits distinguishing stem cells, have not been well characterized and compared in mesenchymal stem cells derived from human dental pulp (DP-MSCs) and bone marrow (BM-MSCs). Here, we report DP-MSCs exhibit increased osteogenic potential, possess decreased adipogenic potential, form dentin pulp-like complexes, and are resistant to oncogenic transformation when compared to BM-MSCs. Genome-wide RNA-seq and differential expression analysis reveal differences in adipocyte and osteoblast differentiation pathways, bone marrow neoplasm pathway, and PTEN/PI3K/AKT pathway. Higher PTEN expression in DP-MSCs than in BM-MSCs is responsible for the lineage commitment and tumorigenesis differences in both cells. Additionally, the PTEN promoter in BM-MSCs exhibits higher DNA methylation levels and repressive mark H3K9Me2 enrichment when compared to DP-MSCs, which is mediated by increased DNMT3B and G9a expression, respectively. The study demonstrates how several epigenetic factors broadly affect lineage commitment and tumorigenesis, which should be considered when developing therapeutic uses of stem cells.
Wang X, Wang Z, Zhang Y, et al.Golgi phosphoprotein 3 sensitizes the tumour suppression effect of gefitinib on gliomas.
Cell Prolif. 2019; 52(4):e12636 [PubMed
] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: We previously reported that Golgi phosphoprotein 3 (GOLPH3) promotes glioma progression by inhibiting EGFR endocytosis and degradation, leading to EGFR accumulation and PI3K-AKT pathway over-activation. In the current study, we examine whether GOLPH3 affects the response of glioma cells to gefitinib, an EGFR selective inhibitor.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression of GOLPH3 and EGFR in glioma cells was detected by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting. The cell viability or growth in vitro was determined by CCK-8, EdU incorporation and clonogenic assays. The primary glioma cells were cultured by trypsin and mechanical digestion. The transwell invasion assay was used to examine the primary glioma cell motility. Intracranial glioma model in nude mice were established to explore the sensitivity of gefitinib to GOLPH3 high cancer cells in vivo.
RESULTS: Both the immortalized and primary glioma cells with GOLPH3 over-expression hold higher EGFR protein levels on the cell membrane and exhibited higher sensitivity to gefitinib. In addition, primary glioma cells with higher GOLPH3 level exhibited stronger proliferation behaviour. Importantly, GOLPH3 enhanced the anti-tumour effect of gefitinib in vivo. Consistently, after gefitinib treatment, tumours derived from GOLPH3 over-expression cells exhibited lower Ki67-positive and higher cleaved caspase-3-positive cells than control tumours.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that GOLPH3 increases the sensitivity of glioma cells to gefitinib. Our study provides foundation for further exploring whether GOLPH3 high gliomas will be more sensitive to anti-EGFR therapy in clinic and give ideas for developing new possible treatments for individual glioma patients.
Pires LV, Yi Y, Cheng JC, et al.Lapatinib Inhibits Amphiregulin-induced BeWo Choriocarcinoma Cell Proliferation by Reducing ERK1/2 and AKT Signaling Pathways.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(5):2377-2383 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Human choriocarcinoma is the most aggressive type of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. The expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in choriocarcinomas is significantly higher than those of trophoblastic cells in healthy placentas. Lapatinib is a potent EGFR and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) inhibitor that inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in various human cancer cells. Amphiregulin (AREG) is the most abundant EGFR ligand in amniotic fluid during human pregnancy.
AIM: To explore the role of AREG in human choriocarcinoma cell proliferation.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effect of lapatinib and AREG on cell proliferation was examined by the MTT assay. Western blots were used to investigate EGFR and HER2 expression, and the activation of caspase-3, extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase /protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT) signaling pathways.
RESULTS: Treatment with lapatinib reduced BeWo cell proliferation by inducing apoptosis. Moreover, AREG treatment stimulated BeWo cell proliferation by activating ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways, which was blocked by lapatinib.
CONCLUSION: Targeting EGFR/HER2 might be a useful therapeutic strategy for human choriocarcinoma.
Nowinska K, Ciesielska U, Piotrowska A, et al.MCM5 Expression Is Associated With the Grade of Malignancy and Ki-67 Antigen in LSCC.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(5):2325-2335 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: The minichromosome maintenance proteins (MCMs) may be potential biomarkers of cancer cell proliferation. They are essential to initiate DNA replication. The aim of the study was to investigate the level of MCM5 expression in benign lesions (BLs) and laryngeal squamous cell cancer (LSCC).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis was carried out on 83 LSCCs and 10 BLs. Western-blot, immunofluorescence analysis (IF) and real-time PCR (RT-PCR) were performed using HEp-2 cancer cells and HaCaT keratinocytes.
RESULTS: The expression of MCM5 was higher in LSCC than in the BLs (p<0.0001) and was higher in subsequent malignancies of LSCC. Positive correlations were demonstrated between the expression levels of MCM5 and the Ki-67 antigen. In vitro studies have confirmed that the expression of MCM5 is elevated in cancer cells.
CONCLUSION: MCM5 protein may be used as a potential marker of cancer cell proliferation in LSCC.
Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common type of renal cell carcinoma and the incidence of this disease is increasing. The present study aimed to investigate the role of homeobox A6 (HOXA6) in the proliferation and apoptosis of ccRCC cells. Analysis of the GSE6344 dataset and immunohistochemistry revealed that the mRNA and protein expression levels of HOXA6 were suppressed in ccRCC tissues. To evaluate the roles of HOXA6 in cell proliferation and apoptosis, ccRCC cell lines (786‑O and 769‑P) were transfected with plasmids expressing HOXA6, empty vector, short hairpin (sh)HOXA6 and non‑targeting shRNA (NC). Cell Counting Kit‑8, colony formation and 5‑ethynyl‑2'‑deoxyuridine staining assays were performed to analyze cell proliferation. In addition, Caspase‑Glo and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assays were performed to detect apoptosis. Furthermore, the cell cycle and apoptotic rates of 786‑O and 769‑P cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. The results demonstrated that, compared with the empty vector group, the proliferation of 786‑O and 769‑P cells decreased following HOXA6 overexpression; however, compared with the NC group, cell proliferation increased in the shHOXA6 group. The rate of apoptosis of HOXA6‑overexpressing cells was increased compared with the empty vector group, while the rate of apoptosis in the shHOXA6 group was reduced compared with the NC group. In addition, flow cytometry demonstrated that upregulated HOXA6 expression levels could inhibit the cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase. Western blotting revealed that the expression levels of phosphoinositide 3‑kinase (PI3K), phosphorylated (p)‑protein kinase B (Akt), mitogen‑activated protein kinase kinase, p‑extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK) and B‑cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl‑2) were suppressed in cells overexpressing HOXA6; however, the protein expression levels of phosphatase and tensin homolog, Bcl‑2‑associated X protein, cleaved caspase‑3 and cleaved‑poly (ADP‑ribose) polymerase were increased compared with the empty vector group. Opposing results were reported for the shHOXA6 group compared with the NC group. In summary, the results demonstrated that HOXA6 suppresses cell proliferation and promotes apoptosis, which may occur via inhibition of the PI3K/Akt/ERK cascade. These findings indicate the role of HOXA6 in ccRCC; however, the underlying mechanism requires further investigation.
It has been well established that microRNA (miR)-143 is downregulated in human bladder cancer (BC). Recent precision medicine has shown that mutations in BC are frequently observed in FGFR3, RAS and PIK3CA genes, all of which correlate with RAS signaling networks. We have previously shown that miR-143 suppresses cell growth by inhibiting RAS signaling networks in several cancers including BC. In the present study, we showed that synthetic miR-143 negatively regulated the RNA-binding protein Musashi-2 (MSI2) in BC cell lines. MSI2 is an RNA-binding protein that regulates the stability of certain mRNAs and their translation by binding to the target sequences of the mRNAs. Of note, the present study clarified that MSI2 positively regulated KRAS expression through directly binding to the target sequence of KRAS mRNA and promoting its translation, thus contributing to the maintenance of KRAS expression. Thus, miR-143 silenced KRAS and MSI2, which further downregulated KRAS expression through perturbation of the MSI2/KRAS cascade.
HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) activation is critical in breast cancer development. HER2 promotes cell proliferation, angiogenesis, survival, and metastasis by activation of PI3K/Akt, Ras/MEK/ERK, and JAK/STAT pathways. However, beyond these signaling molecules, the key proteins underlining HER2-mediated metastasis remain elusive. ATF4 (Activating transcription factor 4), a critical regulator in unfolded protein response (UPR), is implicated in cell migration and tumor metastasis. In this study, we demonstrate that HER2 upregulated ATF4 expression at both mRNA and protein levels, resulting in cell migration increased. In addition, ATF4 upregulated ZEB1 (Zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 1) and suppressed E-cadherin expression resulting in promoting cell migration. Restoration of E-cadherin expression effectively inhibited HER2- or ATF4-mediated cell migration. In addition, upregulated expression of ATF4 was found in HER2-positive breast cancer specimens. Together, this study demonstrates that ATF4-ZEB1 is important for HER2-mediated cell migration and suggests that ATF4-ZEB1 may be potential therapeutic targets for breast cancer metastasis.
Purpose: Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced cytotoxicity is an important mechanism by which cisplatin kills tumor cells. Glutathione peroxidase family (GPXs) is an important member of antioxidant system which metabolizes intracellular ROS and maintains homeostasis of cells. Altered expressions of GPXs enzymes, especially GPX1, have been described in a variety of human cancers. However, their functional roles in cisplatin-based chemoresistance in human malignancies including non-small cell lung cancer have never been explored.
Methods: A panel of NSCLC cell lines were selected for this study. GPX1 expression was detected using quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot. Cisplatin-induced cell killing was analyzed by CCK8 assay. Intracellular ROS levels were detected by fluorescence-based flow cytometry analysis. In vitro overexpression and knockdown of GPX1 expression were performed using GPX1 expression vector and siRNA approaches. Protein levels of PTEN, NF-
Results: GPX1 expression was upregulated in a subset of NSCLC cell lines resistant to cisplatin treatment. Expression vector-mediated forced overexpression of GPX1 significantly increased cisplatin resistance in NSCLC cell lines, whereas RNA inference-mediated downregulation of GPX1 could restore sensitivity to cisplatin. Overexpression of GPX1 significantly suppressed elevation of intracellular ROS and activation of AKT pathway when NSCLC cell lines were exposed to different concentrations of cisplatin. Activation of the AKT pathway inhibited proapoptotic cascade and subsequently led to cisplatin resistance in NSCLC cells. Inhibition of NF-
Conclusions: Our findings suggested that overexpression of GPX1 is a novel molecular mechanism for cisplatin-based chemoresistance in NSCLC. GPX1 overexpression blocks cisplatin-induced ROS intracellular accumulation, activates PI3K-AKT pathway by increased AKT phosphorylation, and further leads to cisplatin resistance in NSCLC cells. Inhibition of NF-
To better understand the molecular mechanism for the pathogenesis of follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC), this study aimed at identifying key miRNAs and their target genes associated with FTC, as well as analyzing their interactions. Based on the gene microarray data GSE82208 and microRNA dataset GSE62054, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and microRNAs (DEMs) were obtained using R and SAM software. The common DEMs from R and SAM were fed to three different bioinformatic tools, TargetScan, miRDB, and miRTarBase, respectively, to predict their biological targets. With DEGs intersected with target genes of DEMs, the gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis were performed through the DAVID database. Then a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed by STRING. Finally, the module analysis for PPI network was performed by MCODE and BiNGO. A total of nine DEMs were identified, and their function might work through regulating hub genes in the PPI network especially KIT and EGFR. KEGG analysis showed that intersection genes were enriched in the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and microRNAs in cancer. In conclusion, the study of miRNA-mRNA network would offer molecular support for differential diagnosis between malignant FTC and benign FTA, providing new insights into the potential targets for follicular thyroid carcinoma diagnosis and treatment.
Hung CY, Lee CH, Chiou HL, et al.Praeruptorin-B Inhibits 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-Acetate-Induced Cell Invasion by Targeting AKT/NF-κB via Matrix Metalloproteinase-2/-9 Expression in Human Cervical Cancer Cells.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2019; 52(6):1255-1266 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Praeruptorins, a seselin-type coumarin, possess anti-inflammatory and antitumor promoting properties. However, molecular mechanisms through which Praeruptorin-B (Pra-B) exerts an antimetastatic effect on cervical cancer cells remain unclear.
METHODS: Cell viability was examined using the MTT assay, whereas cell migration and invasion were examined using the Boyden chamber assay. Western blotting and RT-PCR were performed to investigate the inhibitory effect of Pra-B on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced matrix metalloproteinase-2/-9 (MMP-2/-9) expression in HeLa cells. The findings of the luciferase assay confirmed the inhibitory effect of Pra-B on TPA-induced transcriptional activity of MMP2/-9 in HeLa cells.
RESULTS: Pra-B inhibited TPA-induced metastatic ability of human cervical cancer cells without any significant toxicity. Pra-B suppressed TPA-induced mRNA and protein expression and transcriptional activity of MMP-2/-9 in HeLa cells. Furthermore, Pra-B inhibited AKT phosphorylation but did not affect the MAPK pathway. Cotreatment of HeLa cells with TPA plus Pra-B or LY294002 (a PI3K inhibitor) reduced cell invasion and MMP-2/-9 expression and transcriptional activity. In addition, Pra-B attenuated TPA-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB-p65/-p50, which reduced Ikk-α phosphorylation in HeLa cells. Cotreatment of HeLa cells with TPA plus Pra-B or LY294002 reduced NF-κB nuclear translocation.
CONCLUSION: These results suggested that Pra-B-mediated inhibition of TPA-induced cell metastasis involved the suppression of p-AKT/NF-κB via MMP-2/-9 expression in HeLa cells. Pra-B can be a potential antimetastatic agent against cervical cancer.
Ahmed ESA, Ahmed NH, Medhat AM, et al.Mesenchymal stem cells targeting PI3K/AKT pathway in leukemic model.
Tumour Biol. 2019; 41(4):1010428319846803 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Mesenchymal stem cells have therapeutic properties that are related to their potentials for trans-differentiation, immunomodulation, anti-inflammatory, inhibitory effect on tumor proliferation, and induction of apoptosis. This study was performed to analyze the role of mesenchymal stem cells as an alternative for cellular signaling growth factors involved in the pathogenesis of leukemogenesis in rats. Treatment of rats with 7,12-dimethyl benz [a] anthracene induced leukemogenesis appeared as a significant decrease in hematological parameters with concomitant significant increase in bone marrow oxidative and inflammatory indices (transforming growth factor beta and interleukin-6) in comparison with normal groups. On the contrary, Western immunoblotting showed a significant increase in the signaling growth factors: PI3K, AKT, mTOR proteins and a significant decrease in PTEN in 7,12-dimethyl benz [a] anthracene-treated group. In addition, a significant increase in the transcript levels of B cell lymphoma-2 protein gene in the 7,12-dimethyl benz [a] anthracene group, while that of C-X-C motif chemokine receptor-4 and B cell lymphoma-2 protein associated x-protein were significantly downregulated compared to controls. Meanwhile, therapeutic mesenchymal stem cells treatment predict a significant improvement versus 7,12-dimethyl benz [a] anthracene group through the modulation of growth factors that confront bone marrow dysplasia. In the same direction treatment of 7,12-dimethyl benz [a] anthracene group with mesenchymal stem cells, it induced apoptosis and increased the homing efficacy to bone marrow. In conclusion, mesenchymal stem cells improve hematopoiesis and alleviate inflammation, and modulated PI3K/AKT signaling pathway contributed to experimental leukemogenesis.
Phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) is a well-characterized tumour-suppressor gene that is lost or mutated in about half of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancers and in many other human cancers. The restoration of functional PTEN as a treatment for prostate cancer has, however, proven difficult. Here, we show that PTEN messenger RNA (mRNA) can be reintroduced into PTEN-null prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo via its encapsulation in polymer-lipid hybrid nanoparticles coated with a polyethylene glycol shell. The nanoparticles are stable in serum, elicit low toxicity and enable high PTEN mRNA transfection in prostate cancer cells. Moreover, significant inhibition of tumour growth is achieved when delivered systemically in multiple mouse models of prostate cancer. We also show that the restoration of PTEN function in PTEN-null prostate cancer cells inhibits the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT pathway and enhances apoptosis. Our findings provide proof-of-principle evidence of the restoration of mRNA-based tumour suppression in vivo.
The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a phenomenon that facilitates epithelial cells to acquire invasive potential to induce the initiation the metastatic spread of tumor cells. Here, we determined if brassinin (BSN) can affect the EMT process and deciphered its anti-cancer effects. BSN attenuated the levels of EMT linked genes and suppressed transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β)-mediated regulation of diverse mesenchymal markers. Additionally, BSN did increase the expression of various epithelial marker proteins in lung cancer cells. TGF-β-induced morphological changes and induction of invasive ability of tumor cells was also found to be abrogated by BSN treatment. Finally, BSN not only suppressed constitutive, but also inducible phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) phosphorylation in tumor cells.
Background: Epidemiological and clinical evidence points to cancer as a comorbidity in people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A significant overlap of genes and biological processes between both diseases has also been reported.
Methods: Here, for the first time, we compared the gene expression profiles of ASD frontal cortex tissues and 22 cancer types obtained by differential expression meta-analysis and report gene, pathway, and drug set-based overlaps between them.
Results: Four cancer types (brain, thyroid, kidney, and pancreatic cancers) presented a significant overlap in gene expression deregulations in the same direction as ASD whereas two cancer types (lung and prostate cancers) showed differential expression profiles significantly deregulated in the opposite direction from ASD. Functional enrichment and LINCS L1000 based drug set enrichment analyses revealed the implication of several biological processes and pathways that were affected jointly in both diseases, including impairments of the immune system, and impairments in oxidative phosphorylation and ATP synthesis among others. Our data also suggest that brain and kidney cancer have patterns of transcriptomic dysregulation in the PI3K/AKT/MTOR axis that are similar to those found in ASD.
Conclusions: Comparisons of ASD and cancer differential gene expression meta-analysis results suggest that brain, kidney, thyroid, and pancreatic cancers are candidates for direct comorbid associations with ASD. On the other hand, lung and prostate cancers are candidates for inverse comorbid associations with ASD. Joint perturbations in a set of specific biological processes underlie these associations which include several pathways previously implicated in both cancer and ASD encompassing immune system alterations, impairments of energy metabolism, cell cycle, and signaling through PI3K and G protein-coupled receptors among others. These findings could help to explain epidemiological observations pointing towards direct and inverse comorbid associations between ASD and specific cancer types and depict a complex scenario regarding the molecular patterns of association between ASD and cancer.
Wang Y, Huang H, Li YKnocking down miR-384 promotes growth and metastasis of osteosarcoma MG63 cells by targeting SLBP.
Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol. 2019; 47(1):1458-1465 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Osteosarcoma is a common malignant bone tumour in adolescents and old people, with highly invasive and metastatic features and poor prognosis. This study aimed to explore the role of miR-384 in osteosarcoma MG63 cells by targeting SLBP. Cell viability, migration and invasion, apoptosis, as well as apoptosis-related factors were evaluated by CCK-8 assay, Transwell assay, flow cytometer and Western blotting, respectively. Dual-luciferase reporter assay was used to determine the target of miR-384. SLBP level was analyzed using qRT-PCR and Western blotting. Important factors of MEK/ERK and PI3K/AKT signalling pathways were analyzed using Western blotting. We found that miR-384 was down-regulated in osteosarcoma tissue samples and cell lines (MG63, U2OS and OS732). miR-384 overexpression inhibited viability, migration and invasion, but promoted apoptosis of MG63 cells; whereas, miR-384 silence exhibited the contrary effects on MG63 cells. SLBP was a target of miR-384. Knockdown of SLBP reversed the promoting effect of miR-384 silence on cells, indicating that miR-384 silence promoted growth and metastasis of MG63 cells by up-regulating SLBP. In conclusion, knocking down miR-384 promoted the growth and metastasis of osteosarcoma MG63 cells by up-regulating SLBP. To conclude, miR-384-SLBP may be a potential therapeutic target for osteosarcoma therapy.
Pituitary adenoma is one of the most common tumors in the neuroendocrine system. This study investigated the effects of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) highly up-regulated in liver cancer (HULC) on rat secreting pituitary adenoma GH3 cell viability, migration, invasion, apoptosis, and hormone secretion, as well as the underlying potential mechanisms. Cell transfection and qRT-PCR were used to change and measure the expression levels of HULC, miR-130b, and FOXM1. Cell viability, migration, invasion, and apoptosis were assessed using trypan blue staining assay, MTT assay, two-chamber transwell assay, Guava Nexin assay, and western blotting. The concentrations of prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH) in culture supernatant of GH3 cells were assessed using ELISA. The targeting relationship between miR-130b and FOXM1 was verified using dual luciferase activity. Finally, the expression levels of key factors involved in PI3K/AKT/mTOR and JAK1/STAT3 pathways were evaluated using western blotting. We found that HULC was highly expressed in GH3 cells. Overexpression of HULC promoted GH3 cell viability, migration, invasion, PRL and GH secretion, as well as activated PI3K/AKT/mTOR and JAK1/STAT3 pathways. Knockdown of HULC had opposite effects and induced cell apoptosis. HULC negatively regulated the expression of miR-130b, and miR-130b participated in the effects of HULC on GH3 cells. FOXM1 was a target gene of miR-130b, which was involved in the regulation of GH3 cell viability, migration, invasion, and apoptosis, as well as PI3K/AKT/mTOR and JAK1/STAT3 pathways. In conclusion, HULC tumor-promoting roles in secreting pituitary adenoma might be via down-regulating miR-130b, up-regulating FOXM1, and activating PI3K/AKT/mTOR and JAK1/STAT3 pathways.