Gene Summary

Gene:UBE2C; ubiquitin conjugating enzyme E2 C
Aliases: UBCH10, dJ447F3.2
Summary:The modification of proteins with ubiquitin is an important cellular mechanism for targeting abnormal or short-lived proteins for degradation. Ubiquitination involves at least three classes of enzymes: ubiquitin-activating enzymes, ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, and ubiquitin-protein ligases. This gene encodes a member of the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme family. The encoded protein is required for the destruction of mitotic cyclins and for cell cycle progression, and may be involved in cancer progression. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. Pseudogenes of this gene have been defined on chromosomes 4, 14, 15, 18, and 19. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 C
Source:NCBIAccessed: 29 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (1)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 29 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 29 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: UBE2C (cancer-related)

Lu J, Gu X, Liu F, et al.
Antitumor effects of hsa‑miR661‑3p on non‑small cell lung cancer in vivo and in vitro.
Oncol Rep. 2019; 41(5):2987-2996 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lung cancer is the most common and lethal cancer worldwide, especially in developing countries. Non‑small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for 85% of all cases of lung cancer. In aprevious study, the protein expression of ubiquitin conjugating enzyme E2 C (UBE2C/UbcH10) in NSCLC tissues and cells was found to be significantly higher than that in adjacent tissues and normal lung epithelial cells. Further study revealed that the aberrant expression of UbcH10 in NSCLC tumors or cancer cells was caused by inactivation of the post‑transcriptional regulation mechanism, and thus microRNAs (miRNAs) may play an important. In the present study, it was demonstrated that the expression of microRNA, hsa‑miR661‑3p, was downregulated and UbcH10 was upregulated in 12 pairs of NSCLC tumors and three NSCLC cell lines. A reporter gene assay revealed that overexpression of hsa‑miR661‑3p effectively reduced the activity of luciferase expressed by a vector bearing the 3' untranslated region of UbcH10 mRNA. Ectopic hsa‑miR661‑3p overexpression mediated by lentiviral infection decreased the expression of UbcH10. Infection of Lv‑miR661‑3p inhibited cell growth and invasion in A549 and SK‑MES‑1 cells. Mechanistically, hsa‑miR661‑3p induced cell cycle G2 arrest through regulation of spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) function. On the basis of the proposed mechanisms, the objective of the study was to inhibit the proliferation of A549 and SK‑MES‑1 by expressing hsa‑miR661‑3p in vivo and in vitro. Collectively, our results indicated that downregulation of hsa‑miR661‑3p was involved in NSCLC and restoration of hsa‑miR661‑3p impaired the growth of NSCLC cell lines A549 and SK‑MES‑1, suggesting that hsa‑miR661‑3p may be a potential target molecule for the therapy of NSCLC.

Wu M, Liu Z, Zhang A, Li N
Identification of key genes and pathways in hepatocellular carcinoma: A preliminary bioinformatics analysis.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(5):e14287 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most prevalent cancers worldwide. However, the precise mechanisms of the development and progression of HCC remain unclear. The present study attempted to identify and functionally analyze the differentially expressed genes between HCC and cirrhotic tissues by using comprehensive bioinformatics analyses.
METHODS: The GSE63898 gene expression profile was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and analyzed using the online tool GEO2R to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Gene ontology (GO) functional analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis of the DEGs were performed in DAVID. The STRING database was used to evaluate the interactions of DEGs and to construct a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network using Cytoscape software. Hub genes were selected using the cytoHubba plugin and were validated with the cBioPortal database.
RESULTS: A total of 301 DEGs were identified between HCC and cirrhotic tissues. The GO analysis results showed that these DEGs were significantly enriched in certain biological processes including negative regulation of growth and cell chemotaxis. Several significant pathways, including the p53 signaling pathway, were identified as being closely associated with these DEGs. The top 12 hub genes were screened and included TTK, NCAPG, TOP2A, CCNB1, CDK1, PRC1, RRM2, UBE2C, ZWINT, CDKN3, AURKA, and RACGAP1. The cBioPortal analysis found that alterations in hub genes could result in significantly reduced disease-free survival in HCC.
CONCLUSION: The present study identified a series of key genes and pathways that may be involved in the tumorigenicity and progression of HCC, providing a new understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis in HCC.

Mohanta S, Sekhar Khora S, Suresh A
Cancer Stem Cell based molecular predictors of tumor recurrence in Oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Arch Oral Biol. 2019; 99:92-106 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify the cancer stem cell specific biomarkers that can be effective candidate prognosticators of oral squamous cell carcinoma.
DESIGN: Microarray-based meta-analysis derived transcriptional profile of head and neck cancers was compared with the Cancer Stem Cell database to arrive at a subset of markers. This subset was further co-related with clinico-pathological parameters, recurrence and survival of oral cancer patients (n = 313) in The Cancer Genome Atlas database and in oral cancer (n = 28) patients.
RESULTS: Meta-analysis in combination with database comparison identified a panel of 221 genes specific to head and neck cancers. Correlation of expression levels of these markers in the oral cancer cohort of The Cancer Genome Atlas (n = 313) with treatment outcome identified 54 genes (p < 0.05 or fold change >2) associated with disease recurrence, 8 genes (NQO1, UBE2C, EDNRB, FKBP4, STAT3, HOXA1, RIT1, AURKA) being significant with high fold change. Assessment of the efficacy of the subset (n = 54) as survival predictors identified an additional 4 genes (CDK1, GINS2, PHF5 A, ERBB2) that co-related with poor disease-free survival (p < 0.05). CDK1 showed a significant association with the clinical stage, margin status and with advanced pathological parameters. Initial patient validation indicated that CDK1 and NQO1 significantly co-related with the poor disease-free and overall survival (p < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: This panel of oral cancer specific, cancer stem cell associated markers identified in this study, a subset of which was validated, will be of clinical benefit subject to large scale validation studies.

Guo J, Jin D, Wu Y, et al.
The miR 495-UBE2C-ABCG2/ERCC1 axis reverses cisplatin resistance by downregulating drug resistance genes in cisplatin-resistant non-small cell lung cancer cells.
EBioMedicine. 2018; 35:204-221 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cisplatin (DDP) resistance has become the leading cause of mortality in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). miRNA dysregulation significantly contributes to tumor progression. In this study, we found that miR-495 was significantly downregulated in lung cancer tissue specimens. This study aimed to elucidate the functions, direct target genes, and molecular mechanisms of miR-495 in lung cancer. miR-495 downregulated its substrate UBE2C through direct interaction with UBE2C 3'- untranslated region. UBE2C is a proto-oncogene activated in lung cancer; however, its role in chemotherapeutic resistance is unclear. Herein, UBE2C expression levels were higher in DDP-resistant NSCLC cells; this was associated with the proliferation, invasion, and DDP resistance in induced cisplatin-resistant NSCLC cells. Furthermore, epithelial-mesenchymal transitions (EMT) contributed to DDP resistance. Moreover, UBE2C knockdown downregulated vimentin. In contrast, E-cadherin was upregulated. Importantly, miR-495 and UBE2C were associated with cisplatin resistance. We attempted to evaluate their effects on cell proliferation and cisplatin resistance. We also performed EMT, cell migration, and invasion assays in DDP-resistant NSCLC cells overexpressing miR-495 and under-expressing UBE2C. Furthermore, in silico assays coupled with western blotting and luciferase assays revealed that UBE2C directly binds to the 5'-UTR of the drug-resistance genes ABCG2 and ERCC1. Furthermore, miR-495 downregulated ABCG2 and ERCC1 via regulation of UBE2C. Together, the present results indicate that the miR495-UBE2C-ABCG2/ERCC1 axis reverses DDP resistance via downregulation of anti-drug genes and reducing EMT in DDP-resistant NSCLC cells.

Liu X, Jin G, Qian J, et al.
Digital gene expression profiling analysis and its application in the identification of genes associated with improved response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer.
World J Surg Oncol. 2018; 16(1):82 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to screen sensitive biomarkers for the efficacy evaluation of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer.
METHODS: In this study, Illumina digital gene expression sequencing technology was applied and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between patients presenting pathological complete response (pCR) and non-pathological complete response (NpCR) were identified. Further, gene ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis were then performed. The genes in significant enriched pathways were finally quantified by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) to confirm that they were differentially expressed. Additionally, GSE23988 from Gene Expression Omnibus database was used as the validation dataset to confirm the DEGs.
RESULTS: After removing the low-quality reads, 715 DEGs were finally detected. After mapping to KEGG pathways, 10 DEGs belonging to the ubiquitin proteasome pathway (HECTD3, PSMB10, UBD, UBE2C, and UBE2S) and cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions (CCL2, CCR1, CXCL10, CXCL11, and IL2RG) were selected for further analysis. These 10 genes were finally quantified by qRT-PCR to confirm that they were differentially expressed (the log
CONCLUSION: Our results suggested that these 10 genes belonging to these two pathways might be useful as sensitive biomarkers for the efficacy evaluation of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer.

Zhou Z, Cheng Y, Jiang Y, et al.
Ten hub genes associated with progression and prognosis of pancreatic carcinoma identified by co-expression analysis.
Int J Biol Sci. 2018; 14(2):124-136 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Since the five-year survival rate is less than 5%, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains the 4th cause of cancer-related death. Although PDAC has been repeatedly researched in recent years, it is still predicted to be the second leading cause of cancer death by year 2030. In our study, the differentially expressed genes in dataset GSE62452 were used to construct a co-expression network by WGCNA. The yellow module related to grade of PDAC was screened. Combined with co-expression network and PPI network, 36 candidates were screened. After survival and regression analysis by using GSE62452 and TCGA dataset, we identified 10 real hub genes (

Zhang Y, Tian S, Li X, et al.
UBE2C promotes rectal carcinoma via miR-381.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2018; 19(3):230-238 [PubMed] Related Publications
We aimed to characterize the expression pattern of UBE2C in rectal carcinoma and elucidate its fundamental involvement in rectal carcinoma biology. The relative expression of UBE2C in rectal carcinoma was determined by immunoblotting and QPCR. The cell viability was measured using CCK-8 assay. The anchorage-independent growth was evaluated with soft agar assay. Cell apoptosis was detected by Annexin V-PI staining. Invasion capacity was determined by transwell chamber. Tumor growth was monitored in xenograft mice model. We demonstrated that UBE2C was aberrantly up-regulated in rectal carcinoma. SiRNA-mediated knockdown of UBE2C significantly inhibited cell viability, proliferation, colony formation, invasion and induced apoptosis in vitro. Moreover, tumor growth in xenograft mice was markedly suppressed upon UBE2C silencing. Furthermore, we have identified that miR-381 was involved in regulation of UBE2C in rectal carcinoma. Here we demonstrated that UBE2C was over-expressed in rectal carcinoma, which was subjected to miR-381 modulation and in turn promoted cell proliferation, invasion and inhibited cell apoptosis.

Li L, Li X, Wang W, et al.
UBE2C is involved in the functions of ECRG4 on esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2018; 98:201-206 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Esophageal cancerrelated gene 4 (ECRG4) is down-regulated in esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma (ESCC) and inhibits the tumorigenicity of ESCC cells. Ubiquitin conjugating enzyme E2 (UBE2C), an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, is upregulated in numerous human cancers, including ESCC.
METHODS: mRNA and protein expression was determined by real-time PCR and western blotting analysis, respectively. Cell apoptosis was assessed by Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate staining and flow cytometry analysis.
RESULTS: By analyzing previous quantitative proteomics data on EC9706 cells, we found that UBE2C was significantly down-regulated in ECRG4 overexpressed cells. Western blotting analysis validated the proteomics results in both EC9706 and EC-18 cells. In addition, Pearson's correlation analysis demonstrated a negative correlation between the mRNA levels of ECRG4 and UBE2C in ESCC tissues. Then, we found that Nuclear Factor-κB (NF-κB) inhibitor, pyrriolidine-dithiocarbamate (PDTC), could inhibit NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation and UBE2C expression, which was partially reversed by ECRG4 silence. More importantly, UBE2C knockdown in TE-1 cells significantly inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell apoptosis, which was partially reversed by ECRG4 knockdown.
CONCLUSIONS: ECRG4 down-regulated UBE2C expression in ESCC cells via NF-κB signaling. UBE2C was involved in the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic functions of ECRG4 in ESCC cells.

Zöllner SK, Selvanathan SP, Graham GT, et al.
Inhibition of the oncogenic fusion protein EWS-FLI1 causes G
Sci Signal. 2017; 10(499) [PubMed] Related Publications
Ewing's sarcoma (ES) is a rare and highly malignant cancer that grows in the bones or surrounding tissues mostly affecting adolescents and young adults. A chimeric fusion between the RNA binding protein EWS and the ETS family transcription factor FLI1 (EWS-FLI1), which is generated from a chromosomal translocation, is implicated in driving most ES cases by modulation of transcription and alternative splicing. The small-molecule YK-4-279 inhibits EWS-FLI1 function and induces apoptosis in ES cells. We aimed to identify both the underlying mechanism of the drug and potential combination therapies that might enhance its antitumor activity. We tested 69 anticancer drugs in combination with YK-4-279 and found that vinca alkaloids exhibited synergy with YK-4-279 in five ES cell lines. The combination of YK-4-279 and vincristine reduced tumor burden and increased survival in mice bearing ES xenografts. We determined that independent drug-induced events converged to cause this synergistic therapeutic effect. YK-4-279 rapidly induced G

Sivakumar S, Lucas FAS, McDowell TL, et al.
Genomic Landscape of Atypical Adenomatous Hyperplasia Reveals Divergent Modes to Lung Adenocarcinoma.
Cancer Res. 2017; 77(22):6119-6130 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
There is a dearth of knowledge about the pathogenesis of premalignant lung lesions, especially for atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH), the only known precursor for the major lung cancer subtype adenocarcinoma (LUAD). In this study, we performed deep DNA and RNA sequencing analyses of a set of AAH, LUAD, and normal tissues. Somatic

Peláez-García A, Yébenes L, Berjón A, et al.
Comparison of risk classification between EndoPredict and MammaPrint in ER-positive/HER2-negative primary invasive breast cancer.
PLoS One. 2017; 12(9):e0183452 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: To compare the concordance in risk classification between the EndoPredict and the MammaPrint scores obtained for the same cancer samples on 40 estrogen-receptor positive/HER2-negative breast carcinomas.
METHODS: Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded invasive breast carcinoma tissues that were previously analyzed with MammaPrint as part of routine care of the patients, and were classified as high-risk (20 patients) and low-risk (20 patients), were selected to be analyzed by the EndoPredict assay, a second generation gene expression test that combines expression of 8 genes (EP score) with two clinicopathological variables (tumor size and nodal status, EPclin score).
RESULTS: The EP score classified 15 patients as low-risk and 25 patients as high-risk. EPclin re-classified 5 of the 25 EP high-risk patients into low-risk, resulting in a total of 20 high-risk and 20 low-risk tumors. EP score and MammaPrint score were significantly correlated (p = 0.008). Twelve of 20 samples classified as low-risk by MammaPrint were also low-risk by EP score (60%). 17 of 20 MammaPrint high-risk tumors were also high-risk by EP score. The overall concordance between EP score and MammaPrint was 72.5% (κ = 0.45, (95% CI, 0.182 to 0.718)). EPclin score also correlated with MammaPrint results (p = 0.004). Discrepancies between both tests occurred in 10 cases: 5 MammaPrint low-risk patients were classified as EPclin high-risk and 5 high-risk MammaPrint were classified as low-risk by EPclin and overall concordance of 75% (κ = 0.5, (95% CI, 0.232 to 0.768)).
CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study demonstrates a limited concordance between MammaPrint and EndoPredict. Differences in results could be explained by the inclusion of different gene sets in each platform, the use of different methodology, and the inclusion of clinicopathological parameters, such as tumor size and nodal status, in the EndoPredict test.

Qin T, Huang G, Chi L, et al.
Exceptionally high UBE2C expression is a unique phenomenon in basal-like type breast cancer and is regulated by BRCA1.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2017; 95:649-655 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 2C (UBE2C) is overexpressed in various types of cancer, leading to poor outcomes and drug resistance. UBE2C may also have a critical role in phenotypes associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer; however, the relationship between UBE2C expression and clinical outcome in breast cancer subtypes has not previously been investigated. We firstly analyzed breast cancer patient data and immunohistochemistry of breast cancer patient samples. We demonstrated that UBE2C was associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer, particularly basal-like breast cancer, a subtype with aggressive clinical features. Interestingly, we found that there was a close relationship between the expression of BRCA1 and UBE2C in the MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines. Upregulation of BRCA1 could inhibit the expression of UBE2C. In cells with BRCA1 silenced down, expression of UBE2C was obviously increased, with a concurrent decrease in cellular sensitivity to doxorubicin. Suppression of UBE2C expression by RNA interference led to decrease the mRNA expressions of BCRP, MRP1 and P-gp in doxorubicin-treated MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, treatment with 1μg/ml doxorubicin led to increased expression of UBE2C. The results show high expression of UBE2C is a potential prognostic factor of poor outcome in basal-like breast cancer. Moreover, loss of BRCA1 function results in an increase in UBE2C expression and chemical resistance to doxorubicin in breast cancer cells.

Guo L, Ding Z, Huang N, et al.
Forkhead Box M1 positively regulates UBE2C and protects glioma cells from autophagic death.
Cell Cycle. 2017; 16(18):1705-1718 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2C (UBE2C) is characterized as a crucial molecule in cancer cell growth that plays an essential role in the development of gliomas, but the detailed mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we found that Forkhead box transcription factor M1 (FoxM1) overexpression increased UBE2C expression, whereas FoxM1 suppression inhibited UBE2C expression in glioma cells. In addition, high FoxM1/UBE2C expression was significantly correlated with poor prognosis in glioma. We subsequently demonstrated that UBE2C was a direct transcriptional target of FoxM1, and site-directed mutations markedly down-regulated UBE2C promoter activity. Moreover, UBE2C siRNA (si-UBE2C) significantly induced glioma cell autophagy and increased both mCherry-LC3 punctate fluorescence and LC3B-II/LC3-I expression. Notably, the si-UBE2C-induced decrease in cell viability was markedly inhibited by the autophagy inhibitor bafilomycin A1. The silencing of UBE2C resulted in a distinct inhibition of the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway, which functions in the negative modulation of autophagy. Collectively, our findings provide clinical and molecular evidence that FoxM1 promotes glioma progression by enhancing UBE2C transcription and that the inhibition of UBE2C partially induces autophagic glioma cell death. Thus, targeting the FoxM1-UBE2C axis has therapeutic potential in the treatment of gliomas.

Kraft S, Moore JB, Muzikansky A, et al.
Differential UBE2C and HOXA1 expression in melanocytic nevi and melanoma.
J Cutan Pathol. 2017; 44(10):843-850 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Recent molecular advances suggest that Spitz nevi and other spitzoid neoplasms are biologically distinct from melanoma and conventional nevi. The ubiquitin ligase UBE2C and the homeobox transcription factor HOXA1 are candidate oncogenes in melanoma.
METHODS: Using RNA expression analysis and immunohistochemistry, we evaluated these biomarkers in Spitz nevi (n = 20), melanoma (n = 20), and by immunohistochemistry in conventional nevi (n = 20).
RESULTS: RNA analysis with branched DNA multiplex assay identified upregulation of UBE2C in melanomas vs Spitz nevi (P = .003), whereas HOXA1 was downregulated in melanoma (P < .0001). Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed increased nuclear expression of UBE2C in melanoma (mean = 18% of cells; range 3%-44%) when compared with Spitz nevi (mean = 9%; range 2%-28%; P = .001) and conventional nevi (mean = 1.5%; range 0-9%; P < .0001). Strong UBE2C staining was identified in cells undergoing mitosis. UBE2C RNA and protein detection correlated with mitotic rate (P < .0001). On the other hand, HOXA1 nuclear staining was low in melanoma (mean = 69%; range 5%-100%) when compared with Spitz nevi (mean = 94%; range 66%-100%; P = .0024) and conventional nevi (mean = 94%; range 83%-99%; P = .009).
CONCLUSIONS: UBE2C and HOXA1 RNA and protein are differentially expressed in conventional and Spitz nevi and melanoma.

Kang SM, Rosales JL, Meier-Stephenson V, et al.
Genome-wide loss-of-function genetic screening identifies opioid receptor μ1 as a key regulator of L-asparaginase resistance in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Oncogene. 2017; 36(42):5910-5913 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
L-asparaginase is a critical chemotherapeutic agent for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). It hydrolyzes plasma asparagine into aspartate and NH

Gu P, Chen X, Xie R, et al.
lncRNA HOXD-AS1 Regulates Proliferation and Chemo-Resistance of Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer via Recruiting WDR5.
Mol Ther. 2017; 25(8):1959-1973 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) that occurs after the failure of androgen deprivation therapy is the leading cause of deaths in prostate cancer patients. Thus, there is an obvious and urgent need to fully understand the mechanism of CRPC and discover novel therapeutic targets. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are crucial regulators in many human cancers, yet their potential roles and molecular mechanisms in CRPC are poorly understood. In this study, we discovered that an lncRNA HOXD-AS1 is highly expressed in CRPC cells and correlated closely with Gleason score, T stage, lymph nodes metastasis, and progression-free survival. Knockdown of HOXD-AS1 inhibited the proliferation and chemo-resistance of CRPC cells in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we identified several cell cycle, chemo-resistance, and castration-resistance-related genes, including PLK1, AURKA, CDC25C, FOXM1, and UBE2C, that were activated transcriptionally by HOXD-AS1. Further investigation revealed that HOXD-AS1 recruited WDR5 to directly regulate the expression of target genes by mediating histone H3 lysine 4 tri-methylation (H3K4me3). In conclusion, our findings indicate that HOXD-AS1 promotes proliferation, castration resistance, and chemo-resistance in prostate cancer by recruiting WDR5. This sheds a new insight into the regulation of CRPC by lncRNA and provides a potential approach for the treatment of CRPC.

Zhou H, Chen Q, Tan W, et al.
Integrated clinicopathological features and gene microarray analysis of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.
Gene. 2017; 625:72-77 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors are relatively rare pancreatic neoplasms over the world. Investigations about molecular biology of PNETs are insufficient for nowadays. We aimed to explore the expression of messenger RNA and regulatory processes underlying pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors from different views. The expression profile of GSE73338 were downloaded, including samples with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. First, the Limma package was utilized to distinguish the differentially expressed messenger RNA. Gene Ontology classification and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analysis were performed to explore the functions and pathways of target genes. In addition, we constructed a protein-protein interaction network. NEK2, UBE2C, TOP2A and PPP1R1A were revealed with continuous genomic alterations in higher tumor stage. 91 up-regulated and 36 down-regulated genes were identified to be differentially expressed in malignant PNETs. Locomotory behavior was significantly enriched for biological processes of metastasis PNETs. GCGR and GNAS were identified as the hub of proteins in the protein-protein interaction sub-network of malignant PNETs. We showed the gene expression differences in PNETs according to different clinicopathological aspects. NEK2, UBE2C, TOP2A are positively associated with high tumor grade, and PPP1R1A negatively. GCGR and GNAS are regarded as the hub of the PPI sub-network. CXCR4 may affect the progression of PNETs via the CXCR4-CXCL12-CXCR7 chemokine receptor axis. However, more studies are required.

Wang R, Song Y, Liu X, et al.
UBE2C induces EMT through Wnt/β‑catenin and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways by regulating phosphorylation levels of Aurora-A.
Int J Oncol. 2017; 50(4):1116-1126 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 2C (UBE2C) is the key component in the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) by partnering with the anaphase‑promoting complex (APC/C). A high UBE2C protein expression level has been reported in various types of human tumors. However, little is known about the precise mechanism by which UBE2C expression is downregulated in gastric cancer. We found in MGC‑803 and SGC‑7901 gastric cancer cells UBE2C‑deficient G2/M phase arrest in the cell cycle and subsequently decreased gastric adenocarcinoma tumorigenesis. In the previous study, we identified Aurora-A (AURKA) as the hub gene of the gastric cancer linkage network based genome‑wide association study (eGWAS). Furthermore, knockdown of UBE2C using siRNA markedly reduced the level of phosphorylation AURKA (p‑AURKA) via Wnt/β‑catenin and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways suppressed the occurrence and development of gastric cancer. Additionally, the expression of E‑cadherin was up‑regulated and N-cadherin was downregulated in response to UBE2C knockdown and inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Collectively, our data suggest that the activity of AURKA might be regulated by UBE2C through regulating the activity of APC/C. UBE2C may be a new marker in the diagnosis of gastric cancer and may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of gastric adenocarcinoma.

Xi H, Li L, Du J, et al.
hsa-miR-631 resensitizes bortezomib-resistant multiple myeloma cell lines by inhibiting UbcH10.
Oncol Rep. 2017; 37(2):961-968 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although bortezomib (BTZ) remains a first-line agent for multiple myeloma (MM) therapy, the development of BTZ resistance has become an indicator of poor prognosis in MM patients. It is thus urgent to develop strategies to restore the vulnerability of MM to BTZ. This study demonstrated, for the first time, that UbcH10 is highly expressed in BTZ-resistant myeloma cell lines U-266/BTZ, NCI-H929/BTZ and RPMI-8226/BTZ, which is attributed to the inactivation of post-transcriptional control. The in-depth study revealed that during the development of BTZ resistance in these cells, the hsa-miR-631 levels were decreased, which resulted in the increased expression of the target gene UbcH10. We also found that the multiple drug-resistant protein MDR1 exhibited a positive correlation with UbcH10 due to the reduced ubiquitination of MDR1, which was caused by high UbcH10 expression. Following overexpression of miR-631, both BTZ sensitivity and BTZ-induced apoptosis were enhanced in the resistant cells. Meanwhile, resensitization by miR-631 overexpression was blocked by exogenous expression of UbcH10, which was not regulated by intracellular miR-631. In conclusion, the miR-631/UbcH10/MDR1 pathway is closely associated with the development of BTZ resistance in myeloma cells, and the overexpression of miR-631 can significantly improve BTZ sensitivity in resistant myeloma cells.

Michalak M, Warnken U, André S, et al.
Detection of Proteome Changes in Human Colon Cancer Induced by Cell Surface Binding of Growth-Inhibitory Human Galectin-4 Using Quantitative SILAC-Based Proteomics.
J Proteome Res. 2016; 15(12):4412-4422 [PubMed] Related Publications
Endogenous lectins have the capacity to translate glycan-encoded information on the cell surface into effects on cell growth. As test cases to examine changes in protein presence associated with tumor growth inhibition, we applied SILAC-based proteomics on human colon carcinoma cells treated with galectin-4 (Gal-4). The five tested lines-LS 180, Vaco 432, Colo 205, CX 1, and HCT 116-responded with differentiation and reduced proliferation to Gal-4 binding. In proteomic analysis (mass spectral data deposited with PRIDE, PXD003489), 2654 proteins were quantified, of which 190 were down-regulated and 115 were up-regulated (>2-fold). 1D annotation analysis of the results indicated down-regulation of DNA replication-associated processes, while protein presence for secretory and transport functions appeared increased. The strongest induction was found for CALB2 (calretinin; ∼24-fold), TGM2 (protein-glutamine γ-glutamyltransferase 2; ∼11-fold), S100A3 (∼10-fold), and GSN (gelsolin; 9.5-fold), and the most pronounced decreases were seen for CDKN2A (tumor suppressor ARF; ∼6-fold), EPCAM (epithelial cell adhesion molecule; ∼6-fold), UBE2C (ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 C; ∼5-fold), KIF2C (kinesin-like protein KIF2C; 5-fold), and LMNB1 (lamin-B1; ∼5-fold). The presence of the common proliferation marker Ki-67 was diminished about 4-fold. By tracing significant alterations of protein expression likely relevant for the observed phenotypic effects, the capacity of a galectin to affect the proteome of human colon cancer cells at multiple sites is revealed.

Bigagli E, De Filippo C, Castagnini C, et al.
DNA copy number alterations, gene expression changes and disease-free survival in patients with colorectal cancer: a 10 year follow-up.
Cell Oncol (Dordr). 2016; 39(6):545-558 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: DNA copy number alterations (CNAs) and gene expression changes have amply been encountered in colorectal cancers (CRCs), but the extent at which CNAs affect gene expression, as well as their relevance for tumor development, are still poorly defined. Here we aimed at assessing the clinical relevance of these parameters in a 10 year follow-up study.
METHODS: Tumors and normal adjacent colon mucosa, obtained at primary surgery from 21 CRC patients, were subjected to (i) high-resolution array CGH (a-CGH) for the detection of CNAs and (ii) microarray-based transcriptome profiling for the detection of gene expression (GE) changes. Correlations between these genomic and transcriptomic changes and their associations with clinical and histopathological parameters were assessed with the aim to identify molecular signatures associated with disease-free survival of the CRC patients during a 10 year follow-up.
RESULTS: DNA copy number gains were frequently detected in chromosomes 7, 8q, 13, 19, 20q and X, whereas DNA copy number losses were frequently detected in chromosomes 1p, 4, 8p, 15, 17p, 18, 19 and 22q. None of these alterations were observed in all samples. In addition, we found that 2,498 genes were up- and that 1,094 genes were down-regulated in the tumor samples compared to their corresponding normal mucosa (p < 0.01). The expression of 65 genes was found to be significantly associated with prognosis (p < 0.01). Specifically, we found that up-regulation of the IL17RA, IGF2BP2 and ABCC2 genes, and of genes acting in the mTOR and cytokine receptor pathways, were strongly associated with a poor survival. Subsequent integrated analyses revealed that increased expression levels of the MMP9, BMP7, UBE2C, I-CAM, NOTCH3, NOTCH1, PTGES2, HMGB1 and ERBB3 genes were associated with copy number gains, whereas decreased expression levels of the MUC1, E2F2, HRAS and SIRT3 genes were associated with copy number losses. Pathways related to cell cycle progression, eicosanoid metabolism, and TGF-β and apoptosis signaling, were found to be most significantly affected.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that CNAs in CRC tumor tissues are associated with concomitant changes in the expression of cancer-related genes. In other genes epigenetic mechanism may be at work. Up-regulation of the IL17RA, IGF2BP2 and ABCC2 genes, and of genes acting in the mTOR and cytokine receptor pathways, appear to be associated with a poor survival. These alterations may, in addition to Dukes' staging, be employed as new prognostic biomarkers for the prediction of clinical outcome in CRC patients.

Palumbo A, Da Costa NM, De Martino M, et al.
UBE2C is overexpressed in ESCC tissues and its abrogation attenuates the malignant phenotype of ESCC cell lines.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(40):65876-65887 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is widely known as a highly lethal and poor understood cancer, then requiring the search for novel molecular markers to improve its management and patients survival. Recently, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2C (UBE2C) has been figuring as a prominent tumor biomarker candidate, once it has been recognized as a key player in cell cycle progression. In this way, the aim of this study was to evaluate the expression profile of UBE2C gene and protein in ESCC samples, as well as its diagnostic and prognostic marker potential, and its contribution to ESSC genesis and/or progression by performing in vitro functional assays. The analysis of UBE2C gene expression in 52 paired ESCC samples (tumor and respective histologically normal surrounding tissue), by qRT-PCR, revealed that this gene is overexpressed in 73% of ESCC samples. Subsequently, immunohistochemical analysis confirmed that UBE2C protein expression was upregulated in all ESCC cases, but absent in the histologically normal tumor surrounding tissues. Moreover, we showed that UBE2C mRNA expression was able to accurately discriminate ESCC tissue from both healthy esophageal and histologically normal tumor surrounding tissues, pointing out its role as a diagnostic marker for this cancer. Finally, we report that UBE2C affects proliferation rates and cell cycle profile of ESCC cell lines, by directly interfering with cyclin B1 protein levels, suggesting its involvement in crucial steps of ESCC carcinogenesis.

Wang W, Wang Z, Zhao J, et al.
A novel molecular and clinical staging model to predict survival for patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(39):63526-63536 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Current prognostic factors fail to accurately determine prognosis for patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) after surgery. Here, we constructed a survival prediction model for prognostication in patients with ESCC. Candidate molecular biomarkers were extracted from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), and Cox regression analysis was performed to determine significant prognostic factors. The survival prediction model was constructed based on cluster and discriminant analyses in a training cohort (N=205), and validated in a test cohort (N=207). The survival prediction model consisting of two genes (UBE2C and MGP) and two clinicopathological factors (tumor stage and grade) was developed. This model could be used to accurately categorize patients into three groups in the test cohort. Both disease-free survival and overall survival differed among the diverse groups (P<0.05). In summary, we have developed and validated a predictive model that is based on two gene markers in conjunction with two clinicopathological variables, and which can accurately predict outcomes for ESCC patients after surgery.

Lee CH, Ku JY, Ha JM, et al.
Transcript Levels of Androgen Receptor Variant 7 and Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzyme 2C in Hormone Sensitive Prostate Cancer and Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer.
Prostate. 2017; 77(1):60-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: This study is designed to identify the androgen receptor variant 7 (AR-V7) status, clinical significance of AR-V7 in hormone sensitive prostate cancer (HSPC). Then, we evaluated AR-V7 and changes of its target gene, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2C (UBE2C) which is an anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C)-specific ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) in serial tumor biopsies from patients receiving androgen deprivation therapy.
METHODS: We used RT-PCR and Q-PCR assay to evaluate AR-V7, androgen receptor full length (AR-FL), and UBE2C in tumor biopsies from patients with HSPC and CRPC. We examined associations between mRNA expression of AR-V7 and clinicopathologic factors. Furthermore, to identify other potential genes involved in the development of CRPC, RNA sequencing was conducted, using paired prostate cancer (PCa) tissues obtained immediately prior to treatment and at the time of therapeutic resistance.
RESULTS: A total of 13 HSPC patients and three CRPC patients were enrolled. Neither a high Gleason score (score of 8 and 9) nor a high risk of PCa (a high risk of locally advanced PCa according to NCCN guidelines) was correlated with mRNA expression of AR-V7 in HSPC (P = 0.153 and P = 0.215). The mRNA expression of AR-FL, but not AR-V7, was significantly associated with the mRNA expression of UBE2C level in HSPC (P = 0.007). However, increased expression of AR-V7, not AR-FL, paralleled increased expression of UBE2C in the CRPC specimens (P = 0.03). AR-V7 expression status before ADT was likely related to shorter CRPC development in patients treating ADT. The result of the RNA-sequencing analysis using serial samples from the same patient before and after castration demonstrated an increased level of the PI3K regulatory subunit 1 (P = 0.018).
CONCLUSION: Our study revealed the role of UBE2C as a marker of the androgen signaling pathway in PCa. Differential gene expression analysis using serial samples from the same patient before and after castration revealed potential genes and pathways involved in development of CRPC. Further studies are needed to determine whether these genes and pathways are potential therapeutic target for CRPC. Prostate 77:60-71, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Schmidt M, Mock A, Jungk C, et al.
Transcriptomic analysis of aggressive meningiomas identifies PTTG1 and LEPR as prognostic biomarkers independent of WHO grade.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(12):14551-68 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Meningiomas are frequent central nervous system tumors. Although most meningiomas are benign (WHO grade I) and curable by surgery, WHO grade II and III tumors remain therapeutically challenging due to frequent recurrence. Interestingly, relapse also occurs in some WHO grade I meningiomas. Hence, we investigated the transcriptional features defining aggressive (recurrent, malignantly progressing or WHO grade III) meningiomas in 144 cases. Meningiomas were categorized into non-recurrent (NR), recurrent (R), and tumors undergoing malignant progression (M) in addition to their WHO grade. Unsupervised transcriptomic analysis in 62 meningiomas revealed transcriptional profiles lining up according to WHO grade and clinical subgroup. Notably aggressive subgroups (R+M tumors and WHO grade III) shared a large set of differentially expressed genes (n=332; p<0.01, FC>1.25). In an independent multicenter validation set (n=82), differential expression of 10 genes between WHO grades was confirmed. Additionally, among WHO grade I tumors differential expression between NR and aggressive R+M tumors was affirmed for PTTG1, AURKB, ECT2, UBE2C and PRC1, while MN1 and LEPR discriminated between NR and R+M WHO grade II tumors. Univariate survival analysis revealed a significant association with progression-free survival for PTTG1, LEPR, MN1, ECT2, PRC1, COX10, UBE2C expression, while multivariate analysis identified a prediction for PTTG1 and LEPR mRNA expression independent of gender, WHO grade and extent of resection. Finally, stainings of PTTG1 and LEPR confirmed malignancy-associated protein expression changes. In conclusion, based on the so far largest study sample of WHO grade III and recurrent meningiomas we report a comprehensive transcriptional landscape and two prognostic markers.

Stockley J, Markert E, Zhou Y, et al.
The RNA-binding protein Sam68 regulates expression and transcription function of the androgen receptor splice variant AR-V7.
Sci Rep. 2015; 5:13426 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Castration-resistant (CR) prostate cancer (PCa) partly arises due to persistence of androgen receptor (AR) transcriptional activity in the absence of cognate ligand. An emerging mechanism underlying the CRPCa phenotype and predicting response to therapy is the expression of the constitutively-active AR-V7 splice variant generated by AR cryptic exon 3b inclusion. Here, we explore the role of the RNA-binding protein (RBP) Sam68 (encoded by KHDRBS1), which is over-expressed in clinical PCa, on AR-V7 expression and transcription function. Using a minigene reporter, we show that Sam68 controls expression of exon 3b resulting in an increase in endogenous AR-V7 mRNA and protein expression in RNA-binding-dependent manner. We identify a novel protein-protein interaction between Sam68 and AR-V7 mediated by a common domain shared with full-length AR, and observe these proteins in the cell nucleoplasm. Using a luciferase reporter, we demonstrate that Sam68 co-activates ligand-independent AR-V7 transcriptional activity in an RNA-binding-independent manner, and controls expression of the endogenous AR-V7-specific gene target UBE2C. Our data suggest that Sam68 has separable effects on the regulation of AR-V7 expression and transcriptional activity, through its RNA-binding capacity. Sam68 and other RBPs may control expression of AR-V7 and other splice variants as well as their downstream functions in CRPCa.

Han Q, Zhou C, Liu F, et al.
MicroRNA-196a post-transcriptionally upregulates the UBE2C proto-oncogene and promotes cell proliferation in breast cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2015; 34(2):877-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
Accumulating evidence has shown that miR-196a plays an important role in tumorigenesis and tumor progression in various types of cancer. miRNA profiling studies have suggested that miR-196a is highly overexpressed in breast cancer. However, the functional mechanism of miR-196a in breast cancer remains unclear. In the present study, we first showed that the expression of miR-196a was significantly upregulated in human breast cancer samples and breast cancer cell lines. Using a loss-of-function approach, we showed that the downregulation of miR-196a inhibited the proliferation of breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2C (UBE2C) gene as a cellular proto-oncogene, which was overexpressed and positively correlated with miR-196a expression in breast cancer tissues, was identified as a direct target of miR-196a. Moreover, in order to investigate whether miR-196a regulated cell growth in breast cancer cells by targeting UBE2C, rescue studies were performed in breast cancer cells. The restoration of UBE2C by transfecting UBE2C cDNA in anti-miR-196a-transfected breast cancer cells rescued the suppression of cell proliferation. In conclusion, the present study showed that miR-196a promoted cell proliferation by targeting UBE2C in breast cancer. Thus, miR-196a may be a potential oncogene in breast cancer and a promising therapeutic target in breast cancer treatment.

Cacciola NA, Calabrese C, Malapelle U, et al.
UbcH10 expression can predict prognosis and sensitivity to the antineoplastic treatment for colorectal cancer patients.
Mol Carcinog. 2016; 55(5):793-807 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most frequent and deadly malignancies worldwide. Despite the progresses made in diagnosis and treatment, the identification of tumor markers is still a strong clinical need, because current treatments are efficacious only in a subgroup of patients. UbcH10 represents a potential candidate biomarker, whose expression levels could be employed to predict response or resistance to chemotherapy or targeted agents. UbcH10 mRNA and protein expression levels have been evaluated in a large group of CRC patients and correlated with clinico-pathological characteristics, including KRAS mutations. Moreover, the endogenous levels of UbcH10 and its role on cell growth have been evaluated in CRC cells. Finally, to investigate the impact of UbcH10 protein expression on the response to irinotecan, its active metabolite SN-38 and cetuximab treatment, UbcH10 silencing experiments were carried-out on two colon carcinoma cell lines, Caco-2, and DLD1. Overexpression of UbcH10 mRNA and protein was observed in the vast majority of patients analyzed. UbcH10 suppression decreased CRC cell growth rate (at least in part through deregulation of Cyclin B and ERK1) and sensitized them to pharmacological treatments with irinotecan, SN-38 and cetuximab (at least in part through a down-regulation of AKT). Taken together, these findings indicate that UbcH10 expression regulates CRC growth and could play an important role in the personalization of the therapy of CRC patients.

Sun F, Indran IR, Zhang ZW, et al.
A novel prostate cancer therapeutic strategy using icaritin-activated arylhydrocarbon-receptor to co-target androgen receptor and its splice variants.
Carcinogenesis. 2015; 36(7):757-68 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Persistent androgen receptor (AR) signaling is the key driving force behind progression and development of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). In many patients, AR COOH-terminal truncated splice variants (ARvs) play a critical role in contributing to the resistance against androgen depletion therapy. Unfortunately, clinically used antiandrogens like bicalutamide (BIC) and enzalutamide (MDV), which target the ligand binding domain, have failed to suppress these AR variants. Here, we report for the first time that a natural prenylflavonoid, icaritin (ICT), can co-target both persistent AR and ARvs. ICT was found to inhibit transcription of key AR-regulated genes, such as KLK3 [prostate-specific antigen (PSA)] and ARvs-regulated genes, such as UBE2C and induce apoptosis in AR-positive prostate cancer (PC) cells. Mechanistically, ICT promoted the degradation of both AR and ARvs by binding to arylhydrocarbon-receptor (AhR) to mediate ubiquitin-proteasomal degradation. Therefore, ICT impaired AR transactivation in PC cells. Knockdown of AhR gene restored AR stability and partially prevented ICT-induced growth suppression. In clinically relevant murine models orthotopically implanted with androgen-sensitive and CRPC cells, ICT was able to target AR and ARvs, to inhibit AR signaling and tumor growth with no apparent toxicity. Our results provide a mechanistic framework for the development of ICT, as a novel lead compound for AR-positive PC therapeutics, especially for those bearing AR splice variants.

Bi D, Ning H, Liu S, et al.
Gene expression patterns combined with network analysis identify hub genes associated with bladder cancer.
Comput Biol Chem. 2015; 56:71-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: To explore molecular mechanisms of bladder cancer (BC), network strategy was used to find biomarkers for early detection and diagnosis.
METHODS: The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between bladder carcinoma patients and normal subjects were screened using empirical Bayes method of the linear models for microarray data package. Co-expression networks were constructed by differentially co-expressed genes and links. Regulatory impact factors (RIF) metric was used to identify critical transcription factors (TFs). The protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks were constructed by the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins (STRING) and clusters were obtained through molecular complex detection (MCODE) algorithm. Centralities analyses for complex networks were performed based on degree, stress and betweenness. Enrichment analyses were performed based on Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases.
RESULTS: Co-expression networks and TFs (based on expression data of global DEGs and DEGs in different stages and grades) were identified. Hub genes of complex networks, such as UBE2C, ACTA2, FABP4, CKS2, FN1 and TOP2A, were also obtained according to analysis of degree. In gene enrichment analyses of global DEGs, cell adhesion, proteinaceous extracellular matrix and extracellular matrix structural constituent were top three GO terms. ECM-receptor interaction, focal adhesion, and cell cycle were significant pathways.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide some potential underlying biomarkers of BC. However, further validation is required and deep studies are needed to elucidate the pathogenesis of BC.

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