UBE2C

Gene Summary

Gene:UBE2C; ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2C
Aliases: UBCH10, dJ447F3.2
Location:20q13.12
Summary:The modification of proteins with ubiquitin is an important cellular mechanism for targeting abnormal or short-lived proteins for degradation. Ubiquitination involves at least three classes of enzymes: ubiquitin-activating enzymes, ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes, and ubiquitin-protein ligases. This gene encodes a member of the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme family. The encoded protein is required for the destruction of mitotic cyclins and for cell cycle progression, and may be involved in cancer progression. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. Pseudogenes of this gene have been defined on chromosomes 4, 14, 15, 18, and 19. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2013]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 C
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 20 August, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 20 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 20 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: UBE2C (cancer-related)

Endesfelder D, Burrell RA, Kanu N, et al.
Chromosomal instability selects gene copy-number variants encoding core regulators of proliferation in ER+ breast cancer.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(17):4853-63 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chromosomal instability (CIN) is associated with poor outcome in epithelial malignancies, including breast carcinomas. Evidence suggests that prognostic signatures in estrogen receptor-positive (ER(+)) breast cancer define tumors with CIN and high proliferative potential. Intriguingly, CIN induction in lower eukaryotic cells and human cells is context dependent, typically resulting in a proliferation disadvantage but conferring a fitness benefit under strong selection pressures. We hypothesized that CIN permits accelerated genomic evolution through the generation of diverse DNA copy-number events that may be selected during disease development. In support of this hypothesis, we found evidence for selection of gene amplification of core regulators of proliferation in CIN-associated cancer genomes. Stable DNA copy-number amplifications of the core regulators TPX2 and UBE2C were associated with expression of a gene module involved in proliferation. The module genes were enriched within prognostic signature gene sets for ER(+) breast cancer, providing a logical connection between CIN and prognostic signature expression. Our results provide a framework to decipher the impact of intratumor heterogeneity on key cancer phenotypes, and they suggest that CIN provides a permissive landscape for selection of copy-number alterations that drive cancer proliferation.

Wang L, Huang J, Jiang M, et al.
CAMK1 phosphoinositide signal-mediated protein sorting and transport network in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by biocomputation.
Cell Biochem Biophys. 2014; 70(2):1011-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
We data-analyzed and constructed the high-expression CAMK1 phosphoinositide signal-mediated protein sorting and transport network in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) compared with low-expression (fold change ≥ 2) no-tumor hepatitis/cirrhotic tissues (HBV or HCV infection) in GEO data set, using integration of gene regulatory network inference method with gene ontology (GO). Our result showed that CAMK1 transport subnetwork upstream KCNQ3, LCN2, NKX2_5, NUP62, SORT1, STX1A activated CAMK1, and downstream CAMK1-activated AFP, ENAH, KPNA2, SLC4A3; CAMK1 signal subnetwork upstream BRCA1, DKK1, GPSM2, LEF1, NR5A1, NUP62, SORT1, SSTR5, TBL3 activated CAMK1, and downstream CAMK1-activated MAP2K6, SFRP4, SSTR5, TSHB, UBE2C in HCC. We proposed that CAMK1 activated network enhanced endosome to lysosome transport, endosome transport via multivesicular body sorting pathway, Golgi to endosome transport, intracellular protein transmembrane transport, intracellular protein transport, ion transport, mRNA transport, plasma membrane to endosome transport, potassium ion transport, protein transport, vesicle-mediated transport, anion transport, intracellular transport, androgen receptor signaling pathway, cell surface receptor-linked signal transduction, hormone-mediated signaling, induction of apoptosis by extracellular signals, signal transduction by p53 class mediator resulting in transcription of p21 class mediator, signal transduction resulting in induction of apoptosis, phosphoinositide-mediated signaling, Wnt receptor signaling pathway, as a result of inducing phosphoinositide signal-mediated protein sorting, and transport in HCC. Our hypothesis was verified by CAMK1 functional regulation subnetwork containing positive regulation of calcium ion transport via voltage gated calcium channel, cell proliferation, DNA repair, exocytosis, I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB cascade, immunoglobulin-mediated immune response, mast cell activation, natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity directed against tumor cell target, protein ubiquitination, sodium ion transport, survival gene product activity, T cell-mediated cytotoxicity, transcription, transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter, transcription initiation from RNA polymerase II promoter, transcription via serum response element binding, exit from mitosis, ubiquitin ligase activity during mitotic cell cycle, regulation of angiogenesis, apoptosis, cell growth, cell proliferation, cyclin-dependent protein kinase activity, gene expression, insulin secretion, steroid biosynthesis, transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter, transcription from RNA polymerase III promoter, cell cycle, cell migration, DNA recombination, and protein metabolism; also by CAMK1 negative functional regulation subnetwork including negative regulation of apoptosis, cell proliferation, centriole replication, fatty acid biosynthesis, lipoprotein lipase activity, MAPK activity, progression through cell cycle, transcription, transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter, cell growth, phosphorylation, and ubiquitin ligase activity during mitotic cell cycle in HCC.

Chou CP, Huang NC, Jhuang SJ, et al.
Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UBE2C is highly expressed in breast microcalcification lesions.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(4):e93934 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 2C (UBE2C) contributes to ubiquitin-mediated proteasome degradation of cell cycle progression in breast cancer. Microcalcification (MC) is the most common mammographic feature of early breast cancer. In this study, we evaluated whether UBE2C could be a tumor marker of early breast cancer with MC found on screening mammography. UBE2C protein and mRNA expression were measured in breast core biopsy pairs of MC and adjacent non-MC breast tissue from each subject. Immunohistochemistry revealed UBE2C positivity in 69.4% of MC samples and 77.6% negativity in non-MC samples (p<0.0001). On RT-qPCR, 56.1% of malignant MC lesion samples showed high mRNA level of UBE2C and 80% of benign MC lesion samples showed a low level of UBE2C (p = 0.1766). We investigated the carcinogenic role of UBE2C in MCF-7 breast cancer cells with UBE2C knockdown; UBE2C knockdown downregulated cell proliferation and activated the cellular apoptosis pathway to inhibit cell colony formation. Furthermore, UBE2C expression was associated with that of carcinogenic genes human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2), cellular c-Ki-ras2 proto-oncogene (KRAS), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), C-C motif chemokine 5 (CCL5), neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally downregulated 9 (NEDD9) and Ras homolog family member C (RhoC). UBE2C may be a marker for diagnosis of nonpalpable breast lesions but not benign or malignant tumors in mammography core biopsies. Suppression of UBE2C may be a potential therapy target in breast cancer.

Wang Q, Beaumont KA, Otte NJ, et al.
Targeting glutamine transport to suppress melanoma cell growth.
Int J Cancer. 2014; 135(5):1060-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
Amino acids, especially leucine and glutamine, are important for tumor cell growth, survival and metabolism. A range of different transporters deliver each specific amino acid into cells, some of which are increased in cancer. These amino acids consequently activate the mTORC1 pathway and drive cell cycle progression. The leucine transporter LAT1/4F2hc heterodimer assembles as part of a large complex with the glutamine transporter ASCT2 to transport amino acids. In this study, we show that the expression of LAT1 and ASCT2 is significantly increased in human melanoma samples and is present in both BRAF(WT) (C8161 and WM852) and BRAF(V600E) mutant (1205Lu and 451Lu) melanoma cell lines. While inhibition of LAT1 by BCH did not suppress melanoma cell growth, the ASCT2 inhibitor BenSer significantly reduced both leucine and glutamine transport in melanoma cells, leading to inhibition of mTORC1 signaling. Cell proliferation and cell cycle progression were significantly reduced in the presence of BenSer in melanoma cells in 2D and 3D cell culture. This included reduced expression of the cell cycle regulators CDK1 and UBE2C. The importance of ASCT2 expression in melanoma was confirmed by shRNA knockdown, which inhibited glutamine uptake, mTORC1 signaling and cell proliferation. Taken together, our study demonstrates that ASCT2-mediated glutamine transport is a potential therapeutic target for both BRAF(WT) and BRAF(V600E) melanoma.

Shuliang S, Lei C, Guangwu J, Changjie L
Involvement of ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2C in proliferation and invasion of prostate carcinoma cells.
Oncol Res. 2013; 21(3):121-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2C (UBE2C) has been found to participate in the process of several cancers. However, the role of UBE2C in prostate cancer has not been reported. To investigate the function of UBE2C in prostate cancer, several methods were used. UBE2C promoted the proliferation and viability of prostate cancer cells through MTT and colony formation assay and increased the number of invaded or migrated cells in Matrigel or Transwell assay based on its function of inducing EMT. UBE2C also promoted tumor formation in vivo. Our results suggest that UBE2C acts as an oncogene in prostate cancer progression and may be a candidate marker of diagnosis for this disease.

Guo JC, Li J, Yang YC, et al.
Oligonucleotide microarray identifies genes differentially expressed during tumorigenesis of DMBA-induced pancreatic cancer in rats.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(12):e82910 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The extremely dismal prognosis of pancreatic cancer (PC) is attributed, at least in part, to lack of early diagnosis. Therefore, identifying differentially expressed genes in multiple steps of tumorigenesis of PC is of great interest. In the present study, a 7,12-dimethylbenzanthraene (DMBA)-induced PC model was established in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The gene expression profile was screened using an oligonucleotide microarray, followed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemical staining validation. A total of 661 differentially expressed genes were identified in stages of pancreatic carcinogenesis. According to GO classification, these genes were involved in multiple molecular pathways. Using two-way hierarchical clustering analysis, normal pancreas, acute and chronic pancreatitis, PanIN, early and advanced pancreatic cancer were completely discriminated. Furthermore, 11 upregulated and 142 downregulated genes (probes) were found by Mann-Kendall trend Monotone test, indicating homologous genes of rat and human. The qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry analysis of CXCR7 and UBe2c, two of the identified genes, confirmed the microarray results. In human PC cell lines, knockdown of CXCR7 resulted in decreased migration and invasion. Collectively, our data identified several promising markers and therapeutic targets of PC based on a comprehensive screening and systemic validation.

Xie C, Powell C, Yao M, et al.
Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2C: a potential cancer biomarker.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2014; 47:113-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
The ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes 2C (UBE2C) is an integral component of the ubiquitin proteasome system. UBE2C consists of a conserved core domain containing the catalytic Cys residue and an N-terminal extension. The core domain is required for ubiquitin adduct formation by interacting with the ubiquitin-fold domain in the E1 enzyme, and contributes to the E3 enzyme binding. UBE2C N-terminal extension regulates E3 enzyme activity as a part of an intrinsic inhibitory mechanism. UBE2C is required for the destruction of mitotic cyclins and securin, which are essential for spindle assembly checkpoint and mitotic exit. The UBE2C mRNA and/or protein levels are aberrantly increased in many cancer types with poor clinical outcomes. Accumulation of UBE2C stimulates cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth. UBE2C transgenic mice are prone to develop spontaneous tumors and carcinogen-induced tumor with evidence of chromosome aneuploidy.

Parris TZ, Kovács A, Aziz L, et al.
Additive effect of the AZGP1, PIP, S100A8 and UBE2C molecular biomarkers improves outcome prediction in breast carcinoma.
Int J Cancer. 2014; 134(7):1617-29 [PubMed] Related Publications
The deregulation of key cellular pathways is fundamental for the survival and expansion of neoplastic cells, which in turn can have a detrimental effect on patient outcome. To develop effective individualized cancer therapies, we need to have a better understanding of which cellular pathways are perturbed in a genetically defined subgroup of patients. Here, we validate the prognostic value of a 13-marker signature in independent gene expression microarray datasets (n = 1,141) and immunohistochemistry with full-faced FFPE samples (n = 71). The predictive performance of individual markers and panels containing multiple markers was assessed using Cox regression analysis. In the external gene expression dataset, six of the 13 genes (AZGP1, NME5, S100A8, SCUBE2, STC2 and UBE2C) retained their prognostic potential and were significantly associated with disease-free survival (p < 0.001). Protein analyses refined the signature to a four-marker panel [AZGP1, Prolactin-inducible protein (PIP), S100A8 and UBE2C] significantly correlated with cycling, high grade tumors and lower disease-specific survival rates. AZGP1 and PIP were found in significantly lower levels in invasive breast tissue as compared with adjacent normal tissue, whereas elevated levels of S100A8 and UBE2C were observed. A predictive model containing the four-marker panel in conjunction with established clinical variables outperformed a model containing the clinical variables alone. Our findings suggest that deregulated AZGP1, PIP, S100A8 and UBE2C are critical for the aggressive breast cancer phenotype, which may be useful as novel therapeutic targets for drug development to complement established clinical variables.

Rawat A, Gopal G, Selvaluxmy G, Rajkumar T
Inhibition of ubiquitin conjugating enzyme UBE2C reduces proliferation and sensitizes breast cancer cells to radiation, doxorubicin, tamoxifen and letrozole.
Cell Oncol (Dordr). 2013; 36(6):459-67 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to determine radiation, doxorubicin, tamoxifen and letrozole sensitivity of breast cancer cells in response to functional inhibition of the ubiquitin conjugating enzyme UBE2C.
METHODS: Taqman Real time PCR was performed to measure UBE2C levels in breast cancer cell lines and control HBL100 and HEK293T cells. A dominant negative form of UBE2C (DN-UBE2C) was used to functionally inhibit wild type UBE2C. Cell proliferation and anchorage independent growth were measured by colorimetric and soft agar assays, respectively. Radiation, doxorubicin, tamoxifen and letrozole responses of the cell lines were assessed by colorimetric and clonogenic assays.
RESULTS: Overexpression of UBE2C was observed in all breast cancer cell lines tested using quantitative real time PCR. UBE2C expression was found to be highest in MDAMB231 and relatively lowest in MCF7 cells, compared to control cells. Both the growth rate and the anchorage independent growth of MCF7 and MDAMB231 cells transfected with DN-UBE2C were significantly reduced compared to cells transfected with vector alone. MCF7 and MDAMB231 cells expressing DN-UBE2C were significantly more sensitive to different doses of radiation and doxorubicin compared to both wild type and vector alone transfected cells. In addition, DN-UBE2C transfected MCF7 cells were more sensitive to inhibition by tamoxifen and letrozole compared to wild type and vector alone transfected cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that inhibition of UBE2C sensitizes breast cancer cells to radiation, doxorubicin and hormone blocking agents. UBE2C may, therefore, serve as a potential therapeutic target aimed at inducing radiation and chemo sensitization.

Wang Q, Tiffen J, Bailey CG, et al.
Targeting amino acid transport in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: effects on cell cycle, cell growth, and tumor development.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2013; 105(19):1463-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: L-type amino acid transporters (LATs) uptake neutral amino acids including L-leucine into cells, stimulating mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 signaling and protein synthesis. LAT1 and LAT3 are overexpressed at different stages of prostate cancer, and they are responsible for increasing nutrients and stimulating cell growth.
METHODS: We examined LAT3 protein expression in human prostate cancer tissue microarrays. LAT function was inhibited using a leucine analog (BCH) in androgen-dependent and -independent environments, with gene expression analyzed by microarray. A PC-3 xenograft mouse model was used to study the effects of inhibiting LAT1 and LAT3 expression. Results were analyzed with the Mann-Whitney U or Fisher exact tests. All statistical tests were two-sided.
RESULTS: LAT3 protein was expressed at all stages of prostate cancer, with a statistically significant decrease in expression after 4-7 months of neoadjuvant hormone therapy (4-7 month mean = 1.571; 95% confidence interval = 1.155 to 1.987 vs 0 month = 2.098; 95% confidence interval = 1.962 to 2.235; P = .0187). Inhibition of LAT function led to activating transcription factor 4-mediated upregulation of amino acid transporters including ASCT1, ASCT2, and 4F2hc, all of which were also regulated via the androgen receptor. LAT inhibition suppressed M-phase cell cycle genes regulated by E2F family transcription factors including critical castration-resistant prostate cancer regulatory genes UBE2C, CDC20, and CDK1. In silico analysis of BCH-downregulated genes showed that 90.9% are statistically significantly upregulated in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Finally, LAT1 or LAT3 knockdown in xenografts inhibited tumor growth, cell cycle progression, and spontaneous metastasis in vivo.
CONCLUSION: Inhibition of LAT transporters may provide a novel therapeutic target in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, via suppression of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 activity and M-phase cell cycle genes.

Lu J, Wen M, Huang Y, et al.
C2ORF40 suppresses breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion through modulating expression of M phase cell cycle genes.
Epigenetics. 2013; 8(6):571-83 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Recently, it has been suggested that C2ORF40 is a candidate tumor suppressor gene in breast cancer. However, the mechanism for reduced expression of C2ORF40 and its functional role in breast cancers remain unclear. Here we show that C2ORF40 is frequently silenced in human primary breast cancers and cell lines through promoter hypermethylation. C2ORF40 mRNA level is significantly associated with patient disease-free survival and distant cancer metastasis. Overexpression of C2ORF4 0 inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion. By contrast, silencing C2ORF40 expression promotes these biological phenotypes. Bioinformatics and FACS analysis reveal C2ORF40 functions at G2/M phase by downregulation of mitotic genes expression, including UBE2C. Our results suggest that C2ORF40 acts as a tumor suppressor gene in breast cancer pathogenesis and progression and is a candidate prognostic marker for this disease.

Colak D, Nofal A, Albakheet A, et al.
Age-specific gene expression signatures for breast tumors and cross-species conserved potential cancer progression markers in young women.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(5):e63204 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Breast cancer in young women is more aggressive with a poorer prognosis and overall survival compared to older women diagnosed with the disease. Despite recent research, the underlying biology and molecular alterations that drive the aggressive nature of breast tumors associated with breast cancer in young women have yet to be elucidated. In this study, we performed transcriptomic profile and network analyses of breast tumors arising in Middle Eastern women to identify age-specific gene signatures. Moreover, we studied molecular alterations associated with cancer progression in young women using cross-species comparative genomics approach coupled with copy number alterations (CNA) associated with breast cancers from independent studies. We identified 63 genes specific to tumors in young women that showed alterations distinct from two age cohorts of older women. The network analyses revealed potential critical regulatory roles for Myc, PI3K/Akt, NF-κB, and IL-1 in disease characteristics of breast tumors arising in young women. Cross-species comparative genomics analysis of progression from pre-invasive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) to invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) revealed 16 genes with concomitant genomic alterations, CCNB2, UBE2C, TOP2A, CEP55, TPX2, BIRC5, KIAA0101, SHCBP1, UBE2T, PTTG1, NUSAP1, DEPDC1, HELLS, CCNB1, KIF4A, and RRM2, that may be involved in tumorigenesis and in the processes of invasion and progression of disease. Array findings were validated using qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and extensive in silico analyses of independently performed microarray datasets. To our knowledge, this study provides the first comprehensive genomic analysis of breast cancer in Middle Eastern women in age-specific cohorts and potential markers for cancer progression in young women. Our data demonstrate that cancer appearing in young women contain distinct biological characteristics and deregulated signaling pathways. Moreover, our integrative genomic and cross-species analysis may provide robust biomarkers for the detection of disease progression in young women, and lead to more effective treatment strategies.

Shen Z, Jiang X, Zeng C, et al.
High expression of ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 2C (UBE2C) correlates with nasopharyngeal carcinoma progression.
BMC Cancer. 2013; 13:192 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Overexpression of ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 2C (UBE2C) has been detected in many types of human cancers, and is correlated with tumor malignancy. However, the role of UBE2C in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of aberrant UBE2C expression in the progression of human NPC.
METHODS: Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to detect UBE2C protein in clinical samples of NPC and benign nasopharyngeal tissues, and the association of UBE2C expression with patient clinicopathological characteristics was analyzed. UBEC2 expression profiles were evaluated in cell lines representing varying differentiated stages of NPC and immortalized nasopharyngeal epithelia NP-69 cells using quantitative RT-PCR, western blotting and fluorescent staining. Furthermore, UBE2C was knocked down using RNA interference in these cell lines and proliferation and cell cycle distribution was investigated.
RESULTS: Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that UBE2C protein expression levels were higher in NPC tissues than in benign nasopharyngeal tissues (P<0.001). Moreover, high UBE2C protein expression was positively correlated with tumor size (P=0.017), lymph node metastasis (P=0.016) and distant metastasis (P=0.015) in NPC patients. In vitro experiments demonstrated that UBE2C expression levels were inversely correlated with the degree of differentiation of NPC cell lines, whereas UBE2C displayed low level of expression in NP-69 cells. Knockdown of UBE2C led to significant arrest at the S and G2/M phases of the cell cycle, and decreased cell proliferation was observed in poorly-differentiated CNE2Z NPC cells and undifferentiated C666-1 cells, but not in well-differentiated CNE1 and immortalized NP-69 cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that high expression of UBE2C in human NPC is closely related to tumor malignancy, and may be a potential marker for NPC progression.

Li Y, Tang H, Sun Z, et al.
Network-based approach identified cell cycle genes as predictor of overall survival in lung adenocarcinoma patients.
Lung Cancer. 2013; 80(1):91-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Lung adenocarcinoma is the most common type of primary lung cancer. The purpose of this study was to delineate gene expression patterns for survival prediction in lung adenocarcinoma. Gene expression profiles of 82 (discovery set) and 442 (validation set 1) lung adenocarcinoma tumor tissues were analyzed using a systems biology-based network approach. We also examined the expression profiles of 78 adjacent normal lung tissues from 82 patients. We found a significant correlation of an expression module with overall survival (adjusted hazard ratio or HR=1.71; 95% CI=1.06-2.74 in discovery set; adjusted HR=1.26; 95% CI=1.08-1.49 in validation set 1). This expression module contained genes enriched in the biological process of the cell cycle. Interestingly, the cell cycle gene module and overall survival association were also significant in normal lung tissues (adjusted HR=1.91; 95% CI, 1.32-2.75). From these survival-related modules, we further defined three hub genes (UBE2C, TPX2, and MELK) whose expression-based risk indices were more strongly associated with poor 5-year survival (HR=3.85, 95% CI=1.34-11.05 in discovery set; HR=1.72, 95% CI=1.21-2.46 in validation set 1; and HR=3.35, 95% CI=1.08-10.04 in normal lung set). The 3-gene prognostic result was further validated using 92 adenocarcinoma tumor samples (validation set 2); patients with a high-risk gene signature have a 1.52-fold increased risk (95% CI, 1.02-2.24) of death than patients with a low-risk gene signature. These results suggest that a network-based approach may facilitate discovery of key genes that are closely linked to survival in patients with lung adenocarcinoma.

Batra R, Harder N, Gogolin S, et al.
Time-lapse imaging of neuroblastoma cells to determine cell fate upon gene knockdown.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(12):e50988 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Neuroblastoma is the most common extra-cranial solid tumor of early childhood. Standard therapies are not effective in case of poor prognosis and chemotherapy resistance. To improve drug therapy, it is imperative to discover new targets that play a substantial role in tumorigenesis of neuroblastoma. The mitotic machinery is an attractive target for therapeutic interventions and inhibitors can be developed to target mitotic entry, spindle apparatus, spindle activation checkpoint, and mitotic exit. We present an elaborate analysis pipeline to determine cancer specific therapeutic targets by first performing a focused gene expression analysis to select genes followed by a gene knockdown screening assay of live cells. We interrogated gene expression studies of neuroblastoma tumors and selected 240 genes relevant for tumorigenesis and cell cycle. With these genes we performed time-lapse screening of gene knockdowns in neuroblastoma cells. We classified cellular phenotypes and used the temporal context of the perturbation effect to determine the sequence of events, particularly the mitotic entry preceding cell death. Based upon this phenotype kinetics from the gene knockdown screening, we inferred dynamic gene functions in mitosis and cell proliferation. We identified six genes (DLGAP5, DSCC1, SMO, SNRPD1, SSBP1, and UBE2C) with a vital role in mitosis and these are promising therapeutic targets for neuroblastoma. Images and movies of every time point of all screened genes are available at https://ichip.bioquant.uni-heidelberg.de.

Fristrup N, Birkenkamp-Demtröder K, Reinert T, et al.
Multicenter validation of cyclin D1, MCM7, TRIM29, and UBE2C as prognostic protein markers in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer.
Am J Pathol. 2013; 182(2):339-49 [PubMed] Related Publications
Transcripts from the four genes encoding cyclin D1, MCM7, TRIM29, and UBE2C have previously been included in gene expression signatures for outcome prediction in stage Ta/T1 urothelial carcinomas. We investigated the prognostic value of the protein expressions in Ta/T1 urothelial carcinomas patients. We used four different tissue microarrays (TMAs) with a total of 859 Ta/T1 urothelial carcinomas from Danish, Swedish, Spanish, and Taiwanese patient cohorts with long-term follow-up. Protein expression was measured by IHC, and antibody specificity was validated by Western blotting. We found the expression of cyclin D1, MCM7, TRIM29, and UBE2C to be significantly associated with progression to muscle-invasive bladder cancer (log-rank test; P < 0.001) in the Danish training cohort (n = 283). Multivariate Cox regression analysis identified cyclin D1 (P = 0.003), TRIM29 (P = 0.001), and UBE2C (P < 0.001) as independent prognostic markers. The prognostic value of the four proteins was validated in a joint validation cohort from Sweden, Spain, and Taiwan (n = 576). Computer-assisted image analysis of the prognostic markers produced results comparable to those obtained by manual scoring. Finally, a four-protein maximum-likelihood classifier was trained on the Danish training cohort and applied to the validation cohort. The four protein markers may help optimize treatment of patients with Ta/T1 bladder cancer. Additional prospective studies are needed for further validation of their clinical relevance.

Pallante P, Malapelle U, Berlingieri MT, et al.
UbcH10 overexpression in human lung carcinomas and its correlation with EGFR and p53 mutational status.
Eur J Cancer. 2013; 49(5):1117-26 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: UbcH10 codes for the cancer related E2 Ubiquitin Conjugating Enzyme, an enzymatic molecule with a key role in the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Current studies have suggested a critical role of UbcH10 in a variety of malignancies, including human thyroid, breast, ovarian and colorectal carcinomas. The aim of this study has been to extend the analysis of UbcH10 expression to lung cancer. This neoplasia represents one of the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide, and new tools for an accurate diagnosis/prognosis are needed.
METHODS: The expression levels of UbcH10 were analysed in human non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) by quantitative RT-PCR and tissue microarray immunohistochemistry, and these values were correlated with the clinicopathological features of the patients affected by NSCLC.
RESULTS: Our results demonstrate that UbcH10 is overexpressed in NSCLC compared to the normal lung tissue. Moreover, UbcH10 expression is significantly higher in squamous cell and large cell carcinomas than in adenocarcinomas, and directly and inversely correlated with the mutational status of p53 and EGFR, respectively. The suppression of UbcH10 expression by RNAi resulted in a drastic reduction of proliferation and migration abilities of lung carcinoma cell lines.
CONCLUSION: These results, taken together, indicate that UbcH10 overexpression has a critical role in lung carcinogenesis, and the evaluation of UbcH10 expression levels may be a new tool for the characterisation of NSCLC.

Wang L, Huang J, Jiang M, et al.
Activated PTHLH coupling feedback phosphoinositide to G-protein receptor signal-induced cell adhesion network in human hepatocellular carcinoma by systems-theoretic analysis.
ScientificWorldJournal. 2012; 2012:428979 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Studies were done on analysis of biological processes in the same high expression (fold change ≥2) activated PTHLH feedback-mediated cell adhesion gene ontology (GO) network of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) compared with the corresponding low expression activated GO network of no-tumor hepatitis/cirrhotic tissues (HBV or HCV infection). Activated PTHLH feedback-mediated cell adhesion network consisted of anaphase-promoting complex-dependent proteasomal ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolism, cell adhesion, cell differentiation, cell-cell signaling, G-protein-coupled receptor protein signaling pathway, intracellular transport, metabolism, phosphoinositide-mediated signaling, positive regulation of transcription, regulation of cyclin-dependent protein kinase activity, regulation of transcription, signal transduction, transcription, and transport in HCC. We proposed activated PTHLH coupling feedback phosphoinositide to G-protein receptor signal-induced cell adhesion network. Our hypothesis was verified by the different activated PTHLH feedback-mediated cell adhesion GO network of HCC compared with the corresponding inhibited GO network of no-tumor hepatitis/cirrhotic tissues, or the same compared with the corresponding inhibited GO network of HCC. Activated PTHLH coupling feedback phosphoinositide to G-protein receptor signal-induced cell adhesion network included BUB1B, GNG10, PTHR2, GNAZ, RFC4, UBE2C, NRXN3, BAP1, PVRL2, TROAP, and VCAN in HCC from GEO dataset using gene regulatory network inference method and our programming.

Kuner R, Fälth M, Pressinotti NC, et al.
The maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK) is upregulated in high-grade prostate cancer.
J Mol Med (Berl). 2013; 91(2):237-48 [PubMed] Related Publications
Loss of cell cycle control is a prerequisite for cancer onset and progression. In prostate cancer, increased activity of cell cycle genes has been associated with prognostic parameters such as biochemical relapse and survival. The identification of novel oncogenic and druggable targets in patient subgroups with poor prognosis may help to develop targeted therapy approaches. We analyzed prostate cancer and corresponding benign tissues (n = 98) using microarrays. The comparison of high- and low-grade tumors (Gleason score ≥ 4 + 3 vs. ≤ 3 + 4) revealed 144 differentially expressed genes (p < 0.05). Out of these, 15 genes were involved in the cell cycle process. The gene maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK) was identified to be highly correlated with cell cycle genes like UBE2C, TOP2A, CCNB2, and AURKB. Increased MELK gene expression in high-risk prostate cancer was validated by qPCR in an independent patient cohort (p < 0.005, n = 79). Immunohistochemistry analysis using a tissue microarray (n = 94) revealed increased MELK protein expression in prostate cancer tissues of high Gleason scores. RNAi-based inhibition of MELK in PC3 and LNCaP cells suggested putative function in chromatin modification, embryonic development and cell migration. The concerted inhibition of MELK and other cell cycle targets by the antibiotic siomycin A strongly impaired cell viability of prostate cancer cells, and may point to a novel therapy approach for a subset of high-risk prostate cancer patients.

Vasiljevic A, Champier J, Figarella-Branger D, et al.
Molecular characterization of central neurocytomas: potential markers for tumor typing and progression.
Neuropathology. 2013; 33(2):149-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
Central neurocytomas (CNs) are rare intraventricular tumors presenting a favorable prognosis after surgery. Their transcriptomic profile is poorly characterized. We performed a microarray transcriptomic study to search for molecular markers that might improve diagnostic accuracy. Microarray analysis was performed on five CNs (3 primary and 2 recurrent CNs) using CodeLink human whole genome bioarrays, and the gene expression in CNs was compared with that in four pineal parenchymal tumors, consisting of two pineocytomas (PCs) and two pineoblastomas (PBs), other periventricular tumors which may present neuronal differentiation. We identified genes that were highly expressed in CNs compared to normal brain and might be candidates for the molecular typing of CNs. Several genes are part of the Wnt/β-catenin and sonic hedgehog signaling pathways or mainly linked to calcium function or maintenance of neural progenitors. Moreover, several genes are overexpressed in both CNs and PCs and/or PBs such as INSM1 and NEUROD4, involved in neural or neuroendocrine differentiation. The overexpression of eight candidate genes in CNs (CHRDL2, IGF2, KiSS-1, CAL2, NTS, NHLH1, RGS16 and SCGN) was confirmed by real-time RT-PCR. Of the genes overexpressed in the recurrent CNs compared to the primary CNs, AQP5, KiSS-1, FZD7, AURKB, UBE2C and PTTG1 are genes which may be involved in tumor progression. Our study shows the potential involvement of various genes in the pathogenesis of CNs. These genes could be potential candidate markers for improving the characterization of CNs and some could be involved in CN tumorigenesis.

Zhao L, Jiang L, Wang L, et al.
UbcH10 expression provides a useful tool for the prognosis and treatment of non-small cell lung cancer.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2012; 138(11):1951-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To investigate the expression pattern of UbcH10 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and its correlations with clinicopathological features and prognostic value in NSCLC patients.
METHODS: The UbcH10 expression in NSCLC tissues, SK-MES-1, and A549 lung cancer cell lines was evaluated, and its correlation with clinicopathological features and prognostic value in NSCLC patients was examined by Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression analysis. The biological effects of UbcH10 on the cell proliferation, cell cycle, and chemosensitivity to gemcitabine or paclitaxel in SK-MES-1 cells were examined upon the UbcH10 silencing.
RESULTS: UbcH10 is overexpressed in poorly differentiated NSCLC samples than in well-differentiated ones, and its expression level was significantly higher in squamous cell carcinoma than that in adenocarcinoma. Higher UbcH10 expression was associated with a shorter postoperative survival time of NSCLC patients by Kaplan-Meier method and was found to be an independent risk factor that influences the postoperative survival time of NSCLC patients by Cox regression analysis. UbcH10 mRNA and protein expression were significantly upregulated in SK-MES-1 cells compared with A549 and MRC-5 cells. Suppression of UbcH10 expression in SK-MES-1 cells inhibited cell proliferation and increased chemosensitivity to gemcitabine or paclitaxel concomitant with decreased MDR1 gene expression.
CONCLUSION: UbcH10 may play an important role in NSCLC carcinogenesis, and silencing UbcH10 may represent a potential therapeutic strategy for NSCLC.

Hu R, Lu C, Mostaghel EA, et al.
Distinct transcriptional programs mediated by the ligand-dependent full-length androgen receptor and its splice variants in castration-resistant prostate cancer.
Cancer Res. 2012; 72(14):3457-62 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Continued androgen receptor (AR) signaling is an established mechanism underlying castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), and suppression of androgen receptor signaling remains a therapeutic goal of CRPC therapy. Constitutively active androgen receptor splice variants (AR-Vs) lack the androgen receptor ligand-binding domain (AR-LBD), the intended target of androgen deprivation therapies including CRPC therapies such as abiraterone and MDV3100. While the canonical full-length androgen receptor (AR-FL) and AR-Vs are both increased in CRPCs, their expression regulation, associated transcriptional programs, and functional relationships have not been dissected. In this study, we show that suppression of ligand-mediated AR-FL signaling by targeting AR-LBD leads to increased AR-V expression in two cell line models of CRPCs. Importantly, treatment-induced AR-Vs activated a distinct expression signature enriched for cell-cycle genes without requiring the presence of AR-FL. Conversely, activation of AR-FL signaling suppressed the AR-Vs signature and activated expression programs mainly associated with macromolecular synthesis, metabolism, and differentiation. In prostate cancer cells and CRPC xenografts treated with MDV3100 or abiraterone, increased expression of two constitutively active AR-Vs, AR-V7 and ARV567ES, but not AR-FL, paralleled increased expression of the androgen receptor-driven cell-cycle gene UBE2C. Expression of AR-V7, but not AR-FL, was positively correlated with UBE2C in clinical CRPC specimens. Together, our findings support an adaptive shift toward AR-V-mediated signaling in a subset of CRPC tumors as the AR-LBD is rendered inactive, suggesting an important mechanism contributing to drug resistance to CRPC therapy.

Bose MV, Gopisetty G, Selvaluxmy G, Rajkumar T
Dominant negative Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2C sensitizes cervical cancer cells to radiation.
Int J Radiat Biol. 2012; 88(9):629-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To find the radiation sensitivity of human cervical carcinoma cell lines and to investigate the effect of the dominant negative-Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2C (DN-UBE2C) on cell proliferation and radiation response.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Radiation sensitivities of human cervical cell lines (SiHa, HeLa, BU25TK, ME 180, and C33A) were analyzed by assessing their cell survival after irradiation by MTS (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium) assay. Soft agar cloning assay, growth curve and radiation response of DN-UBE2C stably transfected SiHa and HeLa cell lines were assessed by MTS assay and Clonogenic assay.
RESULTS: Difference in sensitivity to radiation was observed among the cervical cancer cell lines studied. SiHa was found to be the most resistant cell line whereas C33A cells were the most sensitive. The growth rate of SiHa and HeLa transfected with DN-UBE2C was significantly reduced compared to vector control. Furthermore, DN-UBE2C-mediated radiosensitivity was correlated with a significant decrease in resistance to radiation by SiHa and HeLa cells after transfection with the DN-UBE2C when compared to control cultures.
CONCLUSION: These results suggested that the Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2C (UBE2C) gene is a potential therapeutic target for cervical cancer treatment.

Shan W, Akinfenwa PY, Savannah KB, et al.
A small-molecule inhibitor targeting the mitotic spindle checkpoint impairs the growth of uterine leiomyosarcoma.
Clin Cancer Res. 2012; 18(12):3352-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Uterine leiomyosarcoma (ULMS) is a poorly understood cancer with few effective treatments. This study explores the molecular events involved in ULMS with the goal of developing novel therapeutic strategies.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Genome-wide transcriptional profiling, Western blotting, and real-time PCR were used to compare specimens of myometrium, leiomyoma, and leiomyosarcoma. Aurora A kinase was targeted in cell lines derived from metastatic ULMS using siRNA or MK-5108, a highly specific small-molecule inhibitor. An orthotopic model was used to evaluate the ability of MK-5108 to inhibit ULMS growth in vivo.
RESULTS: We found that 26 of 50 gene products most overexpressed in ULMS regulate mitotic centrosome and spindle functions. These include UBE2C, Aurora A and B kinase, TPX2, and Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1). Targeting Aurora A inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in LEIO285, LEIO505, and SK-LMS1, regardless of whether siRNA or MK-5108 was used. In vitro, MK-5108 did not consistently synergize with gemcitabine or docetaxel. Gavage of an orthotopic ULMS model with MK-5108 at 30 or 60 mg/kg decreased the number and size of tumor implants compared with sham-fed controls. Oral MK-5108 also decreased the rate of proliferation, increased intratumoral apoptosis, and increased expression of phospho-histone H3 in ULMS xenografts.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that dysregulated centrosome function and spindle assembly are a robust feature of ULMS that can be targeted to slow its growth both in vitro and in vivo. These observations identify novel directions that can be potentially used to improve clinical outcomes for this disease.

Tzelepi V, Zhang J, Lu JF, et al.
Modeling a lethal prostate cancer variant with small-cell carcinoma features.
Clin Cancer Res. 2012; 18(3):666-77 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Small-cell prostate carcinoma (SCPC) morphology predicts for a distinct clinical behavior, resistance to androgen ablation, and frequent but short responses to chemotherapy. We sought to develop model systems that reflect human SCPC and can improve our understanding of its biology.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We developed a set of castration-resistant prostate carcinomas xenografts and examined their fidelity to their human tumors of origin. We compared the expression and genomic profiles of SCPC and large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) xenografts to those of typical prostate adenocarcinoma xenografts. Results were validated immunohistochemically in a panel of 60 human tumors.
RESULTS: The reported SCPC and LCNEC xenografts retain high fidelity to their human tumors of origin and are characterized by a marked upregulation of UBE2C and other mitotic genes in the absence of androgen receptor (AR), retinoblastoma (RB1), and cyclin D1 (CCND1) expression. We confirmed these findings in a panel of samples of CRPC patients. In addition, array comparative genomic hybridization of the xenografts showed that the SCPC/LCNEC tumors display more copy number variations than the adenocarcinoma counterparts. Amplification of the UBE2C locus and microdeletions of RB1 were present in a subset, but none displayed AR nor CCND1 deletions. The AR, RB1, and CCND1 promoters showed no CpG methylation in the SCPC xenografts.
CONCLUSION: Modeling human prostate carcinoma with xenografts allows in-depth and detailed studies of its underlying biology. The detailed clinical annotation of the donor tumors enables associations of anticipated relevance to be made. Future studies in the xenografts will address the functional significance of the findings.

Wu D, Zhang C, Shen Y, et al.
Androgen receptor-driven chromatin looping in prostate cancer.
Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2011; 22(12):474-80 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The androgen receptor (AR) is important for prostate cancer development and progression. Genome-wide mapping of AR binding sites in prostate cancer has found that the majority of AR binding sites are located within non-promoter regions. These distal AR binding regions regulate AR target genes (e.g. UBE2C) involved in prostate cancer growth through chromatin looping. In addition to long-distance gene regulation, looping has been shown to induce spatial proximity of two genes otherwise located far away along the genomic sequence and the formation of double-strand DNA breaks, resulting in aberrant gene fusions (e.g. TMPRSS2-ERG) that also contribute to prostate tumorigenesis. Elucidating the mechanisms of AR-driven chromatin looping will increase our understanding of prostate carcinogenesis and may lead to the identification of new therapeutic targets.

Wang H, Zhang C, Rorick A, et al.
CCI-779 inhibits cell-cycle G2-M progression and invasion of castration-resistant prostate cancer via attenuation of UBE2C transcription and mRNA stability.
Cancer Res. 2011; 71(14):4866-76 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The cell-cycle G(2)-M phase gene UBE2C is overexpressed in various solid tumors including castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Our recent studies found UBE2C to be a CRPC-specific androgen receptor (AR) target gene that is necessary for CRPC growth, providing a potential novel target for therapeutic intervention. In this study, we showed that the G(1)-S cell-cycle inhibitor-779 (CCI-779), an mTOR inhibitor, inhibited UBE2C mRNA and protein expression in AR-positive CRPC cell models abl and C4-2B. Treatment with CCI-779 significantly decreased abl cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo through inhibition of cell-cycle progression of both G(2)-M and G(1)-S phases. In addition, exposure of abl and C4-2B cells to CCI-779 also decreased UBE2C-dependent cell invasion. The molecular mechanisms for CCI-779 inhibition of UBE2C gene expression involved a decreased binding of AR coactivators SRC1, SRC3, p300, and MED1 to the UBE2C enhancers, leading to a reduction in RNA polymerase II loading to the UBE2C promoter, and attenuation of UBE2C mRNA stability. Our data suggest that, in addition to its ability to block cell-cycle G(1) to S-phase transition, CCI-779 causes a cell-cycle G(2)-M accumulation and an inhibition of cell invasion through a novel UBE2C-dependent mechanism, which contributes to antitumor activities of CCI-779 in UBE2C overexpressed AR-positive CRPC.

Chen Z, Zhang C, Wu D, et al.
Phospho-MED1-enhanced UBE2C locus looping drives castration-resistant prostate cancer growth.
EMBO J. 2011; 30(12):2405-19 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The UBE2C oncogene is overexpressed in many types of solid tumours including the lethal castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). The underlying mechanisms causing UBE2C gene overexpression in CRPC are not fully understood. Here, we show that CRPC-specific enhancers drive UBE2C overexpression in both AR-negative and -positive CRPC cells. We further show that co-activator MED1 recruitment to the UBE2C enhancers is required for long-range UBE2C enhancer/promoter interactions. Importantly, we find that the molecular mechanism underlying MED1-mediated chromatin looping involves PI3K/AKT phosphorylated MED1-mediated recruitment of FoxA1, RNA polymerase II and TATA binding protein and their subsequent interactions at the UBE2C locus. MED1 phosphorylation leads to UBE2C locus looping, UBE2C gene expression and cell growth. Our results not only define a causal role of a post-translational modification (phosphorylation) of a co-activator (MED1) in forming or sustaining an active chromatin structure, but also suggest that development of specific therapies for CRPC should take account of targeting phosphorylated MED1.

Bavi P, Uddin S, Ahmed M, et al.
Bortezomib stabilizes mitotic cyclins and prevents cell cycle progression via inhibition of UBE2C in colorectal carcinoma.
Am J Pathol. 2011; 178(5):2109-20 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Substantial evidence implicates the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2C (UBE2C) gene, in several human cancers, including colorectal carcinoma (CRC). We therefore investigated the prognostic value of UBE2C alterations in CRC and UBE2C signaling in CRC cell lines. UBE2C protein expression and UBE2C gene copy number were evaluated on clinical samples by immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization in a TMA format. The effect of the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib and small-interfering RNA knockdown was assessed by apoptotic assays and immunoblotting. UBE2C dysregulation was associated with proliferative marker Ki-67, accumulation of cyclin A and B1, and a poor overall survival. UBE2C expression was an independent prognostic marker in early-stage (I and II) CRC. UBE2C depletion resulted in suppression of cellular growth and accumulation of cyclin A and B1. In vitro, bortezomib treatment of CRC cells caused inhibition of cell viability via down-regulation of UBE2C. UBE2C knockdown by bortezomib or transfection with specific small-interfering RNA against UBE2C also caused cells to be arrested at the G2/M level, leading to accumulation of cyclin A and cyclin B1. In vivo, a significant reduction in tumor volume and weight was noted in mice treated with a combination of subtoxic doses of oxaliplatin and bortezomib compared with treatment with oxaliplatin or bortezomib alone. Altogether, our results suggest that UBE2C and the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway may be potential targets for therapeutic intervention in CRC.

Rajkumar T, Sabitha K, Vijayalakshmi N, et al.
Identification and validation of genes involved in cervical tumourigenesis.
BMC Cancer. 2011; 11:80 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is the most common cancer among Indian women. This cancer has well defined pre-cancerous stages and evolves over 10-15 years or more. This study was undertaken to identify differentially expressed genes between normal, dysplastic and invasive cervical cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 28 invasive cervical cancers, 4 CIN3/CIS, 4 CIN1/CIN2 and 5 Normal cervix samples were studied. We have used microarray technique followed by validation of the significant genes by relative quantitation using Taqman Low Density Array Real Time PCR. Immunohistochemistry was used to study the protein expression of MMP3, UBE2C and p16 in normal, dysplasia and cancers of the cervix. The effect of a dominant negative UBE2C on the growth of the SiHa cells was assessed using a MTT assay.
RESULTS: Our study, for the first time, has identified 20 genes to be up-regulated and 14 down-regulated in cervical cancers and 5 up-regulated in CIN3. In addition, 26 genes identified by other studies, as to playing a role in cervical cancer, were also confirmed in our study. UBE2C, CCNB1, CCNB2, PLOD2, NUP210, MELK, CDC20 genes were overexpressed in tumours and in CIN3/CIS relative to both Normal and CIN1/CIN2, suggesting that they could have a role to play in the early phase of tumorigenesis. IL8, INDO, ISG15, ISG20, AGRN, DTXL, MMP1, MMP3, CCL18, TOP2A AND STAT1 were found to be upregulated in tumours. Using Immunohistochemistry, we showed over-expression of MMP3, UBE2C and p16 in cancers compared to normal cervical epithelium and varying grades of dysplasia. A dominant negative UBE2C was found to produce growth inhibition in SiHa cells, which over-expresses UBE2C 4 fold more than HEK293 cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Several novel genes were found to be differentially expressed in cervical cancer. MMP3, UBE2C and p16 protein overexpression in cervical cancers was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. These will need to be validated further in a larger series of samples. UBE2C could be evaluated further to assess its potential as a therapeutic target in cervical cancer.

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