Gene Summary

Gene:FGFR1OP; FGFR1 oncogene partner
Aliases: FOP
Summary:This gene encodes a largely hydrophilic centrosomal protein that is required for anchoring microtubules to subcellular structures. A t(6;8)(q27;p11) chromosomal translocation, fusing this gene and the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) gene, has been found in cases of myeloproliferative disorder. The resulting chimeric protein contains the N-terminal leucine-rich region of this encoded protein fused to the catalytic domain of FGFR1. Alterations in this gene may also be associated with Crohn's disease, Graves' disease, and vitiligo. Alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode different proteins have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:FGFR1 oncogene partner
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: FGFR1OP (cancer-related)

Fasihi A, Soltani BM, Ranjbaran ZS, et al.
Hsa-miR-942 fingerprint in colorectal cancer through Wnt signaling pathway.
Gene. 2019; 712:143958 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Wnt signaling pathway has been identified for its function in carcinogenesis and embryonic development. It is known to play a vital role in the initiation and development of colorectal cancer (CRC). Therefore, it is of great importance for CRC research to illuminate the mechanisms which regulate Wnt pathway activity. Here, we intended to examine the effect of hsa-miR-942 (miR-942) on the Wnt signaling activity, cell cycle progression, and its expression in CRC tissues. RT-qPCR results indicated that miR-942 is significantly upregulated in colorectal cancer. Then, overexpression of miR-942 promoted, whereas its inhibition decreased the Wnt signaling activity, detected by RT-qPCR and Top/Fop flash assay. Inhibition of Wnt signaling by using PNU-74654 or IWP-2 small molecules indicated that miR-942 applies its effect to the β-catenin degradation complex level. Then, RT-qPCR and dual luciferase assay showed that miR-942 upregulated Wnt signaling through direct targeting of APC, which is a tumor suppressor in Wnt signaling pathway. Furthermore, the western blotting analysis indicated that β.catenin, as a main member of Wnt signaling pathway is upregulated following the overexpression of miR-942. Finally, miR-942 overexpression resulted in cell cycle progression in SW480 cells. Taken together, our findings established an oncogenic role for miR-942 in CRC and indicated that this miRNA might be a crucial target for CRC therapy.

Luo W, Yan D, Song Z, et al.
miR-126-3p sensitizes glioblastoma cells to temozolomide by inactivating Wnt/β-catenin signaling via targeting SOX2.
Life Sci. 2019; 226:98-106 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: The acquired drug resistance has been regarded as a main barrier for the effective treatment of temozolomide (TMZ) in glioblastoma (GBM). MiR-126-3p is commonly down-regulated and exerts tumor-suppressive roles in kinds of human cancers, including GBM. This study was designed to investigate the functions and mechanisms of miR-126-3p in regulating TMZ resistance in GBM.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: qRT-PCR analysis was used to measure the expressions of miR-126-3p and SOX2 mRNA in GBM tissues and cells. Cell viability, colony forming ability and apoptosis were detected to evaluate the effect of miR-126-3p or SOX2 on TMZ resistance. Luciferase reporter experiments were applied to identify the target genes of miR-126-3p. Western blot analysis was performed to determine the protein levels associated with Wnt/β-catenin signaling. TOP/FOP Flash assays were conducted to determine the effects of miR-126-3p or SOX2 on Wnt/β-catenin signaling.
KEY FINDINGS: miR-126-3p expression was decreased in TMZ-resistant GBM tissues and cells. High levels of miR-126-3p enhanced TMZ sensitivity by inhibiting cell viability, reducing colony forming potential and inducing apoptosis. Additionally, SOX2 was identified as a downstream target of miR-126-3p. On the contrary, SOX2 overexpression conferred TMZ resistance of GBM cells. Moreover, miR-126-3p-mediated TMZ sensitivity was reversed following increased expression of SOX2. Furthermore, miR-126-3p-induced inactivation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling was greatly abrogated by SOX2 up-regulation.
SIGNIFICANCE: MiR-126-3p sensitizes GBM cells to TMZ possibly by repressing SOX2 expression and blocking Wnt/β-catenin signaling. This study provides novel targets to overcome TMZ resistance in GBM chemotherapy.

Díaz KP, Gondak R, Martins LL, et al.
Fatty acid synthase and Ki-67 immunoexpression can be useful for the identification of malignant component in carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenoma.
J Oral Pathol Med. 2019; 48(3):232-238 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is the key molecule for catalyzing fatty acid synthesis and have been associated with several malignant tumors.
METHODS: We analyzed the expression of FASN and Ki-67, by immunohistochemistry on 29 carcinomas ex-pleomorphic adenoma (CXPAs) and 25 pleomorphic adenomas (PAs).
RESULTS: Ki-67 proliferation index and FASN expression were significantly higher in patients with CXPA than patients with PA (P < 0.001). We found intense immunoreactivity for FASN in the malignant component of CXPAs, and these malignant areas also had intense nuclear immunoreactivity for Ki-67.
CONCLUSIONS: The present results suggest that overexpression of FASN in CXPAs might be associated with malignant transformation of ductal epithelial cells and/or myoepithelial cells from PA. FASN associated with Ki-67 may be useful diagnostic markers for CXPA.

Han F, Zhang MQ, Liu WB, et al.
SOX30 specially prevents Wnt-signaling to suppress metastasis and improve prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma patients.
Respir Res. 2018; 19(1):241 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Different histological subtypes of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) show different molecular characteristics and responses to therapeutic strategy. Identification of specific gene, clarification of its special roles and molecular mechanisms are crucial for developing new therapeutic approach for particular subtype patients.
METHODS: Surgical specimens of 540 NSCLC patients were recruited. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect SOX30 expression, and correlations with clinical parameters were analyzed. Functional experiments and gene ontology analysis were performed to investigate roles of SOX30. Network analysis, TOP/FOP-Flash assays, luciferase reporter assays and ChIP-PCR assays were performed to determine the mechanism. Survival analyses were calculated by Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression. Recovery experiment was investigated the importance of the target of SOX30.
RESULTS: SOX30 expression is closely associated with histological types of NSCLC, and metastasis of adenocarcinoma (ADC) patients but not of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) patients. SOX30 strongly inhibits cancer cell migration and invasion in ADC cell lines, whrereas not affects cell migration and invasion in SCC cell lines. The genes associated with SOX30 preferentially enrich in metastasis process and Wnt-signaling in only ADC patients. Consistently, SOX30 is negatively associated with the expression of Wnt-signaling and metastasis-related gene CTNNB1 (β-catenin) in ADC, but not in SCC. At the molecular level, SOX30 represses Wnt-signaling by directly transcriptional inhibition of CTNNB1 in ADC, and also not in SCC. In the clinical, SOX30 is a favorable and independent prognostic factor in ADC patients, whereas is an unfavorable and independent prognostic factor in SCC patients. Moreover, SOX30 expression is a double face early-stage prognostic biomarker in ADC and SCC patients. In addition, forcible restoration of CTNNB1 indeed can inhibit the anti-metastatic role of SOX30 in ADC patients.
CONCLUSIONS: In early-stage ADC patients, elevated SOX30 expression inhibits tumor-metastasis by directly binding to CTNNB1 promoter resulting in a favorable prognosis of these patients. However, in early-stage SCC patients, SOX30 has no inhibitory role on tumor-metastasis due to not binding to CTNNB1 promoter leading to an unfavorable prognosis of the patients. This study highlights a special role and prognostic value of SOX30 in ADC, providing a novel therapeutic target for particular subtype NSCLC patients.

Sun J, Li B, Jia Z, et al.
RUNX3 inhibits glioma survival and invasion via suppression of the β-catenin/TCF-4 signaling pathway.
J Neurooncol. 2018; 140(1):15-26 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3) exerts a tumor suppressor gene associated with gastric and other cancers, including glioma. However, how its anti-tumor mechanism in functions glioma is unclear.
METHODS: We assayed expression of RUNX3 with a tissue microarray (TMA), frozen cancer tissues and malignant glioma cell lines using immunohistochemistry, qRT-PCR and Western bolt analysis. Cell proliferation, invasion, cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were also examined to confirm the effect of RUNX3 medicated malignant phenotype. TOP/FOP experiment was used to detect the β-catenin/Tcf-4 transcription activity by RUNX3.
RESULTS: Enforced RUNX3 expression inhibited proliferation and invasion, induced cell cycle arrest and promoted apoptosis in vitro and in vivo, Bim siRNA partically reversed the effect of RUNX3-induced apoptosis in LN229 and U87 cells, suggesting a dependent role of Bim-caspase pathway. Moreover, Mechanism investigations revealed that restoration of RUNX3 suppressed β-catenin/Tcf-4 transcription activity.
CONCLUSIONS: RUNX3 plays a pivotal role in glioma initiation and progression as a tumor suppressor via attenuation of Wnt signaling, highlighting it as a potential therapeutic target for glioma.

Hao X, Han F, Ma B, et al.
SOX30 is a key regulator of desmosomal gene suppressing tumor growth and metastasis in lung adenocarcinoma.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2018; 37(1):111 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The expression of desmosomal genes in lung adenocarcinoma and lung squamous carcinoma is different. However, the regulatory mechanism of desmosomal gene expression in lung adenocarcinoma and lung squamous carcinoma remains unknown.
METHODS: The correlation between expression of desmosomal gene expression and SOX30 expression were analyzed by bioinformatics. The expression of SOX30, DSP, JUP and DSC3 were detected in lung cancer cell lines, lung tissues of mice and patients' tissues by qPCR, WB, Immunofluorescence and Immunohistochemistry. A chromatin Immunoprecipitation assay was used to investigate the mechanisms of the SOX30 regulation on desmosomal gene expression. In vitro proliferation, migration and invasion assays, and an in vivo nude mice model were utilized to assess the important role of desmosomal genes on SOX30-induced tumor suppression. A WB assay and TOP/FOP flash reporter assay was used to investigate the downstream pathway regulated by the SOX30-desmosomal gene axis. A chemical carcinogenic model of SOX30-knockout mice was generated to confirm the role of the SOX30-desmosomal gene axis in tumorigenesis.
RESULTS: The expression of desmosomal genes were upregulated by SOX30 in lung adenocarcinoma but not in lung squamous carcinoma. Further mechanism studies showed that SOX30 acts as a key transcriptional regulator of desmosomal genes by directly binding to the ACAAT motif of desmosomal genes promoter region and activating their transcription in lung adenocarcinoma. Knockdown of the expression of related desmosomal genes by miRNA significantly attenuated the inhibitory effect of SOX30 on cell proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro and on tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. In addition, knockout of SOX30 promotes lung tumor development and loss the inhibition of desmosomal genes on downstream Wnt and ERK signal in urethane-induced lung carcinogenesis in SOX30-knockout mice.
CONCLUSIONS: Overall, these findings demonstrate for the first time that SOX30 acts as a master switch of desmosomal genes, inhibits lung adenocarcinoma cell proliferation, migration and invasion by activating the transcription of desmosomal genes. This study provides novel insights on the regulatory mechanism of desmosomal genes in lung adenocarcinoma.

Ji P, Fan X, Ma X, et al.
Krüppel-like factor 9 suppressed tumorigenicity of the pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma by negatively regulating frizzled-5.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 499(4):815-821 [PubMed] Related Publications
Krüppel-like factor 9 (KLF9) has been implicated in mediating a diverse range of biological processes. However, the expression pattern and biological functions of KLF9 in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are still unknown. Here, we evaluated the role of KLF9 in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Overexpression of KLF9 significantly inhibited proliferation and clone formation in PDAC cells, while silencing KLF9 expression dramatically promoted this effect in vitro. Knocking down the expression of KLF9 also promoted the tumorigenesis in the PDAC mouse xneograft model. In in vitro mechanism study, KLF9 negatively regulated the activity of wnt/beta-catenin pathway in Top/Fop reporter assay. Frizzled-5, a key component involving in this pathway, was sharp inhibited by KLF9 both in mRNA and protein level. Furthermore, a KLF9-binding site (BTE) was identified in the promoter region of Frizzled-5. Mutation or deletion of this BTE strongly disrupted the KLF9's regulatory effect on Frizzled-5. More importantly, the expression level of KLF9 was significantly lower in clinical PDAC tissue compared to matched normal tissues and inversely associated with survival of the patients. Together, our findings indicated that KLF9 suppressed tumorigenicity of the pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma by negatively regulating frizzled-5.

Lu HJ, Yan J, Jin PY, et al.
Mechanism of MicroRNA-708 Targeting BAMBI in Cell Proliferation, Migration, and Apoptosis in Mice With Melanoma via the Wnt and TGF-β Signaling Pathways.
Technol Cancer Res Treat. 2018; 17:1533034618756784 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanisms involved with miRNA-708 and its targeting of bone morphogenetic protein and activin membrane-bound inhibitor in cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis in mice with melanoma via the Wnt and transforming growth factor β signaling pathways.
METHODS: Sixty mice were recruited of which 40 were subsequently assigned into the experimental group (22 mice were successfully established as melanoma model and 18 mice used in tumor xenograft), and the normal control group consisted of 20 mice. B16 cells were assigned to the normal, blank, and negative control, miR-708 mimics, miR-708 inhibitors, si-BAMBI, and miR-708 inhibitors + si-bone morphogenetic protein and activin membrane-bound inhibitor groups. Western blotting and reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction were employed to detect the expression levels within the tissues and cell lines. TCF luciferase reporter (TOP-FLASH) or a control vector (FOP-FLASH) was applied to detect the activity of the Wnt signaling pathway. MTT3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, flow cytometry, scratch test, and Transwell assay were conducted, respectively, for cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion, while tumor xenograft procedures were performed on the nude mice recruited for the study.
RESULTS: Compared to the normal control group, the model group displayed increased expressions of bone morphogenetic protein and activin membrane-bound inhibitor, Wnt10B, P53, and Bcl-2; TOPflash activity; β-catenin expression; cell proliferation; migration; and invasion capabilities while decreased expressions of miR-708, vascular endothelial growth factor, Fas, Bax, Caspase-3, and cleaved Caspase-3 and apoptosis rate. Compared to the blank and negative control groups, the miR-708 mimics and small-interfering RNA-bone morphogenetic protein and activin membrane-bound inhibitor groups exhibited decreases expressions of bone morphogenetic protein and activin membrane-bound inhibitor, Wnt10B, P53, and Bcl-2 and decreased proliferation, migration, and invasion capabilities, while increases in the apoptosis rate, expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor, Fas, Bax, Caspase-3, and cleaved Caspase-3; however, downregulated levels of TOPflash activity and β-catenin expression were recorded. The miR-708 inhibitors group displayed an opposite trend.
CONCLUSION: Downregulation of miR-708-targeted bone morphogenetic protein and activin membrane-bound inhibitor inhibits the proliferation and migration of melanoma cells through the activation of the transforming growth factor β pathway and the suppression of Wnt pathway.

Zhang M, Miao F, Huang R, et al.
RHBDD1 promotes colorectal cancer metastasis through the Wnt signaling pathway and its downstream target ZEB1.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2018; 37(1):22 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: 40-50% of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients develop metastatic disease; the presence of metastasis hinders the effective treatment of cancer through surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, which makes 5-year survival rate extremely low; therefore, studying CRC metastasis is crucial for disease therapy. In the present study, we investigated the role of rhomboid domain containing 1 (RHBDD1) in tumor metastasis of CRC.
METHODS: The expression of RHBDD1 was analyzed in 539 colorectal tumor tissues for its correlation with lymphatic metastasis and distal metastasis. Transwell assay in vitro and pleural metastasis analysis in vivo were performed to determine the functions of RHBDD1 during CRC cells metastasis. RNA-seq analysis, TOP/FOP flash reporter assay, western blot and transwell assay were performed to investigate the underlying mechanism for the function of RHBDD1 on Wnt signaling pathway. Bioinformatics analysis was conducted to investigate epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and stemness in HCT-116 cells. Tissue microarray analysis, Q-PCR and western blot were performed to determine the correlation of RHBDD1 and Zinc Finger E-Box Binding Homeobox 1 (ZEB1).
RESULTS: In this study, we found that RHBDD1 expression was positively correlated with lymphatic metastasis and distal metastasis in 539 colorectal tumor tissues. RHBDD1 expression can promote CRC cells metastasis in vitro and in vivo. RNA-Seq analysis showed that the Wnt signaling pathway played a key role in this metastatic regulation. RHBDD1 mainly regulated ser552 and ser675 phosphorylation of β-catenin to activate the Wnt signaling pathway. Rescuing ser552 and ser675 phosphorylation of β-catenin resulted in the recovery of signaling pathway activity, migration, and invasion in CRC cells. RHBDD1 promoted EMT and a stem-like phenotype of CRC cells. RHBDD1 regulated the Wnt/β-catenin target gene ZEB1, a potent EMT activator, at the RNA and protein levels. Clinically, RHBDD1 expression was positively correlated with ZEB1 at the protein level in 71 colon tumor tissues.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings therefore indicated that RHBDD1 can promote CRC metastasis through the Wnt signaling pathway and ZEB1. RHBDD1 may become a new therapeutic target or clinical biomarker for metastatic CRC.

Song XL, Huang B, Zhou BW, et al.
miR-1301-3p promotes prostate cancer stem cell expansion by targeting SFRP1 and GSK3β.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2018; 99:369-374 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer stem cells promote tumor progression, drug-resistance, and relapse, and many microRNAs (miRNAs) play critical roles in the expansion of cancer stem cells. In the present study, we investigated the role of miR-1301-3p in the expansion of prostate cancer stem cells; miR-1301-3p was significantly upregulated in prostate cancer cells and tissues compared with normal prostate cells and tissues. Sphere formation and side population assays suggested that miR-1301-3p promoted the expansion of prostate cancer stem cells, and increased the expression of prostate cancer stem cell-associated genes, such as OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, CD44, KLF4, c-MYC, and MMP2. MiR-1301-3p targeted Wnt pathway inhibitors, GSK3β and SFRP1, and inhibited their expression by directly binding to their 3' untranslated regions. TOP/FOP luciferase assays suggested that miR-1301-3p activated the Wnt pathway, which was confirmed by increased β-catenin expression in the nucleus. Furthermore, the miR-1301-3p level correlated negatively with GSK3β and SFRP1 in prostate cancer tissues. In summary, we found that miR-1301-3p promoted the expansion of prostate cancer stem cells by inhibiting GSK3β and SFRP1, and activating the Wnt pathway.

Wang ZM, Wan XH, Sang GY, et al.
miR-15a-5p suppresses endometrial cancer cell growth via Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway by inhibiting WNT3A.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2017; 21(21):4810-4818 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Endometrial cancer is one of the three most common types of gynecologic cancer. The global incidence has increased in recent years. microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate numerous biological processes by binding to the 3'UTR of target mRNA to down-regulate protein synthesis.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Endometrial cancer patients received surgeries in our hospital were enrolled. MiR-15a-5p mimic or miR-15a-5p inhibitor was transfected into HEC-1-A cells by lentivirus. Colony formation assay was applied for detecting cell proliferation. Real-time PCR was performed to test miRNA and mRNA expression. Western blot was used to detect protein level. ChIP was adopted to test transcription activation. TOP/FOP was tested to determine Wnt signaling pathway activity. A dual-luciferase reporter assay was used to confirm miRNA target.
RESULTS: miR-15a-5p was decreased in endometrial cancer cells and tissues. miR-15a-5p overexpression restrained HEC-1-A cell proliferation and stemness. miR-15a-5p mimic transfection reduced mRNA and protein levels of the proteins which are related to cell proliferation and Wnt signaling pathway. MiR-15a-5p targeted a putative binding site in the 3'-UTR of Wnt3a gene, thus regulating Wnt signaling pathway. miR-15a-5p overexpression decreased Wnt3a protein expression. Wnt3a presented significant negative correlation with the miR-15a-5p level in endometrial cancer patients.
CONCLUSIONS: miR-15a-5p is a regulator of endometrial cancer cell proliferation by directly targeting Wnt3a to block Wnt signaling pathway.

Feng ZY, Xu XH, Cen DZ, et al.
miR-590-3p promotes colon cancer cell proliferation via Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway by inhibiting WIF1 and DKK1.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2017; 21(21):4844-4852 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Colon cancer is one of the most common and deadly types of gastrointestinal tumor. Despite progressive treatments, the patient prognosis has not been improved effectively.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Expression of miRNA and mRNA were tested by Realtime PCR. Cell cycle was detected by flow cytometry. Cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay. Cell spheroid formation was determined by colony assay. Wnt signaling pathway activity was evaluated by TOP/FOP ratio. Protein expression was tested using Western blot. β-catenin binding ability was detected by ChIP assay. miRNA target gene was confirmed by luciferase assay.
RESULTS: miR-590-3p was found to be overexpressed in both glioma tissues and cell lines. miR-590-3p is upregulated in colon cancer cells and tissues compared to non-tumorigenic colon cells and normal colon tissues. miR-590-3p positively regulated cell proliferation, spheroid formation, and cell cycle in LS174T cells. Conversely, inhibition of miR-590-3p reduced these effects. We confirmed that WIF1 and DKK1 are targets of miR-590-3p. Overexpression of miR-590-3p promoted TOP flash luciferase activity, enhanced nuclear β-catenin levels and increased target genes expression of Wnt signaling pathway. The results indicated that miR-590-3p activates the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.
CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that miR-590-3p regulates colon cancer progression via WIF1 and DKK1, which suggests that miR-590-3p may be a promising candidate for therapeutic applications in colon cancer treatment.

Khan GJ, Gao Y, Gu M, et al.
TGF-β1 Causes EMT by Regulating N-Acetyl Glucosaminyl Transferases via Downregulation of Non Muscle Myosin II-A through JNK/P38/PI3K Pathway in Lung Cancer.
Curr Cancer Drug Targets. 2018; 18(2):209-219 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a major determinant of cancer metastasis and is closely linked with TGF-β1. Intracellular proteins, including E. Cadherin, N. Cadherin and Vimentin are directly related to EMT that affect cell migration and adhesion; on the other hand, non muscle myosin (NM) has a central role in cytokinesis, migration and adhesion.
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to explore the association of EMT and metastasis with TGF-β1 through regulation of non-muscle myosin II-A (NMII-A) and its interaction with Hexosamine Biosynthesis Pathway (HBP).
METHOD: Protein expression changes were assessed by western blotting and immunofluorescent staining while transcription level changes were assessed by qRT-PCR. EMT was assessed by phenotypic analysis, wound healing, proliferation and transwell migration assay in vitro while in vivo studies were conducted in BALB/c nude mice for lung orthotopic and tail vein metastasis models.
RESULTS: We demonstrated that regulation of JNK/ P38/PI3K by TGF-β1 led to down expression of NMII-A which promoted EMT and lung cancer metastasis. This down expression of NMII-A conversely upregulated the expression of Core 2 N-acetyl Glucosaminyl Transferase mucin type (C2GnT-M) and further facilitated up-regulation and down-regulation of N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (GnT) -V and -III respectively; moreover, NMII-A K.D cells showed 3 times more tendency to migrate towards brain in vivo.
CONCLUSION: The study reports a novel pathway through which NMII-A negatively regulates EMT and metastasis via up regulation of C2GnT-M, GnT-V and down expression of GnT-III. These findings of lung cancer may further be required to study other cancer types.

Huang W, Zhang C, Cui M, et al.
Inhibition of Bevacizumab-induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition by BATF2 Overexpression Involves the Suppression of Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling in Glioblastoma Cells.
Anticancer Res. 2017; 37(8):4285-4294 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Bevacizumab (BV) has been used for the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma. However, it also induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in glioblastoma cells, which compromises its efficacy. BATF2 (basic leucine zipper ATF-like transcription factor 2), a multi-target transcriptional repressor, has been found to suppress cancer development partly through inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin singling. The roles of BATF2 and Wnt/β-catenin signaling in BV-induced EMT in glioblastoma cells were investigated in this study.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: BV was used to treat U87MG cells, and TOP/FOP FLASH luciferase reporters were employed to determine the activity of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. EMT markers were detected with quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and western blotting. Immunofluorescence (IF) was used to determine the compartmentation of β-catenin. Wound-healing, TransWell and ECIS assays were used to analyze cell adhesion, invasion and migration.
RESULTS: BV induced EMT phenotype in U87MG cells, and BATF2 overexpression significantly inhibited BV-induced EMT with suppression of Wnt/β-catenin signaling.
CONCLUSION: Our findings expanded the understanding of the role of BATF2 in tumors, and also suggested a potential of using BATF2 as a therapeutic target to hinder bevacizumab induced EMT in glioblastoma.

Huang JL, Liao Y, Qiu MX, et al.
Long non-coding RNA CCAT2 promotes cell proliferation and invasion through regulating Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(7):1010428317711314 [PubMed] Related Publications
Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is a common urologic malignancy. Long non-coding RNA colon cancer-associated transcript 2 (CCAT2) has been suggested as serving pivotal roles in tumorigenesis. However, the clinical significance and biological role of CCAT2 in ccRCC remains elusive. The purpose of this study is to identify the function of CCAT2 in ccRCC and its possible molecular mechanism. Expression of CCAT2 was analyzed in 61 ccRCC tissues and two ccRCC cell lines (786-O and ACHN) by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The functional roles of CCAT2 in ccRCC were determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, colony formation assay, Transwell assay, and flow cytometric analysis. The influence of CCAT2 on tumorigenesis was monitored by in vivo mice xenograft model. The activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway was evaluated by the TOP/FOP Wnt luciferase reporter assay and western blot assay. CCAT2 expression was markedly higher in ccRCC cell lines and tissues, being positively associated with tumor size and tumor stage in ccRCC patients. Patients with higher CCAT2 expression had a markedly poorer overall survival than did patients with low CCAT2 expression. Knocking down CCAT2 expression led to reduced cell proliferation and increased apoptosis of ccRCC cells in vitro as well as the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, and CCAT2 overexpression remarkably enhanced these oncogenic properties. In vivo mice xenograft model also showed that knocking CCAT2 expression inhibited the growth of ccRCC xenografts. In conclusion, these results indicated that CCAT2 may play a critical role in ccRCC progression and will be further considered as a biomarker for predicting the survival of ccRCC patients and a potential therapeutic target for ccRCC intervention.

Tu C, Zeng Z, Qi P, et al.
Genome-Wide Analysis of 18 Epstein-Barr Viruses Isolated from Primary Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Biopsy Specimens.
J Virol. 2017; 91(17) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous gammaherpesvirus that is highly prevalent in almost all human populations and is associated with many human cancers, such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), Hodgkin's disease, and gastric carcinoma. However, in these EBV-associated cancers, only NPC exhibits remarkable ethnic and geographic distribution. We hypothesized that EBV genomic variations might contribute to the pathogenesis of different human cancers in different geographic areas. In this study, we collected 18 NPC biopsy specimens from the Hunan Province in southern China and

Wang X, Lu X, Geng Z, et al.
LncRNA PTCSC3/miR-574-5p Governs Cell Proliferation and Migration of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma via Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling.
J Cell Biochem. 2017; 118(12):4745-4752 [PubMed] Related Publications
The distance metastases of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) were a major threaten for PTC patients, thus, to study the potential mechanism for the treatment of PTC was essential. Previous studies have shown that PTCSC3 (Thyroid Carcinoma Susceptibility Candidate 3), miR-574-5p and Wnt/β-catenin were involved in PTC, but the potential pathogenic mechanism among them was still unclear. Real-time PCR and Western blot were used to detect genes expression. Luciferase reporter assay was used to detect the combination of miR-574-5p and suppressor of cancer cell invasion (SCAI), as well as the ratio of TOP/FOP. RNA Pull-down assay verified the bound of PTCSC3 and miR-574-5p. MTT assay, Transwell assay, and wound scratch assay were used to detect cell viability and cell migration. The expression of PTCSC3 and SCAI were decreased, while miR-574-5p and β-catenin were increased in PTC tissues and cells. Overexpressed PTCSC3 suppressed cell proliferation and migration, promoted the expression of SCAI, but inhibited β-catenin. PTCSC3 absorbed miR-574-5p, and miR-574-5p targeted to SCAI; SCAI could regulate the activity of Wnt/β-catenin. PTCSC3/miR-574-5p regulated the activity of Wnt/β-catenin via SCAI and mediated cell proliferation and migration of PTC-1. In vivo experiments verified the fact that overexpressed PTCSC3 inhibited tumor growth. The signaling PTCSC3-miR-574-5p-SCAI-Wnt/β-catenin mediated the proliferation and migration of PTC-1 cells, which was vital for the further PTC therapy and prognosis. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 4745-4752, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Hu S, Zheng Q, Wu H, et al.
miR-532 promoted gastric cancer migration and invasion by targeting NKD1.
Life Sci. 2017; 177:15-19 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastric cancer is one of the most common human malignant neoplasms, especially in China, its regulatory mechanism is important to develop new therapy approaches. miRNAs have been demonstrated to regulate gastric cancer progression. We found miR-532 was overexpressed in gastric cancer tissues and cells. Wound healing and transwell assay revealed that its overexpression promoted gastric cancer cell migration and invasion, its knockdown inhibited gastric cancer cell migration and invasion. Wnt/β-catenin antagonist naked cuticle homolog 1 (NKD1) was the target of miR-532, miR-532 inhibited NKD1 expression. TOP/FOP luciferase activity analysis suggested miR-532 also increased Wnt/β-catenin pathway activity. Overexpression miR-532 and NKD1 inhibited gastric cancer cell migration and invasion, consistent with miR-532 knockdown. These findings revealed miR-532 promoted gastric cancer cell migration and invasion through inhibiting NKD1 and activated Wnt/β-catenin pathway. We provide a potential target for gastric cancer therapy.

Zheng Y, Jiang L, Hu Y, et al.
Metallothionein 1H (MT1H) functions as a tumor suppressor in hepatocellular carcinoma through regulating Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.
BMC Cancer. 2017; 17(1):161 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Metallothionein 1H (MT1H) expression level is downregulated in several kinds of tumors, including hepatocellular cancer (HCC). However, its biological functions and underlying mechanisms in HCC is largely unknown. The current study aimed to demonstrate the expression status, biological roles and potential mechanisms of MT1H in HCC.
METHODS: We investigated the expression level of MT1H in the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset and a panel of 12 paired tumor/non-tumor tissues. In vitro, gain-of-function experiments were performed to examine the role of MT1H on HCC cell proliferation, invasion, and migration. Using bioinformatics assay, reporter assays, quantitative real-time PCR, and western blotting, we explored the possible mechanisms underlying the role of MT1H in HCC cells. In vivo nude mice experiments were performed to assess the anti-proliferative role of MT1H in HCC.
RESULTS: Downregulation of MT1H was observed in TCGA dataset and a panel of 12 paired tumor/non-tumor tissues. Ectopic overexpression of MT1H in HepG2 and Hep3B cells inhibited cell proliferation, invasion, and migration. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) showed that MT1H might involve in regulation of Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Top/Fop reporter assay confirmed that MT1H had an effect on Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Real-time PCR showed MT1H expression decreased the expression of Wnt/β-catenin target genes. Western blotting assay showed that overexpression of MT1H inhibited the nuclear translocation of β-catenin and that the Akt/GSK-3β axis mediated the modulatory role of MT1H on Wnt/β-catenin signaling in HCC. In vivo nude mice experiments demonstrated that MT1H suppressed the proliferation of HCC cells. Taken together, MT1H suppressed the proliferation, invasion and migration of HCC cells via regulating Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.
CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that through inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin pathway, MT1H suppresses the proliferation and invasion of HCC cells. MT1H may be a potential target for HCC therapy.

Dokanehiifard S, Yasari A, Najafi H, et al.
A novel microRNA located in the
J Biol Chem. 2017; 292(18):7566-7577 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tropomyosin receptor kinase C (

García SA, Swiersy A, Radhakrishnan P, et al.
LDB1 overexpression is a negative prognostic factor in colorectal cancer.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(51):84258-84270 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in western countries and is driven by the Wnt signaling pathway. LIM-domain-binding protein 1 (LDB1) interacts with the Wnt signaling pathway and has been connected to malignant diseases. We therefore aimed to evaluate the role of LDB1 in CRC.
RESULTS: Overexpression of LDB1 in CRC is associated with strikingly reduced overall and metastasis free survival in all three independent patient cohorts. The expression of LDB1 positively correlates with genes involved in the Wnt signaling pathway (CTNNB1, AXIN2, MYC and CCND1). Overexpression of LDB1 in CRC cell lines induced Wnt pathway upregulation as well as increased invasivity and proliferation. Upon separate analysis, the role of LDB1 proved to be more prominent in proximal CRC, whereas distal CRC seems to be less influenced by LDB1.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression of LDB1 was measured via RT-qPCR in 59 clinical tumor and normal mucosa samples and correlated to clinical end-points. The role of LDB1 was examined in two additional large patient cohorts from publicly available microarray and RNAseq datasets. Functional characterization was done by lentiviral overexpression of LDB1 in CRC cell lines and TOP/FOP, proliferation and scratch assays.
CONCLUSIONS: LDB1 has a strong role in CRC progression, confirmed in three large, independent patient cohorts. The in vitro data confirm an influence of LDB1 on the Wnt signaling pathway and tumor cell proliferation. LDB1 seems to have a more prominent role in proximal CRC, which confirms the different biology of proximal and distal CRC.

Saleh AJ, Soltani BM, Dokanehiifard S, et al.
Experimental verification of a predicted novel microRNA located in human PIK3CA gene with a potential oncogenic function in colorectal cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(10):14089-14101 [PubMed] Related Publications
PI3K/AKT signaling is involved in cell survival, proliferation, and migration. In this pathway, PI3Kα enzyme is composed of a regulatory protein encoded by p85 gene and a catalytic protein encoded by PIK3CA gene. Human PIK3CA locus is amplified in several cancers including lung and colorectal cancer (CRC). Therefore, microRNAs (miRNAs) that are encoded within the PIK3CA gene might have a role in cancer development. Here, we report a novel microRNA named PIK3CA-miR1 (EBI accession no. LN626315), which is located within PIK3CA gene. A DNA segment corresponding to PIK3CA-premir1 sequence was transfected in human cell lines that resulted in generation of mature exogenous PIK3CA-miR1. Following the overexpression of PIK3CA-miR1, its predicted target genes (APPL1 and TrkC) were significantly downregulated in the CRC-originated HCT116 and SW480 cell lines, detected by qRT-PCR. Then, dual luciferase assay supported the interaction of PIK3CA-miR1 with APPL1 and TrkC transcripts. Endogenous PIK3CA-miR1 expression was also detected in several cell lines (highly in HCT116 and SW480) and highly in CRC specimens. Consistently, overexpression of PIK3CA-premir1 in HCT116 and SW480 cells resulted in significant reduction of the sub-G1 cell distribution and apoptotic cell rate, as detected by flowcytometry, and resulted in increased cell proliferation, as detected by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. PIK3CA-miR1 overexpression also resulted in Wnt signaling upregulation detected by Top/Fop assay. Overall, accumulative evidences indicated the presence of a bona fide novel onco-miRNA encoded within the PIK3CA oncogene, which is highly expressed in colorectal cancer and has a survival effect in CRC-originated cells.

Katoh M
FGFR inhibitors: Effects on cancer cells, tumor microenvironment and whole-body homeostasis (Review).
Int J Mol Med. 2016; 38(1):3-15 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)2, FGF4, FGF7 and FGF20 are representative paracrine FGFs binding to heparan-sulfate proteoglycan and fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs), whereas FGF19, FGF21 and FGF23 are endocrine FGFs binding to Klotho and FGFRs. FGFR1 is relatively frequently amplified and overexpressed in breast and lung cancer, and FGFR2 in gastric cancer. BCR-FGFR1, CNTRL-FGFR1, CUX1-FGFR1, FGFR1OP-FGFR1, MYO18A-FGFR1 and ZMYM2-FGFR1 fusions in myeloproliferative neoplasms are non-receptor-type FGFR kinases, whereas FGFR1-TACC1, FGFR2-AFF3, FGFR2-BICC1, FGFR2-PPHLN1, FGFR3-BAIAP2L1 and FGFR3-TACC3 fusions in solid tumors are transmembrane-type FGFRs with C-terminal alterations. AZD4547, BGJ398 (infigratinib), Debio-1347 and dovitinib are FGFR1/2/3 inhibitors; BLU9931 is a selective FGFR4 inhibitor; FIIN-2, JNJ-42756493, LY2874455 and ponatinib are pan-FGFR inhibitors. AZD4547, dovitinib and ponatinib are multi-kinase inhibitors targeting FGFRs, colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)R2, and others. The tumor microenvironment consists of cancer cells and stromal/immune cells, such as cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), endothelial cells, M2-type tumor-associating macrophages (M2-TAMs), myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and regulatory T cells. FGFR inhibitors elicit antitumor effects directly on cancer cells, as well as indirectly through the blockade of paracrine signaling. The dual inhibition of FGF and CSF1 or VEGF signaling is expected to enhance the antitumor effects through the targeting of immune evasion and angiogenesis in the tumor microenvironment. Combination therapy using tyrosine kinase inhibitors (FGFR or CSF1R inhibitors) and immune checkpoint blockers (anti-PD-1 or anti-CTLA-4 monoclonal antibodies) may be a promising choice for cancer patients. The inhibition of FGF19-FGFR4 signaling is associated with a risk of liver toxicity, whereas the activation of FGF23-FGFR4 signaling is associated with a risk of heart toxicity. Endocrine FGF signaling affects the pathophysiology of cancer patients who are prescribed FGFR inhibitors. Whole-genome sequencing is necessary for the detection of promoter/enhancer alterations of FGFR genes and rare alterations of other genes causing FGFR overexpression. To sustain the health care system in an aging society, a benefit-cost analysis should be performed with a focus on disease-free survival and the total medical cost before implementing genome-based precision medicine for cancer patients.

Chen Q, Zheng PS, Yang WT
EZH2-mediated repression of GSK-3β and TP53 promotes Wnt/β-catenin signaling-dependent cell expansion in cervical carcinoma.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(24):36115-36129 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), a catalytic core component of the Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), stimulates the silencing of target genes through histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3). Recent findings have indicated EZH2 is involved in the development and progression of various human cancers. However, the exact mechanism of EZH2 in the promotion of cervical cancer is largely unknown. Here, we show that EZH2 expression gradually increases during the progression of cervical cancer. We identified a significant positive correlation between EZH2 expression and cell proliferation in vitro and tumor formation in vivo by the up-regulation or down-regulation of EZH2 using CRISPR-Cas9-mediated gene editing technology and shRNA in HeLa and SiHa cells. Further investigation indicated that EZH2 protein significantly accelerated the cell cycle transition from the G0/G1 to S phase. TOP/FOP-Flash reporter assay revealed that EZH2 significantly activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling and the target genes of Wnt/β-catenin pathway were up-regulated, including β-catenin, cyclin D1, and c-myc. Moreover, dual-luciferase reporter and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays confirmed that EZH2 inhibited the expression of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and TP53 through physically interacting with motifs in the promoters of the GSK-3β and TP53 genes. Additionally, blockage of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway resulted in significant inhibition of cell proliferation, and activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway resulted in significant enhancement of cell proliferation, as induced by EZH2. Taken together, our data demonstrate that EZH2 promotes cell proliferation and tumor formation in cervical cancer through activating the Wnt/β-catenin pathway by epigenetic silencing via GSK-3β and TP53.

Fonseca FP, Bingle L, Santos-Silva AR, et al.
Immunoexpression of hoxb7 and hoxb9 in salivary gland tumours.
J Oral Pathol Med. 2016; 45(9):672-681 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Salivary gland carcinomas are uncommon neoplasms and the identification of new prognostic indicators could improve their management. HOXB7 and HOXB9 are members of the class I homeobox-containing genes important for normal embryogenesis and that are dysregulated in several human neoplasms. This study investigated HOXB7 and HOXB9 expressions in salivary gland tumourigenesis, their correlation with neoplastic proliferative and angiogenic features and their importance as prognostic markers.
METHODS: A hundred and fifty salivary gland tumours were organized in tissue microarray and expressions of CD105, Ki67, HOXB7 and HOXB9 were determined through immunohistochemistry. Reactions were quantified and correlated with clinicopathological parameters.
RESULTS: In normal glands, HOXB7 was found in basal cells, whereas HOXB9 was seen in serous acinar and scattered ductal cells. Malignancies exhibited an increased vascular density, proliferative index, HOXB7 and HOXB9 expressions when compared with pleomorphic adenoma and Warthin's tumour. Significant correlation was found between HOXB7 and CD105 (P = 0.004) in adenoid cystic carcinomas, and HOXB7 higher expression significantly correlated with the presence of paresthesia (P = 0.02). No marker exhibited a significant association with survival rates (P > 0.05).
CONCLUSION: HOXB7 and HOXB9 were expressed in normal salivary gland and were present in benign and malignant tumours derived from these structures, and HOXB7 significantly correlated with neoangiogenesis in AdCC. These findings suggest that both proteins might play a role in salivary gland tumourigenesis, but they were not significant prognostic determinants in this sample.

Zhou F, Huo J, Liu Y, et al.
Elevated glucose levels impair the WNT/β-catenin pathway via the activation of the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway in endometrial cancer.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2016; 159:19-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
Endometrial cancer (EC) is one of the most common gynecological malignancies in the world. Associations between fasting glucose levels (greater than 5.6mmol/L) and the risk of cancer fatality have been reported. However, the underlying link between glucose metabolic disease and EC remains unclear. In the present study, we explored the influence of elevated glucose levels on the WNT/β-catenin pathway in EC. Previous studies have suggested that elevated concentrations of glucose can drive the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP) flux, thereby enhancing the O-GlcNAc modification of proteins. Here, we cultured EC cell lines, AN3CA and HEC-1-B, with various concentrations of glucose. Results showed that when treated with high levels of glucose, both lines showed increased expression of β-catenin and O-GlcNAcylation levels; however, these effects could be abolished by the HBP inhibitors, Azaserine and 6-Diazo-5-oxo-l-norleucine, and be restored by glucosamine. Moreover the AN3CA and HEC-1-B cells that were cultured with or without PUGNAc, an inhibitor of the O-GlcNAcase, showed that PUGNAc increased β-catenin levels. The results suggest that elevated glucose levels increase β-catenin expression via the activation of the HBP in EC cells. Subcellular fractionation experiments showed that AN3CA cells had a higher expression of intranuclear β-catenin in high glucose medium. Furthermore, TOP/FOP-Flash and RT-PCR results showed that glucose-induced increased expression of β-catenin triggered the transcription of target genes. In conclusion, elevated glucose levels, via HBP, increase the O-GlcNAcylation level, thereby inducing the over expression of β-catenin and subsequent transcription of the target genes in EC cells.

Kang X, Liu H, Onaitis MW, et al.
Polymorphisms of the centrosomal gene (FGFR1OP) and lung cancer risk: a meta-analysis of 14,463 cases and 44,188 controls.
Carcinogenesis. 2016; 37(3):280-289 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Centrosome abnormalities are often observed in premalignant lesions and in situ tumors and have been associated with aneuploidy and tumor development. We investigated the associations of 9354 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 106 centrosomal genes with lung cancer risk by first using the summary data from six published genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of the Transdisciplinary Research in Cancer of the Lung (TRICL) (12,160 cases and 16 838 controls) and then conducted in silico replication in two additional independent lung cancer GWASs of Harvard University (984 cases and 970 controls) and deCODE (1319 cases and 26,380 controls). A total of 44 significant SNPs with false discovery rate (FDR) ≤ 0.05 were mapped to one novel gene FGFR1OP and two previously reported genes (TUBB and BRCA2). After combined the results from TRICL with those from Harvard and deCODE, the most significant association (P combined = 8.032 × 10(-6)) was with rs151606 within FGFR1OP. The rs151606 T>G was associated with an increased risk of lung cancer [odds ratio (OR) = 1.10, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 1.05-1.14]. Another significant tagSNP rs12212247 T>C (P combined = 9.589 × 10(-6)) was associated with a decreased risk of lung cancer (OR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.90-0.96). Further in silico functional analyzes revealed that rs151606 might affect transcriptional regulation and result in decreased FGFR1OP expression (P trend = 0.022). The findings shed some new light on the role of centrosome abnormalities in the susceptibility to lung carcinogenesis.

Flores IL, Kawahara R, Miguel MC, et al.
EEF1D modulates proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Clin Sci (Lond). 2016; 130(10):785-99 [PubMed] Related Publications
EEF1D (eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1δ) is a subunit of the elongation factor 1 complex of proteins that mediates the elongation process during protein synthesis via enzymatic delivery of aminoacyl-tRNAs to the ribosome. Although the functions of EEF1D in the translation process are recognized, EEF1D expression was found to be unbalanced in tumours. In the present study, we demonstrate the overexpression of EEF1D in OSCC (oral squamous cell carcinoma), and revealed that EEF1D and protein interaction partners promote the activation of cyclin D1 and vimentin proteins. EEF1D knockdown in OSCC reduced cell proliferation and induced EMT (epithelial-mesenchymal transition) phenotypes, including cell invasion. Taken together, these results define EEF1D as a critical inducer of OSCC proliferation and EMT.

Ilmer M, Garnier A, Vykoukal J, et al.
Targeting the Neurokinin-1 Receptor Compromises Canonical Wnt Signaling in Hepatoblastoma.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2015; 14(12):2712-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
The substance P (SP)/NK-1 receptor (NK1R) complex represents an intriguing anticancer target for a variety of tumors, including hepatoblastoma (HB). Therefore, NK1R antagonists, such as the clinical drug aprepitant, recently have been proposed as potent anticancer agents. However, very little is known regarding the molecular basis of NK1R inhibition in cancer. Using reverse phase protein array, Western blot, Super TOP/FOP, confocal microscopy, and sphere formation ability (SFA) assays, we identified the AKT and Wnt signaling pathways as the key targets of aprepitant in three human HB cell lines (HepT1, HepG2, and HuH6). Following NK1R blockage, we observed decreased phosphorylation of p70S6K and 4E-BP1/2 and inhibition of the canonical Wnt pathway with subsequent decrease of HB cell growth. This effect was dependent of high baseline Wnt activity either by mutational status of β-catenin or extrinsic Wnt activation. Wnt inhibition seemed to be strengthened by disruption of the FOXM1-β-catenin complex. Furthermore, treatment of HB cells with aprepitant led to reduced expression of (liver) stemness markers (AFP, CD13, SOX2, NANOG, and OCT4) and SFA when grown under cancer stem cell conditions. Taken together, we show for the first time that targeting the SP/NK1R signaling cascade inhibits canonical Wnt signaling in HB cells. These findings reveal important insight into the molecular mechanisms of the SP/NK1R complex as a critical component in a model of pediatric liver cancer and may support the development of novel therapeutic interventions for HB and other Wnt-activated cancers.

Ma Y, Zhu B, Liu X, et al.
Inhibition of oleandrin on the proliferation show and invasion of osteosarcoma cells in vitro by suppressing Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2015; 34:115 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Osteosarcoma (OS) is a high-grade bone sarcoma with early metastasis potential, and the clinical chemotherapy drugs that are currently used for its treatment have some limitations. Recently, several studies have reported the selective antitumor effect of oleandrin on various tumor cells. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects and underlying mechanisms of oleandrin on OS cells.
METHODS: The effect of oleandrin on the proliferation, morphology, and apoptosis of U2OS and SaOS-2 cells were analyzed in vitro. The activity of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway was determined using a dual luciferase assay. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR and western blot assays were performed to evaluate the mRNA and total protein expression of the downstream target genes. Changes of β-catenin in intracellular localization were also explored using a western blot after separating the nucleus and cytoplasm proteins. The MMP-2 and MMP-9 enzymatic activities were determined using gelatin zymography.
RESULTS: Oleandrin significantly inhibited the proliferation and invasion of OS cells in vitro, and induced their apoptosis. After treatment with oleandrin, the TOP/FOP flash ratio in OS cells was noticeably decreased, which indicated that the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway was repressed. The expression of related Wnt target genes and total β-catenin was downregulated, and a reduced nuclear β-catenin level by oleandrin was observed as well. In addition, oleandrin suppressed the activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9.
CONCLUSIONS: Oleandrin, in vitro, exerted a strong antitumor effect on human OS cells by suppressing the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, which interfered with the proliferation and invasion of OS cells, as well as induced cells apoptosis. Moreover, the expression and activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were downregulated by oleandrin, which contributed to the cells' lower invasiveness.

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Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. FGFR1OP, Cancer Genetics Web: http://www.cancer-genetics.org/FGFR1OP.htm Accessed:

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