Gene Summary

Gene:HDAC1; histone deacetylase 1
Aliases: HD1, RPD3, GON-10, RPD3L1
Summary:Histone acetylation and deacetylation, catalyzed by multisubunit complexes, play a key role in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the histone deacetylase/acuc/apha family and is a component of the histone deacetylase complex. It also interacts with retinoblastoma tumor-suppressor protein and this complex is a key element in the control of cell proliferation and differentiation. Together with metastasis-associated protein-2, it deacetylates p53 and modulates its effect on cell growth and apoptosis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:histone deacetylase 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 17 August, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (54)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (13)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 17 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Transcription Factors
  • Ubiquitin Thiolesterase
  • Translocation
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Young Adult
  • Thermus
  • Breast Cancer
  • Trans-Activators
  • Chromosome 1
  • Valproic Acid
  • Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator
  • Teratoma
  • p53 Protein
  • Serpins
  • Cervical Cancer
  • Umbilical Cord
  • Stromal Cells
  • Up-Regulation
  • X Chromosome
  • TATA Box Binding Protein-Like Proteins
  • Tumor Markers
  • Promoter Regions
  • Radiation Hybrid Mapping
  • Viral Matrix Proteins
  • siRNA
  • Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Protein Processing, Post-Translational
  • Histone Deacetylases
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Tumor Stem Cell Assay
  • Transfection
  • Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
  • TNF
  • Transcriptional Activation
  • beta Catenin
  • p300-CBP Transcription Factors
  • Histone Deacetylase 1
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Testis
Tag cloud generated 17 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (2)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: HDAC1 (cancer-related)

Tang YA, Chen CH, Sun HS, et al.
Global Oct4 target gene analysis reveals novel downstream PTEN and TNC genes required for drug-resistance and metastasis in lung cancer.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2015; 43(3):1593-608 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Overexpression of Oct4, a stemness gene encoding a transcription factor, has been reported in several cancers. However, the mechanism by which Oct4 directs transcriptional program that leads to somatic cancer progression remains unclear. In this study, we provide mechanistic insight into Oct4-driven transcriptional network promoting drug-resistance and metastasis in lung cancer cell, animal and clinical studies. Through an integrative approach combining our Oct4 chromatin-immunoprecipitation sequencing and ENCODE datasets, we identified the genome-wide binding regions of Oct4 in lung cancer at promoter and enhancer of numerous genes involved in critical pathways which promote tumorigenesis. Notably, PTEN and TNC were previously undefined targets of Oct4. In addition, novel Oct4-binding motifs were found to overlap with DNA elements for Sp1 transcription factor. We provided evidence that Oct4 suppressed PTEN in an Sp1-dependent manner by recruitment of HDAC1/2, leading to activation of AKT signaling and drug-resistance. In contrast, Oct4 transactivated TNC independent of Sp1 and resulted in cancer metastasis. Clinically, lung cancer patients with Oct4 high, PTEN low and TNC high expression profile significantly correlated with poor disease-free survival. Our study reveals a critical Oct4-driven transcriptional program that promotes lung cancer progression, illustrating the therapeutic potential of targeting Oc4 transcriptionally regulated genes.

Mithraprabhu S, Kalff A, Chow A, et al.
Dysregulated Class I histone deacetylases are indicators of poor prognosis in multiple myeloma.
Epigenetics. 2014; 9(11):1511-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
Histone deacetylases (HDAC) control gene expression through their ability to acetylate proteins, thereby influencing a diverse range of cellular functions. Class I HDAC (HDAC1-3 and 8) and HDAC6 are predominantly upregulated in malignancies and their altered expression in some cancers has a significant prognostic implication. The expression and prognostic consequence of dysregulated Class I HDAC and HDAC6, key players in multiple myeloma (MM), are unknown. This study hypothesized that HDAC are dysregulated in MM and patients with high expression have significantly poorer prognostic outcomes. Quantitative PCR for 11 HDAC (Class I, II, and IV) was performed in genetically heterogeneous human myeloma cell lines (HMCL) and primary MM and compared to normal plasma cells (PC). In HMCL, HDAC1-3 and 8 (Class I), and HDAC5 and HDAC10 (Class II) were significantly upregulated compared to normal PC. In primary MM, the median expression level of all of the HDAC, except HDAC1 and HDAC11, were elevated when compared to normal PC. Patients with higher levels of HDAC1-3, HDAC4, HDAC6, and HDAC11 transcripts demonstrated a significantly shorter progression-free survival (PFS). Immunohistochemical staining for HDAC1 and HDAC6 on bone marrow trephines from a uniformly treated cohort of transplant eligible MM patients revealed that HDAC1 protein was detectable in most patients and that higher levels of MM cell HDAC1 protein expression (≥90 % versus ≤20 % MM cell positivity) correlated with both shorter PFS (P = 0 .07) and shorter overall survival (P = 0 .003). Conversely, while the majority of patients expressed HDAC6, there was no correlation between HDAC6 levels and patient outcome. Together, these results indicate that overexpression of Class I HDAC, particularly HDAC1, is associated with poor prognosis in MM.

Wang X, Xu J, Wang H, et al.
Trichostatin A, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, reverses epithelial-mesenchymal transition in colorectal cancer SW480 and prostate cancer PC3 cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015; 456(1):320-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Trichostatin A (TSA) is a kind of classical histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor. In this study, we reported the reversal effects of TSA on EMT and investigated the possible involved molecular mechanisms in SW480 and PC3 cells. Firstly, we observed that TSA induced the reversal process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in SW480 and PC3 cells, resulting in attenuated cell invasion and migration abilities. TSA-induced EMT reversal was characterized by up-regulation of E-cadherin and down-regulation of Vimentin. Then, treatment with TSA also decreased the expression of transcription factor Slug. Furthermore, over-expression of Slug significantly caused down-regulation of E-cadherin and up-regulation of Vimentin. Meanwhile, TSA treatment in Slug-expressing cells could prevent these changes. These findings suggested that Slug played a crucial role in TSA-induced EMT reversal. Additionally, the study showed that TSA could induce the increase of HDAC1 and HDAC2 on the Slug gene promoter, which might be responsible for the suppression of Slug. Overall, TSA could reverse EMT in SW480 and PC3 cells and TSA-mediated down-regulation of Slug was involved in the reversal process.

Drew JE, Farquharson AJ, Mayer CD, et al.
Predictive gene signatures: molecular markers distinguishing colon adenomatous polyp and carcinoma.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(11):e113071 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cancers exhibit abnormal molecular signatures associated with disease initiation and progression. Molecular signatures could improve cancer screening, detection, drug development and selection of appropriate drug therapies for individual patients. Typically only very small amounts of tissue are available from patients for analysis and biopsy samples exhibit broad heterogeneity that cannot be captured using a single marker. This report details application of an in-house custom designed GenomeLab System multiplex gene expression assay, the hCellMarkerPlex, to assess predictive gene signatures of normal, adenomatous polyp and carcinoma colon tissue using archived tissue bank material. The hCellMarkerPlex incorporates twenty-one gene markers: epithelial (EZR, KRT18, NOX1, SLC9A2), proliferation (PCNA, CCND1, MS4A12), differentiation (B4GANLT2, CDX1, CDX2), apoptotic (CASP3, NOX1, NTN1), fibroblast (FSP1, COL1A1), structural (ACTG2, CNN1, DES), gene transcription (HDAC1), stem cell (LGR5), endothelial (VWF) and mucin production (MUC2). Gene signatures distinguished normal, adenomatous polyp and carcinoma. Individual gene targets significantly contributing to molecular tissue types, classifier genes, were further characterised using real-time PCR, in-situ hybridisation and immunohistochemistry revealing aberrant epithelial expression of MS4A12, LGR5 CDX2, NOX1 and SLC9A2 prior to development of carcinoma. Identified gene signatures identify aberrant epithelial expression of genes prior to cancer development using in-house custom designed gene expression multiplex assays. This approach may be used to assist in objective classification of disease initiation, staging, progression and therapeutic responses using biopsy material.

Millard CJ, Fairall L, Schwabe JW
Towards an understanding of the structure and function of MTA1.
Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2014; 33(4):857-67 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Gene expression is controlled through the recruitment of large coregulator complexes to specific gene loci to regulate chromatin structure by modifying epigenetic marks on DNA and histones. Metastasis-associated protein 1 (MTA1) is an essential component of the nucleosome remodelling and deacetylase (NuRD) complex that acts as a scaffold protein to assemble enzymatic activity and nucleosome targeting proteins. MTA1 consists of four characterised domains, a number of interaction motifs, and regions that are predicted to be intrinsically disordered. The ELM2-SANT domain is one of the best-characterised regions of MTA1, which recruits histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) and activates the enzyme in the presence of inositol phosphate. MTA1 is highly upregulated in several types of aggressive tumours and is therefore a possible target for cancer therapy. In this review, we summarise the structure and function of the four domains of MTA1 and discuss the possible functions of less well-characterised regions of the protein.

Huang Y, Chen J, Lu C, et al.
HDAC1 and Klf4 interplay critically regulates human myeloid leukemia cell proliferation.
Cell Death Dis. 2014; 5:e1491 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is recognized as a complex disease of hematopoietic stem cell disorders, but its pathogenesis mechanisms, diagnosis, and treatment remain unclear. General histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have been used in blood cancers including AML, but the lack of gene specificity greatly limits their anti-cancer effects and clinical applications. Here, we found that HDAC1 expression was negatively correlated with that of Krüppel-like factor 4 (Klf4) and that AML patients with lower HDAC1 level had better prognosis. Further, knockdown of HDAC1 in leukemia cells K562, HL-60, and U937 significantly increased Klf4 expression and inhibited cell cycle progression and cell proliferation, similar results were found for HDAC inhibitors (VPA and mocetinostat). Moreover, overexpression or knockdown of Klf4 could markedly block the effects of HDAC1 overexpression or knockdown on leukemia cells in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Mechanistic analyses demonstrated that HDAC1 and Klf4 competitively bound to the promoter region of Klf4 and oppositely regulated Klf4 expression in myeloid leukemia. We identified HDAC1 as a potential specific target for repressing cell proliferation and inducing cell cycle arrest through interplay and modulation of Klf4 expression, suggests that HDAC1 and Klf4 are potential new molecular markers and targets for clinical diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of myeloid leukemia.

Chen XM, Xie XB, Zhao Q, et al.
Ampelopsin induces apoptosis by regulating multiple c-Myc/S-phase kinase-associated protein 2/F-box and WD repeat-containing protein 7/histone deacetylase 2 pathways in human lung adenocarcinoma cells.
Mol Med Rep. 2015; 11(1):105-12 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Ampelopsin (AMP), a plant flavonoid, has been reported to inhibit cell growth and/or induce apoptosis in various types of tumor. The aim of the present study was to assess the apoptosis-inducing activity of AMP in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cells and the associated underlying mechanism. A549 cells were incubated with different concentrations of AMP in culture medium. Cell growth and apoptosis were evaluated by MTT assay and Annexin V/propidium iodide double staining and flow cytometry, respectively. In addition, western blotting and reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis were used to examine the time-dependent changes in protein expression. Certain changes in apoptotic protein expression were detected following exposure to AMP, including X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein release, reduced B-cell lymphoma 2, myeloid cell leukemia 1 and survivin expression levels, increased Bcl-2-associated X protein expression levels and cleaved-poly ADP ribose polymerase expression. The results revealed that AMP was a potent inhibitor of A549 cell proliferation. The c-Myc/S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2) and histone deacetylase (HDAC)1/2 pathways were found to exert an important role in AMP-induced A549 cell apoptosis, as increased levels of c-Myc mRNA and reduced levels of c-Myc/Skp2 and HDAC1 and 2 proteins following AMP treatment were observed. The levels of F-box and WD repeat-containing protein 7α (Fbw7α), Fbw7β, Fbw7γ, phosphorylated-(p-)c-Myc (Thr58) and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) proteins involved in c-Myc ubiquitin-dependent degradation were also analyzed. Following exposure to AMP, the expression levels of Fbw7α, Fbw7γ and GSK3β were reduced and p-c-Myc (Thr58) expression levels were increased. The results suggest that AMP exerts an anticancer effect, which is associated with the degradation of c-Myc, Skp2 and HDAC1 and 2. The ability of AMP to induce apoptosis independently of Fbwα and Fbw7γ suggests a possible use in drug-resistant cancer associated with Fbw7 deficiency. Understanding the exact underlying mechanism requires further investigation of the association between c-Myc and Fbw7α/γ reversal, and analysis of whether Thr58 phosphorylation of c-Myc is dependent on GSK3β.

Kang Y, Nian H, Rajendran P, et al.
HDAC8 and STAT3 repress BMF gene activity in colon cancer cells.
Cell Death Dis. 2014; 5:e1476 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are undergoing clinical trials as anticancer agents, but some exhibit resistance mechanisms linked to anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 functions, such as BH3-only protein silencing. HDAC inhibitors that reactivate BH3-only family members might offer an improved therapeutic approach. We show here that a novel seleno-α-keto acid triggers global histone acetylation in human colon cancer cells and activates apoptosis in a p21-independent manner. Profiling of multiple survival factors identified a critical role for the BH3-only member Bcl-2-modifying factor (Bmf). On the corresponding BMF gene promoter, loss of HDAC8 was associated with signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)/specificity protein 3 (Sp3) transcription factor exchange and recruitment of p300. Treatment with a p300 inhibitor or transient overexpression of exogenous HDAC8 interfered with BMF induction, whereas RNAi-mediated silencing of STAT3 activated the target gene. This is the first report to identify a direct target gene of HDAC8 repression, namely, BMF. Interestingly, the repressive role of HDAC8 could be uncoupled from HDAC1 to trigger Bmf-mediated apoptosis. These findings have implications for the development of HDAC8-selective inhibitors as therapeutic agents, beyond the reported involvement of HDAC8 in childhood malignancy.

Lakshmaiah KC, Jacob LA, Aparna S, et al.
Epigenetic therapy of cancer with histone deacetylase inhibitors.
J Cancer Res Ther. 2014 Jul-Sep; 10(3):469-78 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epigenetics is the study of heritable alterations in gene expression that are not accompanied by the corresponding change in DNA sequence. Three interlinked epigenetic processes regulate gene expression at the level of chromatin, namely DNA methylation, nucleosomal remodeling and histone covalent modifications. Post-translational modifications that occur on certain amino acid residues of the tails of histone proteins modify chromatin structure and form the basis for "histone code". The enzymes Histone Acetyl Transferase (HAT) and Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) control the level of acetylation of histones and thereby alter gene expression. In many cancers, the balance between HAT and HDAC is altered. HDAC enzymes are grouped into four different classes namely Class I (HDAC1, HDAC2, HDAC3, and HDAC8), Class II (HDAC4, HDAC5, HDAC6, HDAC7, HDAC9, and HDAC10), Class III HDAC and Class IV (HDAC11). Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors (HDACI) exert anticancer activity by promoting acetylation of histones as well as by promoting acetylation of non-histone protein substrates. The effects of HDACI on gene transcription are complex. They cause cell cycle arrest, inhibit DNA repair, induce apoptosis and acetylate non histone proteins causing downstream alterations in gene expression. HDACI are a diverse group of compounds, which vary in structure, biological activity, and specificity. In general, HDACIs contain a zinc-binding domain, a capping group, and a straight chain linker connecting the two. They are classified into four classes namely short chain fatty acids, hydroxamic acids, cyclic peptides and synthetic benzamides. This review describes the clinical utility of HDACI as monotherapy as well as combination therapy with other treatment modalities such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Adverse effects and shortcomings of treatment with HDACI are also discussed in detail.

Shi QQ, Zuo GW, Feng ZQ, et al.
Effect of trichostatin A on anti HepG2 liver carcinoma cells: inhibition of HDAC activity and activation of Wnt/β-Catenin signaling.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(18):7849-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of deacetylase inhibitory trichostatin A (TSA) on anti HepG2 liver carcinoma cells and explore the underlying mechanisms.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: HepG2 cells exposed to different concentrations of TSA for 24, 48, or 72h were examined for cell growth inhibition using CCK8, changes in cell cycle distribution with flow cytometry, cell apoptosis with annexin V-FTIC/PI double staining, and cell morphology changes under an inverted microscope. Expression of β-catenin, HDAC1, HDAC3, H3K9, CyclinD1 and Bax proteins was tested by Western blotting. Gene expression for β-catenin, HDAC1and HDAC3 was tested by q-PCR. β-Catenin and H3K9 proteins were also tested by immunofluorescence. Activity of Renilla luciferase (pTCF/LEF-luc) was assessed using the Luciferase Reporter Assay system reagent. The activity of total HDACs was detected with a HDACs colorimetric kit.
RESULTS: Exposure to TSA caused significant dose-and time-dependent inhibition of HepG2 cell proliferation (p<0.05) and resulted in increased cell percentages in G0/ G1 and G2/M phases and decrease in the S phase. The apoptotic index in the control group was 6.22±0.25%, which increased to 7.17±0.20% and 18.1±0.42% in the treatment group. Exposure to 250 and 500nmol/L TSA also caused cell morphology changes with numerous floating cells. Expression of β-catenin, H3K9and Bax proteins was significantly increased, expression levels of CyclinD1, HDAC1, HDAC3 were decreased. Expression of β-catenin at the genetic level was significantly increased, with no significant difference in HDAC1and HDAC3 genes. In the cytoplasm, expression of β-catenin fluorescence protein was not obvious changed and in the nucleus, small amounts of green fluorescence were observed. H3K9 fluorescence protein were increased. Expression levels of the transcription factor TCF werealso increased in HepG2 cells following induction by TSA, whikle the activity of total HDACs was decreased.
CONCLUSIONS: TSA inhibits HDAC activity, promotes histone acetylation, and activates Wnt/β-catenin signaling to inhibit proliferation of HepG2 cell, arrest cell cycling and induce apoptosis.

Ouaïssi M, Silvy F, Loncle C, et al.
Further characterization of HDAC and SIRT gene expression patterns in pancreatic cancer and their relation to disease outcome.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(9):e108520 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas is ranking 4 for patient' death from malignant disease in Western countries, with no satisfactory treatment. We re-examined more precisely the histone deacetylases (HDAC) and Sirtuin (SIRT) gene expression patterns in pancreatic cancer with more pancreatic tumors and normal tissues. We also examined the possible relationship between HDAC gene expression levels and long term disease outcome. Moreover, we have evaluated by using an in vitro model system of human pancreatic tumor cell line whether HDAC7 knockdown may affect the cell behavior. We analyzed 29 pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PA), 9 chronic pancreatitis (CP), 8 benign pancreatic (BP) and 11 normal pancreatic tissues. Concerning pancreatic adenocarcinoma, we were able to collect biopsies at the tumor periphery. To assess the possible involvement of HDAC7 in cell proliferation capacity, we have generated recombinant human Panc-1 tumor which underexpressed or overexpressed HDAC7. The expression of HDAC1,2,3,4,7 and Nur77 increased in PA samples at levels significantly higher than those observed in the CP group (p = 0.0160; 0.0114; 0.0227; 0.0440; 0.0136; 0.0004, respectively). The expression of HDAC7, was significantly greater in the PA compared with BP tissue samples (p = 0.05). Mean mRNA transcription levels of PA for HDAC7 and HDAC2 were higher when compared to their counterpart biopsies taken at the tumor periphery (p = 0.0346, 0.0053, respectively). Moreover, the data obtained using confocal microscopy and a quantitative method of immunofluorescence staining strongly support the HDAC7 overexpression in PA surgical specimens. The number of deaths and recurrences at the end of follow up were significantly greater in patients with overexpression of HDAC7. Interestingly, the rate of growth was significantly reduced in the case of cell carrying shRNA construct targeting HDAC7 encoding gene when compared to the parental Panc-1 tumor cells (p = 0.0015) at 48 h and 96 h (p = 0.0021). This study strongly support the notion that HDAC7play a role in pancreatic adenocarcinoma progression.

Ow JR, Tan YH, Jin Y, et al.
Stra13 and Sharp-1, the non-grouchy regulators of development and disease.
Curr Top Dev Biol. 2014; 110:317-38 [PubMed] Related Publications
Stra13 and Sharp-1 are transcriptional repressors that share domain structure similarity with members of the basic helix-loop-helix-Orange subfamily. In contrast to other members that include Hes and Hey proteins, transcriptional repression mediated by Stra13 and Sharp-1 does not involve recruitment of the corepressor Groucho. Both proteins undergo sumoylation at evolutionarily conserved sites, and this posttranslational modification serves as a platform for association with chromatin-modifying enzymes including histone deacetylases and histone methyltransferases. In addition to being widely expressed during embryonic development and in adult tissues, the expression of both genes is induced by a number of stimuli. Loss-of-function and gain-of-function studies have demonstrated their function in cellular differentiation and regeneration, in regulation of circadian rhythms, immune homeostasis, and metabolism. Given their diverse physiological functions in several tissues, it is not surprising that deregulated expression of Stra13 and Sharp-1 is apparent in human pathologies. Here, we review our current understanding of their cellular functions that suggest a requirement in maintenance of tissue homeostasis.

Malonia SK, Yadav B, Sinha S, et al.
Chromatin remodeling protein SMAR1 regulates NF-κB dependent Interleukin-8 transcription in breast cancer.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2014; 55:220-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a pleiotropic chemokine involved in metastasis and angiogenesis of breast tumors. The expression of IL-8 is deregulated in metastatic breast carcinomas owing to aberrant NF-κB activity, which is known to positively regulate IL-8 transcription. Earlier, we have shown that tumor suppressor SMAR1 suppresses NF-κB transcriptional activity by modulating IκBα function. Here, we show that NF-κB target gene IL-8, is a direct transcriptional target of SMAR1. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation and reporter assays, we demonstrate that SMAR1 binds to IL-8 promoter MAR (matrix attachment region) and recruits HDAC1 dependent co-repressor complex. Further, we also show that SMAR1 antagonizes p300-mediated acetylation of RelA/p65, a post-translational modification indispensable for IL-8 transactivation. Thus, we decipher a new role of SMAR1 in NF-κB dependent transcriptional regulation of pro-angiogenic chemokine IL-8.

Shuai S, Yan X, Zhang J, et al.
TIP30 nuclear translocation negatively regulates EGF-dependent cyclin D1 transcription in human lung adenocarcinoma.
Cancer Lett. 2014; 354(1):200-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aberrant epidermal growth factor (EGF)-dependent signaling plays a key role in the progression of human carcinomas. We found that TIP30, a tumor suppressor protein, translocated into the nucleus of human lung adenocarcinoma cells following EGF treatment, and the selective inhibitors of EGFR signaling pathways blocked this effect. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that TIP30 negatively regulated EGF-dependent transcriptional activation of CCND1 through a HDAC1-dependent mechanism. In lung adenocarcinoma patients, the level of nuclear TIP30 was inversely correlated with that of EGFR and cyclin D1. These findings suggest that nuclear TIP30-induced downregulation of cyclin D1 transcription antagonizes EGFR signaling and suppresses tumorigenesis.

Plotkin A, Volmar CH, Wahlestedt C, et al.
Transcriptional repression of ER through hMAPK dependent histone deacetylation by class I HDACs.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2014; 147(2):249-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
Anti-estrogen therapies are not effective in ER- breast cancers, thus identifying mechanisms underlying lack of ER expression in ER- breast cancers is imperative. We have previously demonstrated that hyperactivation of MAPK (hMAPK) downstream of overexpressed EGFR or overexpression/amplification of Her2 represses ER protein and mRNA expression. Abrogation of hMAPK in ER- breast cancer cell lines and primary cultures causes re-expression of ER and restoration of anti-estrogen responses. This study was performed to identify mechanisms of hMAPK-induced transcriptional repression of ER. We found that ER promoter activity is significantly reduced in the presence of hMAPK signaling, yet did not identify specific promoter sequences responsible for this repression. We performed an epigenetic compound screen in an ER- breast cancer cell line that expresses hMAPK yet does not exhibit ER promoter hypermethylation. A number of HDAC inhibitors were identified and confirmed to modulate ER expression and estrogen signaling in multiple ER- cell lines and tumor samples lacking ER promoter methylation. siRNA-mediated knockdown of HDACs 1, 2, and 3 reversed the mRNA repression in multiple breast cancer cell lines and primary cultures and ER promoter-associated histone acetylation increased following MAPK inhibition. These data implicate histone deacetylation downstream of hMAPK in the observed ER mRNA repression associated with hMAPK. Importantly, histone deacetylation appears to be a common mechanism in the transcriptional repression of ER between ER- breast cancers with or without ER promoter hypermethylation.

Park SH, Kim J, Do KH, et al.
Activating transcription factor 3-mediated chemo-intervention with cancer chemokines in a noncanonical pathway under endoplasmic reticulum stress.
J Biol Chem. 2014; 289(39):27118-33 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 26/09/2015 Related Publications
The cell-protective features of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response are chronically activated in vigorously growing malignant tumor cells, which provide cellular growth advantages over the adverse microenvironment including chemotherapy. As an intervention with ER stress responses in the intestinal cancer cells, preventive exposure to flavone apigenin potentiated superinduction of a regulatory transcription factor, activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), which is also known to be an integral player coordinating ER stress response-related gene expression. ATF3 superinduction was due to increased turnover of ATF3 transcript via stabilization with HuR protein in the cancer cells under ER stress. Moreover, enhanced ATF3 caused inhibitory action against ER stress-induced cancer chemokines that are potent mediators determining the survival and metastatic potential of epithelial cancer cells. Although enhanced ATF3 was a negative regulator of the well known proinflammatory transcription factor NF-κB, blocking of NF-κB signaling did not affect ER stress-induced chemokine expression. Instead, immediately expressed transcription factor early growth response protein 1 (EGR-1) was positively involved in cancer chemokine induction by ER stressors. ER stress-induced EGR-1 and subsequent chemokine production were repressed by ATF3. Mechanistically, ATF3 directly interacted with and recruited HDAC1 protein, which led to epigenetic suppression of EGR-1 expression and subsequent chemokine production. Conclusively, superinduced ATF3 attenuated ER stress-induced cancer chemokine expression by epigenetically interfering with induction of EGR-1, a transcriptional modulator crucial to cancer chemokine production. Thus, these results suggest a potent therapeutic intervention of ER stress response-related cancer-favoring events by ATF3.

Adhikary A, Chakraborty S, Mazumdar M, et al.
Inhibition of epithelial to mesenchymal transition by E-cadherin up-regulation via repression of slug transcription and inhibition of E-cadherin degradation: dual role of scaffold/matrix attachment region-binding protein 1 (SMAR1) in breast cancer cells.
J Biol Chem. 2014; 289(37):25431-44 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 12/09/2015 Related Publications
The evolution of the cancer cell into a metastatic entity is the major cause of death in patients with cancer. It has been acknowledged that aberrant activation of a latent embryonic program, known as the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), can endow cancer cells with the migratory and invasive capabilities associated with metastatic competence for which E-cadherin switch is a well-established hallmark. Discerning the molecular mechanisms that regulate E-cadherin expression is therefore critical for understanding tumor invasiveness and metastasis. Here we report that SMAR1 overexpression inhibits EMT and decelerates the migratory potential of breast cancer cells by up-regulating E-cadherin in a bidirectional manner. While SMAR1-dependent transcriptional repression of Slug by direct recruitment of SMAR1/HDAC1 complex to the matrix attachment region site present in the Slug promoter restores E-cadherin expression, SMAR1 also hinders E-cadherin-MDM2 interaction thereby reducing ubiquitination and degradation of E-cadherin protein. Consistently, siRNA knockdown of SMAR1 expression in these breast cancer cells results in a coordinative action of Slug-mediated repression of E-cadherin transcription, as well as degradation of E-cadherin protein through MDM2, up-regulating breast cancer cell migration. These results indicate a crucial role for SMAR1 in restraining breast cancer cell migration and suggest the candidature of this scaffold matrix-associated region-binding protein as a tumor suppressor.

Wang LT, Liou JP, Li YH, et al.
A novel class I HDAC inhibitor, MPT0G030, induces cell apoptosis and differentiation in human colorectal cancer cells via HDAC1/PKCδ and E-cadherin.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(14):5651-62 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 12/09/2015 Related Publications
Accumulation of genetic and epigenetic changes contributes to cancer development and progression. Compared with gene mutations or deletions, epigenetic changes are reversible, which alter the chromatin structure remodeling instead of changes in DNA sequence, and therefore become a promising strategy for chemotherapy. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a class of enzymes that responsible for the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. MPT0G030 is a potent and selective class I HDAC inhibitor which showed broad-spectrum cytotoxicity against various human cancer cell lines. in vitro fluorometric HDAC activity assay showed that MPT0G030 effectively inhibited Class I HDACs (HDAC1~3), which were overexpressed in many malignant neoplasms. Interestingly, MPT0G030 not only induced histone acetylation and tumor suppressor p21 transcription, but also redistributed E-cadherin and activated Protein Kinase C δ (PKCδ), which was linked to cell apoptosis and differentiation. Further, activation of PKCδ was demonstrated to be modulated through HDAC1. The in vivo anticancer activity of MPT0G030 and the importance of PKCδ were confirmed in the HT-29 tumor xenograft models. Taken together, those results indicate that MPT0G030, a class I HDAC inhibitor, has great potential as a new drug candidate for cancer therapy.

Kao TH, Liao HF, Wolf D, et al.
Ectopic DNMT3L triggers assembly of a repressive complex for retroviral silencing in somatic cells.
J Virol. 2014; 88(18):10680-95 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 12/09/2015 Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Mammalian genomes are replete with retrotransposable elements, including endogenous retroviruses. DNA methyltransferase 3-like (DNMT3L) is an epigenetic regulator expressed in prospermatogonia, growing oocytes, and embryonic stem (ES) cells. Here, we demonstrate that DNMT3L enhances the interaction of repressive epigenetic modifiers, including histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1), SET domain, bifurcated 1 (SETDB1), DNA methyltransferase 3A (DNMT3A), and tripartite motif-containing protein 28 (TRIM28; also known as TIF1β and KAP1) in ES cells and orchestrates retroviral silencing activity with TRIM28 through mechanisms including, but not limited to, de novo DNA methylation. Ectopic expression of DNMT3L in somatic cells causes methylation-independent retroviral silencing activity by recruitment of the TRIM28/HDAC1/SETDB1/DNMT3A/DNMT3L complex to newly integrated Moloney murine leukemia virus (Mo-MuLV) proviral DNA. Concurrent with this recruitment, we also observed the accumulation of histone H3 lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) and heterochromatin protein 1 gamma (HP1γ), as well as reduced H3K9 and H3K27 acetylation at Mo-MuLV proviral sequences. Ectopic expression of DNMT3L in late-passage mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) recruited cytoplasmically localized HDAC1 to the nucleus. The formation of this epigenetic modifying complex requires interaction of DNMT3L with DNMT3A as well as with histone H3. In fetal testes at embryonic day 17.5, endogenous DNMT3L also enhanced the binding among TRIM28, DNMT3A, SETDB1, and HDAC1. We propose that DNMT3L may be involved in initiating a cascade of repressive epigenetic modifications by assisting in the preparation of a chromatin context that further attracts DNMT3A-DNMT3L binding and installs longer-term DNA methylation marks at newly integrated retroviruses.
IMPORTANCE: Almost half of the mammalian genome is composed of endogenous retroviruses and other retrotransposable elements that threaten genomic integrity. These elements are usually subject to epigenetic silencing. We discovered that two epigenetic regulators that lack enzymatic activity, DNA methyltransferase 3-like (DNMT3L) and tripartite motif-containing protein 28 (TRIM28), collaborate with each other to impose retroviral silencing. In addition to modulating de novo DNA methylation, we found that by interacting with TRIM28, DNMT3L can attract various enzymes to form a DNMT3L-induced repressive complex to remove active marks and add repressive marks to histone proteins. Collectively, these results reveal a novel and pivotal function of DNMT3L in shaping the chromatin modifications necessary for retroviral and retrotransposon silencing.

Feng FY, Brenner JC, Hussain M, Chinnaiyan AM
Molecular pathways: targeting ETS gene fusions in cancer.
Clin Cancer Res. 2014; 20(17):4442-8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
Rearrangements, or gene fusions, involving the ETS family of transcription factors are common driving events in both prostate cancer and Ewing sarcoma. These rearrangements result in pathogenic expression of the ETS genes and trigger activation of transcriptional programs enriched for invasion and other oncogenic features. Although ETS gene fusions represent intriguing therapeutic targets, transcription factors, such as those comprising the ETS family, have been notoriously difficult to target. Recently, preclinical studies have demonstrated an association between ETS gene fusions and components of the DNA damage response pathway, such as PARP1, the catalytic subunit of DNA protein kinase (DNAPK), and histone deactylase 1 (HDAC1), and have suggested that ETS fusions may confer sensitivity to inhibitors of these DNA repair proteins. In this review, we discuss the role of ETS fusions in cancer, the preclinical rationale for targeting ETS fusions with inhibitors of PARP1, DNAPK, and HDAC1, as well as ongoing clinical trials targeting ETS gene fusions.

Garcia-Sanz P, Quintanilla A, Lafita MC, et al.
Sin3b interacts with Myc and decreases Myc levels.
J Biol Chem. 2014; 289(32):22221-36 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
Myc expression is deregulated in many human cancers. A yeast two-hybrid screen has revealed that the transcriptional repressor Sin3b interacts with Myc protein. Endogenous Myc and Sin3b co-localize and interact in the nuclei of human and rat cells, as assessed by co-immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence, and proximity ligation assay. The interaction is Max-independent. A conserved Myc region (amino acids 186-203) is required for the interaction with Sin3 proteins. Histone deacetylase 1 is recruited to Myc-Sin3b complexes, and its deacetylase activity is required for the effects of Sin3b on Myc. Myc and Sin3a/b co-occupied many sites on the chromatin of human leukemia cells, although the presence of Sin3 was not associated with gene down-regulation. In leukemia cells and fibroblasts, Sin3b silencing led to Myc up-regulation, whereas Sin3b overexpression induced Myc deacetylation and degradation. An analysis of Sin3b expression in breast tumors revealed an association between low Sin3b expression and disease progression. The data suggest that Sin3b decreases Myc protein levels upon Myc deacetylation. As Sin3b is also required for transcriptional repression by Mxd-Max complexes, our results suggest that, at least in some cell types, Sin3b limits Myc activity through two complementary activities: Mxd-dependent gene repression and reduction of Myc levels.

Yang H, Salz T, Zajac-Kaye M, et al.
Overexpression of histone deacetylases in cancer cells is controlled by interplay of transcription factors and epigenetic modulators.
FASEB J. 2014; 28(10):4265-79 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) that deacetylate histone and nonhistone proteins play crucial roles in a variety of cellular processes. The overexpression of HDACs is reported in many cancer types and is directly linked to accelerated cell proliferation and survival. However, little is known about how HDAC expression is regulated in cancer cells. In this study, we found that HDAC1 and HDAC2 promoters are regulated through collaborative binding of transcription factors Sp1/Sp3 and epigenetic modulators, including histone H3K4 methyltransferase SET1 and histone acetyltransferase p300, whose levels are also elevated in colon cancer cell lines and patient samples. Interestingly, Sp1 and Sp3 differentially regulate HDAC1 and HDAC2 promoter activity. In addition, Sp1/Sp3 recruits SET1 and p300 to the promoters. SET1 knockdown (KD) results in a loss of the H3K4 trimethylation mark at the promoters, as well as destabilizes p300 at the promoters. Conversely, p300 also influences SET1 recruitment and H3K4me3 level, indicating a crosstalk between p300 and SET1. Further, SET1 KD reduces Sp1 binding to the HDAC1 promoter through the increase of Sp1 acetylation. These results indicate that interactions among transcription factors and epigenetic modulators orchestrate the activation of HDAC1 and HDAC2 promoter activity in colon cancer cells.

Lee SM, Lee YG, Bae JB, et al.
HBx induces hypomethylation of distal intragenic CpG islands required for active expression of developmental regulators.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014; 111(26):9555-60 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2015 Related Publications
Epigenetic alterations caused by viral oncoproteins are strong initiation factors for cancer development, but their mechanisms are largely unknown. To identify the epigenetic effects of viral hepatitis B virus X (HBx) that lead to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), we profiled the DNA methylomes of normal and HBx transgenic mouse liver. Intriguingly, severe hypomethylation of intragenic CpG islands (CGIs) was observed in HBx liver before the full development of HCC. Normally, these CGIs were highly methylated (mCGIs) by the DNMT3L complex and marked with epigenetic signatures associated with active expression, such as H3K36me3. Hypomethylation of mCGI was caused by the downregulation of Dnmt3L and Dnmt3a due to HBx bound to their promoters, along with HDAC1. These events lead to the downregulation of many developmental regulators that could facilitate tumorigenesis. Here we provide an intriguing epigenetic regulation mediated by mCGI that is required for cell differentiation and describe a previously unidentified epigenetic role for HBx in promoting HCC development.

Wang J, Elahi A, Ajidahun A, et al.
The interplay between histone deacetylases and c-Myc in the transcriptional suppression of HPP1 in colon cancer.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2014; 15(9):1198-207 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
HPP1 (hyperplastic polyposis protein 1), a tumor suppressor gene, is downregulated by promoter hypermethylation in a number of tumor types including colon cancer. c-Myc is also known to play a role in the suppression of HPP1 expression via binding to a promoter region cognate E-box site. The contribution of histone deacetylation as an additional epigenetic mechanism and its potential interplay with c-Myc in the transcriptional regulation of HPP1 are unknown. We have shown that the treatment of the HPP1-non-expressing colon cancer cell lines, HCT116 and DLD-1 with HDAC inhibitors results in re-expression of HPP1. RNAi-mediated knockdown of c-Myc as well as of HDAC2 and HDAC3 in HCT116 and of HDAC1 and HDAC3 in DLD-1 also resulted in significant re-expression of HPP1. Co-immunoprecipitation (IP), chromatin IP (ChIP), and sequential ChIP experiments demonstrated binding of c-Myc to the HPP1 promoter with recruitment of and direct interaction with HDAC3. In summary, we have demonstrated that c-Myc contributes to the epigenetic regulation of HPP1 via the dominant recruitment of HDAC3. Our findings may lead to a greater biologic understanding for the application of targeted use of HDAC inhibitors for anti-cancer therapy.

Laugesen A, Helin K
Chromatin repressive complexes in stem cells, development, and cancer.
Cell Stem Cell. 2014; 14(6):735-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
The chromatin environment is essential for the correct specification and preservation of cell identity through modulation and maintenance of transcription patterns. Many chromatin regulators are required for development, stem cell maintenance, and differentiation. Here, we review the roles of the polycomb repressive complexes, PRC1 and PRC2, and the HDAC1- and HDAC2-containing complexes, NuRD, Sin3, and CoREST, in stem cells, development, and cancer, as well as the ongoing efforts to develop therapies targeting these complexes in human cancer. Furthermore, we discuss the role of repressive complexes in modulating thresholds for gene activation and their importance for specification and maintenance of cell fate.

Xiong G, Xu R
RORα binds to E2F1 to inhibit cell proliferation and regulate mammary gland branching morphogenesis.
Mol Cell Biol. 2014; 34(16):3066-75 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
Retinoic acid receptor-related orphan nuclear receptor alpha (RORα) is a potent tumor suppressor that reduces cell proliferation and inhibits tumor growth. However, the molecular mechanism by which it inhibits cell proliferation remains unknown. We demonstrate a noncanonical nuclear receptor pathway in which RORα binds to E2F1 to inhibit cell cycle progression. We showed that RORα bound to the heptad repeat and marked box region of E2F1 and suppressed E2F1-regulated transcription in epithelial cells. Binding of RORα inhibited E2F1 acetylation and its DNA-binding activity by recruiting histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) to the protein complexes. Knockdown of HDAC1 or inhibition of HDAC activity at least partially rescued transcription factor activity of E2F1 that was repressed by RORα. Importantly, RORα levels were increased in mammary ducts compared to terminal end buds and inversely correlated with expression of E2F1 target genes and cell proliferation. Silencing RORα in mammary epithelial cells significantly enhanced cell proliferation in the ductal epithelial cells and promoted side branching of the mammary ducts. These results reveal a novel link between RORα and E2F1 in regulating cell cycle progression and mammary tissue morphogenesis.

Dragoi AM, Swiss R, Gao B, Agaisse H
Novel strategies to enforce an epithelial phenotype in mesenchymal cells.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(14):3659-72 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
E-cadherin downregulation in cancer cells is associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastatic prowess, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely characterized. In this study, we probed E-cadherin expression at the plasma membrane as a functional assay to identify genes involved in E-cadherin downregulation. The assay was based on the E-cadherin-dependent invasion properties of the intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. On the basis of a functional readout, automated microscopy and computer-assisted image analysis were used to screen siRNAs targeting 7,000 human genes. The validity of the screen was supported by its definition of several known regulators of E-cadherin expression, including ZEB1, HDAC1, and MMP14. We identified three new regulators (FLASH, CASP7, and PCGF1), the silencing of which was sufficient to restore high levels of E-cadherin transcription. In addition, we identified two new regulators (FBXL5 and CAV2), the silencing of which was sufficient to increase E-cadherin expression at a posttranscriptional level. FLASH silencing regulated the expression of E-cadherin and other ZEB1-dependent genes, through posttranscriptional regulation of ZEB1, but it also regulated the expression of numerous ZEB1-independent genes with functions predicted to contribute to a restoration of the epithelial phenotype. Finally, we also report the identification of siRNA duplexes that potently restored the epithelial phenotype by mimicking the activity of known and putative microRNAs. Our findings suggest new ways to enforce epithelial phenotypes as a general strategy to treat cancer by blocking invasive and metastatic phenotypes associated with EMT.

Chen DQ, Pan BZ, Huang JY, et al.
HDAC 1/4-mediated silencing of microRNA-200b promotes chemoresistance in human lung adenocarcinoma cells.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(10):3333-49 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
Chemoresistance is one of the most significant obstacles in lung adenocarcinoma (LAD) treatment, and this process involves genetic and epigenetic dysregulation of chemoresistance-related genes. Previously, we have shown that restoration of microRNA (miR)-200b significantly reverses chemoresistance of human LAD cells by targeting E2F3. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the silencing of miR-200b are still unclear. Here we showed that histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors could restore the expression of miR-200b and reverse chemoresistant phenotypes of docetaxel-resistant LAD cells. HDAC1/4 repression significantly increased miR-200b expression by upregulating histone-H3 acetylation level at the two miR-200b promoters partially via a Sp1-dependent pathway. Furthermore, silencing of HDAC1/4 suppressed cell proliferation, promoted cell apoptosis, induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and ultimately reversed in vitro and in vivo chemoresistance of docetaxel-resistant LAD cells, at least partially in a miR-200b-dependent manner. HDAC1/4 suppression-induced rescue of miR-200b contributed to downregulation of E2F3, survivin and Aurora-A, and upregulation of cleaved-caspase-3. HDAC1/4 levels in docetaxel-insensitive human LAD tissues, inversely correlated with miR-200b, were upregulated compared with docetaxel-sensitive tissues. Taken together, our findings suggest that the HDAC1/4/Sp1/miR-200b/E2F3 pathway is responsible for chemoresistance of docetaxel-resistant LAD cells.

Chernet BT, Levin M
Transmembrane voltage potential of somatic cells controls oncogene-mediated tumorigenesis at long-range.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(10):3287-306 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
The microenvironment is increasingly recognized as a crucial aspect of cancer. In contrast and complement to the field's focus on biochemical factors and extracellular matrix, we characterize a novel aspect of host:tumor interaction - endogenous bioelectric signals among non-excitable somatic cells. Extending prior work focused on the bioelectric state of cancer cells themselves, we show for the first time that the resting potentials of distant cells are critical for oncogene-dependent tumorigenesis. In the Xenopus laevis tadpole model, we used human oncogenes such as mutant KRAS to drive formation of tumor-like structures that exhibited overproliferation, increased nuclear size, hypoxia, acidity, and leukocyte attraction. Remarkably, misexpression of hyperpolarizing ion channels at distant sites within the tadpole significantly reduced the incidence of these tumors. The suppression of tumorigenesis could also be achieved by hyperpolarization using native CLIC1 chloride channels, suggesting a treatment modality not requiring gene therapy. Using a dominant negative approach, we implicate HDAC1 as the mechanism by which resting potential changes affect downstream cell behaviors. Based on published data on the voltage-mediated changes of butyrate flux through the SLC5A8 transporter, we present a model linking resting potentials of host cells to the ability of oncogenes to initiate tumorigenesis. Antibiotic data suggest that the relevant butyrate is generated by a native bacterial species, identifying a novel link between the microbiome and cancer that is mediated by alterations in bioelectric signaling.

O'Neill DJ, Williamson SC, Alkharaif D, et al.
SETD6 controls the expression of estrogen-responsive genes and proliferation of breast carcinoma cells.
Epigenetics. 2014; 9(7):942-50 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
The lysine methyltransferase SETD6 modifies the histone variant H2AZ, a key component of nuclear receptor-dependent transcription. Herein, we report the identification of several factors that associate with SETD6 and are implicated in nuclear hormone receptor signaling. Specifically, SETD6 associates with the estrogen receptor α (ERα), histone deacetylase HDAC1, metastasis protein MTA2, and the transcriptional co-activator TRRAP. Luciferase reporter assays identify SETD6 as a transcriptional repressor, in agreement with its association with HDAC1 and MTA2. However, SETD6 behaves as a co-activator of several estrogen-responsive genes, such as PGR and TFF1. Consistent with these results, silencing of SETD6 in several breast carcinoma cell lines induced cellular proliferation defects accompanied by enhanced expression of the cell cycle inhibitor CDKN1A and induction of apoptosis. Herein, we have identified several chromatin proteins that associate with SETD6 and described SETD6 as an essential factor for nuclear receptor signaling and cellular proliferation.

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