Research IndicatorsGraph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (5)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: IL4R (cancer-related)
Inflammatory gene polymorphisms may be associated with glioma risk. The purpose of this study was to analyze effects of certain inflammatory gene and some clinical factors on patient survival.The clinical information of 269 glioma patients conceived operation from September 2010 to May 2014 to decide the 1-, 3-year survival rates according to follow-up results and analyze age, gender, the WHO classification, extent of surgical resection, radiotherapy and chemotherapy factors effects on prognosis. Survival distributions were estimated by using the Kaplan-Meier method and difference in the survival was tested using the log-rank test. To estimate the association between the IL4, IL13, IL10, IL4R SNPs, and PFS and OS in glioma, the HR and 95% CI were calculated by univariate Cox proportional hazards model. Multivariate Cox model were performed to compute adjusted HR and 95% CI. All data was analyzed with SPSS17.0 package. Extent of surgical resection, chemotherapy, and age are an important factor in glioma overall survival and progression-free survival overall. Extent of surgery and chemotherapy are important factors in astrocytoma overall survival. Univariate analysis showed that IL4R rs1801275 was significantly associated with overall survival of glioma and astrocytoma patients (P < 0.05). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that IL4R rs1801275 GG genotype could increase the death risk of glioma and astrocytoma patients (Glioma: hazard ratio [HR]: 4.897, 95% confidence limits [95% CI]: 1.962-12.222, P = 0.001; Astrocytoma: HR: 15.944, 95% CI: 4.019-63.253, P < 0.05).Our research results showed that extent of surgical resection, age, and chemotherapy affect the prognosis of glioma. The IL4R gene may affect the survival of glioma patients.
Joshi BH, Suzuki A, Fujisawa T, et al.Identification, characterization, and targeting of IL-4 receptor by IL-4-Pseudomonas exotoxin in mouse models of anaplastic thyroid cancer.
Discov Med. 2015; 20(111):273-84 [PubMed
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Thyroid cancer is a rapidly increasing endocrine cancer. Since interleukin-4 receptor (IL-4R) is overexpressed in human solid cancer, we examined expression of IL-4R in 50 cases of anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC), 37 well-differentiated papillary cancer (WDPC), 35 well-differentiated follicular cancer of thyroid (WDFC), and 37 normal thyroid specimens by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and in-situ hybridization (ISH) techniques. We demonstrated that IL-4Rα was overexpressed in 36/50 (72%) ATC, 20/35 (57%) WDFC, and 11/37 (30%) WDPC tumors. Other two subunits of IL-4R, interleukin-13 receptor α1 (IL-13Rα1) and interleukin-2 receptor gamma (IL-2RγC), were either weakly expressed or absent. As ATC is a highly aggressive cancer with higher incidence of IL-4Rα expression, we characterized IL-4R in 3 ATC cell lines. RT-qPCR and IFA results showed that IL-4Rα is overexpressed while IL-13Rα1 is weakly expressed. Control human umbilical vein endothelial cell line (HUVEC) showed weak expression of IL-4Rα. Binding and competition studies with 125I-IL-4 in ATC cell lines demonstrated that IL-4 specifically bound to IL-4Rα on cell surface. ATC cell lines were highly sensitive to a chimeric fusion cytotoxin consisting of circularly permuted IL-4 and truncated Pseudomonas exotoxin (IL-4-PE), which killed them in a concentration dependent manner. IL-4-PE also blocked colony formation of ATC cell lines in clonogenic assays. IL-4-PE mediated a significant antitumor activity in mouse models of ATC. Intratumoral administration of IL-4-PE caused significant regression of established tumors in a dose dependent manner and increased the overall survival without any visible toxicity. Thus, IL-4Rα in ATC may represent a novel therapeutic target and IL-4-PE may serve as an investigational therapeutic option for ATC.
BACKGROUND: Malignant B-cell clones are affected by both acquired genetic alterations and by inherited genetic variations changing the inflammatory tumour microenvironment.
METHODS: We investigated 50 inflammatory response gene polymorphisms in 355 B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (B-NHL) samples encompassing 216 diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and 139 follicular lymphoma (FL) and 307 controls. The effect of single genes and haplotypes were investigated and gene-expression analysis was applied for selected genes. Since interaction between risk genes can have a large impact on phenotype, two-way gene-gene interaction analysis was included.
RESULTS: We found inherited SNPs in genes critical for inflammatory pathways; TLR9, IL4, TAP2, IL2RA, FCGR2A, TNFA, IL10RB, GALNT12, IL12A and IL1B were significantly associated with disease risk and SELE, IL1RN, TNFA, TAP2, MBL2, IL5, CX3CR1, CHI3L1 and IL12A were, associated with overall survival (OS) in specific diagnostic entities of B-NHL. We discovered noteworthy interactions between DLBCL risk alleles on IL10 and IL4RA and FL risk alleles on IL4RA and IL4. In relation to OS, a highly significant interaction was observed in DLBCL for IL4RA (rs1805010) * IL10 (rs1800890) (HR = 0.11 (0.02-0.50)). Finally, we explored the expression of risk genes from the gene-gene interaction analysis in normal B-cell subtypes showing a different expression of IL4RA, IL10, IL10RB genes supporting a pathogenetic effect of these interactions in the germinal center.
CONCLUSIONS: The present findings support the importance of inflammatory genes in B-cell lymphomas. We found association between polymorphic sites in inflammatory response genes and risk as well as outcome in B-NHL and suggest an effect of gene-gene interactions during the stepwise oncogenesis.
Sousa H, Mesquita L, Ribeiro J, et al.Polymorphisms in host immune response associated genes and risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma development in Portugal.
Immunobiology. 2016; 221(2):145-52 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: Host genetic susceptibility markers in immune response associated genes may contribute to identify individuals with high risk of developing viral infection and viral-associated cancers. We aimed to characterize different polymorphisms in immune response associated genes and evaluate its association with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) development.
METHODS: We have developed a hospital-based case-control study selecting 134 patients with NPC (cases) and 732 healthy individuals (controls) from the Northern Region of Portugal. Eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were selected: -56C>T IFNGR1 (rs2234711), +4854G>T IL1A (rs17561), +3954C>T IL1B (rs1143634), +1902A>G IL4RA (rs1801275), -1082G>A IL10 (rs1800896), +2018T>C IL1RN (rs419598), HLA-A locus A>T (rs2530388), HCGA9 locus A>T (rs6457110). All polymorphisms were analysed by real-time methodology using TaqMan(®) SNP Genotyping Assays.
RESULTS: The overall analysis revealed no statistical significant differences between genotypes distributions in all of studied polymorphisms (p>0.05). However, the results for HCGA9 rs6457110 polymorphism showed a tendency for an increased risk of NPC development among TT carriers with an almost of 2-fold increased risk (OR=1.86; 95%CI 1.00-3.65).
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to characterize these polymorphisms in NPC patients in Portugal. Our study indicates that HCGA9 rs6457110 polymorphism might represent a risk marker for NPC development in our population and that other SNPs should be further studied in larger populations to clarify the evidences. This data reinforces the need for more studies, especially in NPC low-prevalent populations.
Suzuki A, Leland P, Joshi BH, Puri RKTargeting of IL-4 and IL-13 receptors for cancer therapy.
Cytokine. 2015; 75(1):79-88 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The Th2 cytokines, interleukin (IL)-4 and -13, are structurally and functionally related. They regulate immune responses and the immune microenvironment, not only under normal physiological conditions, but also in cancer. Both cytokines bind to their high-affinity receptors and form various configurations of receptor subtypes. We and others have reported that IL-4 and IL-13 bind to IL-4Rα and IL-13Rα1 chains, forming functional receptors in cancer cells. IL-13 also binds with high affinity to a private chain IL-13Rα2. After forming ligand-receptor complexes, both cytokines initiate signal transduction and mediate biological effects, such as tumor proliferation, cell survival, cell adhesion and metastasis. In certain cancers, the presence of these cytokine receptors may serve as biomarkers of cancer aggressiveness. In a series of studies, we reported that overexpression of IL-4 and IL-13 receptors on cancer cells provides targets for therapeutic agents for cancer therapy. In addition, both of these cytokines and their receptors have been shown to play important roles in modulating the immune system for tumor growth. IL-4, IL-13 and their receptors seem to play a role in cancer stem cells and provide unique targets to eradicate these cells. In this review article, we summarize some of the important attributes of IL-4 and IL-13 receptors in cancer biology and discuss pre-clinical and clinical studies pertaining to recombinant immunotoxins designed to target these receptors.
Previously, we have demonstrated that interleukin-4 receptor α (IL-4Rα) is overexpressed on a variety of human cancers and can serve as target for IL-4 immunotoxin comprised of IL-4 and a mutated Pseudomonas exotoxin. However, its expression and association with grade and clinical stage of bladder cancer has not been studied. IL-4Rα expression was examined in human bladder cancer cell lines, mouse xenografts, and biopsy specimens at mRNA and protein levels by real-time RT-PCR and IHC/ISH techniques. We also examined the effect of IL-4 on proliferation and invasion of bladder carcinoma cell lines. For tissue microarray (TMA) results, we analyzed the precision data using exact binomial proportion with exact two-sided P-values. We used Cochran-Armitage Statistics with exact two-sided P-values to examine the trend analysis of IL-4Rα over grade or stage of the bladder cancer specimens. The influence of age and gender covariates was also analyzed using multiple logistic regression models. IL-4Rα is overexpressed in five bladder cancer cell lines, while normal bladder and human umbilical vein cell lines (HUVEC) expressed at low levels. Two other chains of IL-4 receptor complex, IL-2RγC and IL-13Rα1, were absent or weakly expressed. IL-4 modestly inhibited the cell proliferation, but enhanced cell invasion of bladder cancer cell lines in a concentration-dependent manner. Bladder cancer xenografts in immunodeficient mice also maintained IL-4Rα overexpression in vivo. Analysis of tumor biopsy specimens in TMAs revealed significantly higher IL-4Rα immunostaining (≥ 2+) in Grade 2 (85%) and Grade 3 (97%) compared to Grade 1 tumors (0%) (P ≤ 0.0001). Similarly, 9% stage I tumors were positive for IL-4Rα (≥ 2+) compared to 84% stage II (P ≤ 0.0001) and 100% stages III-IV tumors (P ≤ 0.0001). IL-13Rα1 was also expressed in tumor tissues but at low levels and it did not show any correlation with the grade and stage of disease. However, the IL-2RγC was not expressed. Ten normal bladder specimens demonstrated ≤ 1+ staining for IL-4Rα and IL-13Rα1 and no staining for IL-2RγC. These results demonstrate that IL-4Rα is overexpressed in human bladder cancer, which correlates with advanced grade and stage of the disease. Thus, IL-4Rα may be a bladder tumor-associated protein and a prognostic biomarker.
Krebs S, Chow KK, Yi Z, et al.T cells redirected to interleukin-13Rα2 with interleukin-13 mutein--chimeric antigen receptors have anti-glioma activity but also recognize interleukin-13Rα1.
Cytotherapy. 2014; 16(8):1121-31 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND AIMS: Outcomes for patients with glioblastoma remain poor despite aggressive multimodal therapy. Immunotherapy with genetically modified T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) targeting interleukin (IL) 13Rα2, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, epidermal growth factor variant III or erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular carcinoma A2 has shown promise for the treatment of glioma in preclinical models. On the basis of IL13Rα2 immunotoxins that contain IL13 molecules with one or two amino acid substitutions (IL13 muteins) to confer specificity to IL13Rα2, investigators have constructed CARS with IL13 muteins as antigen-binding domains. Whereas the specificity of IL13 muteins in the context of immunotoxins is well characterized, limited information is available for CAR T cells.
METHODS: We constructed four second-generation CARs with IL13 muteins with one or two amino acid substitutions, and evaluated the effector function of IL13-mutein CAR T cells in vitro and in vivo.
RESULTS: T cells expressing all four CARs recognized IL13Rα1 or IL13Rα2 recombinant protein in contrast to control protein (IL4R) as judged by interferon-γ production. IL13 protein produced significantly more IL2, indicating that IL13 mutein-CAR T cells have a higher affinity to IL13Rα2 than to IL13Rα1. In cytotoxicity assays, CAR T cells killed IL13Rα1- and/or IL13Rα2-positive cells in contrast to IL13Rα1- and IL13Rα2-negative controls. Although we observed no significant differences between IL13 mutein-CAR T cells in vitro, only T cells expressing IL13 mutein-CARs with an E13K amino acid substitution had anti-tumor activity in vivo that resulted in a survival advantage of treated animals.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights that the specificity/avidity of ligands is context-dependent and that evaluating CAR T cells in preclinical animal model is critical to assess their potential benefit.
Ferrer G, Bosch R, Hodgson K, et al.B cell activation through CD40 and IL4R ligation modulates the response of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia cells to BAFF and APRIL.
Br J Haematol. 2014; 164(4):570-8 [PubMed
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The two tumour necrosis factor family proteins BAFF (TNFSF13B) and APRIL (TNFSF13) and their receptors [BAFF-R (TNFRSF13C), TACI (TNFRSF13B), BCMA (TNFRSF17)] play a critical role in the survival of normal B cells. The sensitivity of normal B cells to BAFF and APRIL can be modulated by signals regulated by their receptors. This modulation, however, has not been extensively investigated in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) cells. We evaluated the expression, regulation and signalling of BAFF and APRIL receptors in normal and in CLL cells upon stimulation through CD40+IL4R and BCR. We further analysed the prognostic value of BAFF and APRIL receptors expression in patients with CLL. BCMA expression was significantly higher on CLL cells than on normal B cells. BCR and CD40+IL4R stimulation promoted an increase in TACI and BCMA expression, cell viability and activation in normal B cells. A similar effect was observed in CLL cells after CD40+IL4R but not BCR stimulation. BCMA expression correlated with unmutated IGHV genes, poor-risk cytogenetics, and short progression-free survival. These findings further characterize the link between CD40+IL4R regulatory signals, BAFF, APRIL and their receptors and the survival of leukaemic cells and clinical features of CLL.
Malignant gliomas are lethal cancers in the brain and heavily infiltrated by myeloid cells. Interleukin-4 receptor-α (IL-4Rα) mediates the immunosuppressive functions of myeloid cells, and polymorphisms in the IL-4Rα gene are associated with altered glioma risk and prognosis. In this study, we sought to evaluate a hypothesized causal role for IL-4Rα and myeloid suppressor cells in glioma development. In both mouse de novo gliomas and human glioblastoma cases, IL-4Rα was upregulated on glioma-infiltrating myeloid cells but not in the periphery or in normal brain. Mice genetically deficient for IL-4Rα exhibited a slower growth of glioma associated with reduced production in the glioma microenvironment of arginase, a marker of myeloid suppressor cells, which is critical for their T-cell inhibitory function. Supporting this result, investigations using bone marrow-derived myeloid cells showed that IL-4Rα mediates IL-13-induced production of arginase. Furthermore, glioma-derived myeloid cells suppressed T-cell proliferation in an IL-4Rα-dependent manner, consistent with their identification as myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC). Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) plays a central role for the induction of IL-4Rα expression on myeloid cells, and we found that GM-CSF is upregulated in both human and mouse glioma microenvironments compared with normal brain or peripheral blood samples. Together, our findings establish a GM-CSF-induced mechanism of immunosuppression in the glioma microenvironment via upregulation of IL-4Rα on MDSCs.
Quan L, Gong Z, Yao S, et al.Cytokine and cytokine receptor genes of the adaptive immune response are differentially associated with breast cancer risk in American women of African and European ancestry.
Int J Cancer. 2014; 134(6):1408-21 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Disparities in breast cancer biology are evident between American women of African ancestry (AA) and European ancestry (EA) and may be due, in part, to differences in immune function. To assess the potential role of constitutional host immunity on breast carcinogenesis, we tested associations between breast cancer risk and 47 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 26 cytokine-related genes of the adaptive immune system using 650 EA (n = 335 cases) and 864 AA (n = 458 cases) women from the Women's Circle of Health Study (WCHS). With additional participant accrual to the WCHS, promising SNPs from the initial analysis were evaluated in a larger sample size (1,307 EAs and 1,365 AAs). Multivariate logistic regression found SNPs in genes important for T helper type 1 (Th1) immunity (IFNGR2 rs1059293, IL15RA rs2296135, LTA rs1041981), Th2 immunity (IL4R rs1801275), and T regulatory cell-mediated immunosuppression (TGFB1 rs1800469) associated with breast cancer risk, mainly among AAs. The combined effect of these five SNPs was highly significant among AAs (P-trend = 0.0005). When stratified by estrogen receptor (ER) status, LTA rs1041981 was associated with ER-positive breast cancers among EAs and marginally among AAs. Only among AA women, IL15 rs10833 and IL15RA rs2296135 were associated with ER-positive tumors, and IL12RB1 rs375947, IL15 rs10833 and TGFB1 rs1800469 were associated with ER-negative tumors. Our study systematically identified genetic variants in the adaptive immune response pathway associated with breast cancer risk, which appears to differ by ancestry groups, menopausal status and ER status.
Although the incidence of cancer rises with age, tumor growth is often slowed in older hosts. The B16/F10 melanoma cell line is commonly used in murine models of age-related tumor growth suppression. We wished to determine if the growth pattern and gene expression of B16/10 tumors grown in aged mice could be simulated in 3D collagen matrices derived from aged mice. Outcome measures were tumor size in vitro and gene expression of the key growth regulatory molecules: growth hormone receptor (GHR), IL-10Rβ, IL-4Rα, and IL-6. B16/F10 tumors were grown in 20-25-mo-old C57/BL6 male mice. Tumor sizes ranged from 30 to 4,910 mg in vivo. Tumors from a subset of mice were removed after euthanasia, and equivalent amounts of each tumor were placed in aged 3D collagen and grown for 5 d. Tumor sizes in aged 3D collagen correlated highly with their original tumor size in vivo. Gene expression changes noted in vivo were also maintained during tumor growth in aged 3D collagen in vitro. The relative expression of GHR was increased, IL-10Rβ was unchanged, and IL-4Rα and IL-6 were decreased in the larger tumors relative to the smaller tumors in vitro, in a pattern similar to that noted in vivo. We propose that 3D matrices from aged mice provide an in vitro model of tumor growth that correlates highly with tumor size and expression of key regulatory molecules in vivo.
Seto K, Shoda J, Horibe T, et al.Interleukin-4 receptor α-based hybrid peptide effectively induces antitumor activity in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Oncol Rep. 2013; 29(6):2147-53 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Interleukin-4 receptor α (IL-4Rα) is highly expressed on the surface of various human solid tumors including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). We designed a novel IL-4Rα-lytic hybrid peptide composed of a binding peptide to IL-4Rα and a cell-lytic peptide. In the present study, we evaluated the antitumor activity of the IL-4Rα-lytic hybrid peptide as a novel molecular-targeted therapy in HNSCC. Immunoblot analysis revealed that IL-4Rα was expressed in all tested HNSCC cell lines (HSC-2, HSC-3, HSC-4, Ca9-22 and OSC-19), but not in a human normal keratinocyte (HaCaT) cell line. Immunohistochemical expression levels of IL-4Rα in HNSCC tissues were higher compared to those in normal epithelial tissue. The IL-4Rα-lytic hybrid peptide showed cytotoxic activity in all five cancer cell lines with a concentration that killed 50% of all cells (IC50) as low as 10 µM. HaCaT cells were less sensitive to this peptide with an IC50 of >30 µM. In addition, intratumoral administration of IL-4Rα-lytic hybrid peptide significantly inhibited tumor growth in a xenograft model of human HNSCC in vivo. These results indicate that the IL-4Rα-lytic hybrid peptide may serve as a potent agent to provide a novel therapy for patients with HNSCC.
Murray JL, Thompson P, Yoo SY, et al.Prognostic value of single nucleotide polymorphisms of candidate genes associated with inflammation in early stage breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2013; 138(3):917-24 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
To examine the role of germline genetic variations in inflammatory pathways as modifiers of time to recurrence (TTR) in patients with early stage breast cancer (BC), DNA from 997 early stage BC patients was genotyped for 53 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 12 genes involved in inflammation. SNPs were analyzed separately for Caucasians versus African-Americans and Hispanics. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the association between SNPs in the inflammatory genes and TTR, adjusted for clinical and pathologic covariates. In univariable analyses of Caucasian women, the homozygous genotype of 12 SNPs, including 6 NFKB1 SNPs, 4 IL4 SNPs, and 2 IL13 SNPs, were significantly associated with a decrease in TTR compared with the heterozygous and/or corresponding homozygous genotype (P < 0.05). The significant NFKB1 and IL4 SNPs were in an area of high linkage disequilibrium (D' > 0.8). After adjusting for stage, age, and treatment, carriage of the homozygous genotypes for NFKB1 rs230532 and IL13rs1800925 were independently associated with a shorter TTR (P = 0.001 and P = 0.034, respectively). In African-American and Hispanic patients, expression of NFKB1 rs3774932, TNFrs1799964, and IL4rs3024543 SNPs were associated with a shorter TTR in univariable model. Only NFKB1 rs3774932 (P = 0.02) and IL4Rrs3024543 (P = 0.03) had independent prognostic value in the multivariable model These data support the existence of host genetic susceptibility as a component in recurrence risk mediated by pro-inflammatory and immune factors, and suggest the potential for drugs which modify immune responses and inflammatory genes to improve prognosis in early stage BC.
Previous studies have shown an inverse association between allergies and glioma risk; however, results for associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of allergy-related genes and glioma risk have been inconsistent and restricted to a small number of SNPs. The objective of this study was to examine the association between 166 SNPs of 21 allergy-related genes and glioma risk in a nested case-control study of participants from three large US prospective cohort studies. Blood collection took place between 1982 and 1994 among the 562 included Caucasian participants (143 cases and 419 matched controls) prior to case diagnosis. Custom Illumina assay chips were used for genotyping. Logistic regression analyses, controlling for age and study cohort, were used to determine associations between each SNP and glioma risk. Statistically significant associations were found between rs2494262 and rs2427824 of the FCER1A gene, which encodes the alpha chain of the high affinity immunoglobulin E receptor, and glioma risk (nominal trend p values 0.01 and 0.03, respectively). Significant associations were also found between SNPs in IL10, ADAM33, NOS1 and IL4R and glioma risk. However, our analyses were not corrected for multiple comparisons and need to be interpreted with caution. Our findings with FCER1A SNPs provide further support for the link between allergies and risk of glioma.
Eto M, Kamba T, Miyake H, et al.STAT3 polymorphism can predict the response to interferon-α therapy in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma.
Eur Urol. 2013; 63(4):745-52 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: In our 2007 retrospective study, we reported that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (acute-phase response factor) (STAT3) gene were significantly associated with better response to interferon (IFN)-α in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC).
OBJECTIVE: To prospectively confirm those results, the Japan Immunotherapy SNPs-Study Group for Kidney Cancer conducted this trial.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: In this multicenter, prospective study, 203 eligible patients were enrolled. We evaluated the correlation between the antitumor effects of IFN-α and 11 SNPs (STAT3-2, STAT3-0, SOCS3-1, IL4R-34, PTGS1-3, PTGS1-4, PTGS1-5, PTGS2-12, IRF2-67, ICSBP-38, and TAP2-5) in eight genes in 180 patients who received IFN-α for >12 wk.
INTERVENTIONS: Patients were treated with three doses per week of IFN-α 5 million IU.
OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: We analyzed the association of response to IFN-α and overall survival (OS) with genetic polymorphisms using a chi-square test and a logistic regression model.
RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: The response rate of IFN-α was 13.8% (28 of 203 patients; 9 complete responses [CRs], 19 partial responses [PRs]). The CR rate of 4.4% was higher than we expected. Response to IFN-α was not associated with any of the 11 SNPs examined. However, when we assessed patients with CR, PR, and stable disease >24 wk as a group representing those with clinical response, a significant association was observed between STAT3-2 (rs1905341) and the clinical response of IFN-α (p=0.039). Namely, C/C genotype of STAT3-2 was significantly associated with the clinical response of IFN-α and OS. These results were generated in Japanese patients and should be studied in other ethnic groups.
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first prospective study demonstrating that a STAT3 polymorphism can be a predictive marker for treatment with IFN-α for patients with mRCC.
In this study, we estimated the association between the inferred haplotypes in the inflammation, DNA repair, and folate pathways, and developed risk models for Hodgkin lymphoma. The study population consisted of 200 Hodgkin lymphoma cases and 220 controls. A susceptible association was observed on the XPC gene with haplotype CT (rs2228001 and rs2228000), and a protective association was observed on the IL4R gene with haplotype TCA (rs1805012, rs1805015, and rs1801275). These results can provide the necessary tools to identify high-risk individuals after validation in large data sets.
Devapatla B, Sanders J, Samuelson DJGenetically determined inflammatory-response related cytokine and chemokine transcript profiles between mammary carcinoma resistant and susceptible rat strains.
Cytokine. 2012; 59(2):223-7 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Multiple human breast and rat mammary carcinoma susceptibility (Mcs) alleles have been identified. Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats are resistant to developing mammary carcinomas, while Wistar Furth (WF) females are susceptible. Gene transcripts at Mcs5a1, Mcs5a2, and Mcs5c are differentially expressed between resistant WKY and susceptible WF alleles in immune-system tissues. We hypothesized that immune-related gene transcript profiles are genetically determined in mammary carcinoma resistant and susceptible mammary glands. Low-density QPCR arrays were used to compare inflammation related genes between mammary carcinoma resistant WKY and susceptible WF females. Mammary gland gene transcript levels predicted to be different based on arrays were tested in independent samples. In total, 20 females per strain were exposed to 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) to induce mammary carcinogenesis. Twelve age-matched controls per strain without DMBA were included to determine main effects of DMBA-exposure. Significant (ANOVA P ≤ 0.01) effects of strain on mammary gland transcript level were observed for Cx3cl1, Il11ra, Il4, C3, Ccl20, Ccl11, Itgb2, Cxcl12, and Cxcr7. Significant effects of DMBA-exposure were observed for Cx3cl1, Il11ra, Cxcr4, Il4ra, and Il4. Strain and DMBA-exposure interaction effects were significant for Cx3cl1. Transcript levels of Cxcr7 relative to Cxcr4 were modified differently by DMBA in mammary carcinoma resistant and susceptible strains. In conclusion, several genetically-determined differences in cytokine, chemokine, and receptor gene transcript levels were identified between mammary carcinoma susceptible and resistant mammary glands, which may be indicative of cell populations and activities that suppress mammary carcinogenesis in resistant genotypes.
Ley S, Weigert A, Hériché JK, et al.RNAi screen in apoptotic cancer cell-stimulated human macrophages reveals co-regulation of IL-6/IL-10 expression.
Immunobiology. 2013; 218(1):40-51 [PubMed
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Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) are a major supportive component within neoplasms and are characterized by a plethora of functions that facilitate tumor outgrowth. Mechanisms of macrophage attraction and differentiation to a tumor-promoting phenotype, defined among others by distinct cytokine patterns such as pronounced interleukin (IL-10) production, are ill-defined. We aimed to identify signaling pathways that contribute to the generation of TAM-like macrophages using an adenoviral RNAi-based approach. Primary human monocyte-derived macrophages were stimulated with apoptotic tumor cell supernatants (ACM) to induce a TAM-like phenotype, characterized by secretion of IL-10, IL-6, IL-8 but repression of IL-12. For the high-throughput screen, macrophages were transduced with 8495 constructs of the adenoviral shRNA SilenceSelect(®) library of Galapagos BV, which aims at identifying druggable targets. We identified 96 genes involved in IL-10 production in response to ACM and observed a pronounced cluster of targets regulating both IL-10 and IL-6. Validation of five targets within the IL-10/IL-6 cluster was performed using siRNA or pharmacological inhibitors in human primary macrophages. Among those, interleukin 4 receptor-α and cannabinoid receptor 2 were confirmed as regulators of IL-10 and IL-6 secretion by ACM-stimulated macrophages. Our approach characterizes cellular functions of transfection-resistant, highly plastic and versatile cells and identifies novel targets involved in the generation of a TAM-like phenotype in human macrophages.
Li S, Jin T, Zhang J, et al.Polymorphisms of TREH, IL4R and CCDC26 genes associated with risk of glioma.
Cancer Epidemiol. 2012; 36(3):283-7 [PubMed
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INTRODUCTION: Glioma is one of the most aggressive human tumors; however, little is known about its genetic risk factors. The role of heredity is likely to be explained by combinations of common low-risk variants. Previous studies have indicated that more than 100 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with the risk of glioma.
METHODS: To further investigate how and to what extent these SNPs contribute to glioma susceptibility in a Chinese population, we analyzed 43 SNPs of 226 glioma patients and 254 normal people in order to evaluate the associations between SNPs and the risk of glioma.
RESULTS: Overall, we found three protective alleles for glioma in patients: the allele "G" of rs1801275 in the IL4R gene by allele model (odds ratio [OR], 0.71; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.50-0.99; P=0.04) and dominant model (OR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.46-0.99; P=0.04) analysis respectively, the allele "T" of rs17748 in the TREH gene by recessive model (OR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.23-1.01; P=0.05) analysis, and the allele "G" of rs6470745 in CCDC26 gene by recessive model (OR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.26-0.89; P=0.02) analysis.
CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence for three glioma susceptibility genes - TREH, IL4R and CCDC26 - in a Chinese population; this may shed light on molecular markers of glioma susceptibility and could therefore be used as a diagnostic and prognostic marker for glioma patients in clinical study.
Chu H, Wang M, Yan F, et al.Polymorphisms in the IL-13 and IL-4R genes are associated with the development of renal cell carcinoma.
Ann Oncol. 2012; 23(8):2114-21 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cytokines are the important modulators that bind to their relevant receptors in response to some stimuli to mediate the homeostasis. It has been suggested that the imbalance of immune system of the host might affect the generation of diseases, including cancers.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We investigated the association between six functional polymorphisms of IL-4, IL-13, and IL-4R genes and susceptibility to renal cell cancer in a hospital-based study, including 620 renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients and 623 controls. Logistic regression model was used to assess the genetic effects on the development of RCC.
RESULTS: Overall, individuals with IL-4R Ile50Val CT/TT genotypes had a 0.34-fold significantly decreased RCC risk (CT/TT versus CC), and the T variant allele was associated with a decreased risk of RCC in a dose-response manner (Ptrend=0.009). In addition, we also observed that IL-13 C-1055T and Arg130Gln polymorphisms could decrease the risk of RCC [TT versus
CC/CT: odds ratio=0.36, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.16-0.78; AA versus GG/GA: 0.66, 0.44-0.97, respectively]. Furthermore, a multiplicative interaction association between the combined IL-4R Ile50Val and IL-13 C-1055T genotypes was observed to decrease the risk of RCC (P=0.036).
CONCLUSION: IL-13 and IL-4R may play an important role in the etiology of RCC.
Chu H, Ma L, Wang M, et al.The polymorphisms of IL-4, IL-4R and IL-13 genes and bladder cancer risk in a Chinese population: a case-control study.
Mol Biol Rep. 2012; 39(5):5349-57 [PubMed
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Accumulating evidence suggests that inflammatory process may play a role in bladder carcinogenesis. However, the exact mechanisms of how the inflammatory factors associate with bladder cancer risk are still unknown. In this study, we explored whether polymorphisms (i.e. IL-4 C-590T, IL-4R Ile50Val, IL-4R Ser478Pro, IL-4R Gln551Arg, IL-13 C-1055T and IL-13 Arg130Gln) of IL-4, IL-4R and IL-13 genes predicted Chinese bladder cancer risk in 817 bladder cancer and 1,141 controls. Genotyping was performed by using the TaqMan method. We did not find any overall association between these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and bladder cancer susceptibility in a Chinese population. However, in the classification and regression tree (CART) analysis, we found that carriers of IL-13 C-1055T variant genotype in smokers had a 2.57-fold increased bladder cancer risk with a 55% patient rate (OR = 2.57; 95% CI = 1.93-3.43), comparing with non-smokers. Similar result was also observed in combination of IL-13 C-1055T and IL-13 Arg130Gln in smokers. By multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) analysis, the best interaction model was the two-factor model that smokers with the IL-13 C-1055T genotypes were the subgroup to predict bladder cancer risk. The results suggested that the genetic variants in IL-4, IL-4R and IL-13 genes might modulate the bladder cancer risk in a Chinese population.
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs can play an important role in tumorigenesis through post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression, and are not well characterized in follicular lymphoma.
DESIGN AND METHODS: MicroRNA profiles of enriched follicular lymphoma tumor cells from 16 patients were generated by assaying 851 human microRNAs. Tandem gene expression profiles were obtained for predicting microRNA targets.
RESULTS: The expression of 133 microRNAs was significantly different (> 2-fold; P<0.05) between follicular lymphoma and follicular hyperplasia. Forty-four microRNAs in three groups generated a unique follicular lymphoma signature. Of these, ten microRNAs were increased (miR-193a-5p, -193b*, -345, -513b, -574-3p, -584, -663, -1287, -1295, and -1471), 11 microRNAs were decreased (miR-17*, -30a, -33a, -106a*, -141, -202, -205, -222, -301b, -431*, and -570), and 23 microRNAs formed a group that was increased in most cases of follicular lymphoma but showed lower expression in a subset of cases (let-7a, let-7f, miR-7-1*, -9, -9*, -20a, -20b, -30b, -96, -98, -194, -195, -221*, -374a, -374b, -451, -454, -502-3p, -532-3p, -664*, -1274a, -1274b, and -1260). Higher expression of this last group was associated with improved response to chemotherapy. Gene expression analysis revealed increased expression of MAPK1, AKT1, PRKCE, IL4R and DROSHA and decreased expression of CDKN1A/p21, SOCS2, CHEK1, RAD51, KLF4, BLIMP1 and IRF4 in follicular lymphoma. Functional studies indicated that CDKN1A/p21 and SOCS2 expression is directly regulated by miR-20a/-20b and miR-194, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Follicular lymphoma is characterized by a unique microRNA signature, containing a subset of microRNAs whose expression correlate with response to chemotherapy. miR-20a/b and miR-194 target CDKN1A and SOCS2 in follicular lymphoma, potentially contributing to tumor cell proliferation and survival.
A milieu of cytokines and signaling molecules are involved in the induction of UV-induced immune suppression and thus the etiology of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). Targeting the UV-induced immunosuppression pathway, and using a large population based study of NMSC, we have investigated the risk associated with functional variants in 10 genes (IL10, IL4, IL4R, TNF, TNFR2, HTR2A, HRH2, IL12B, PTGS2, and HAL). The most prominent single genetic effect was observed for IL10. There was increasing risk for both basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) with increasing number of variant IL10 haplotypes (BCC: p(trend) = 0.0048; SCC: p(trend) = 0.031). Having two IL10 GC haplotypes was associated with increased odds ratios of BCC and SCC (OR(BCC) = 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-1.9; OR(SCC) = 1.4, 95% CI 1.0-1.9), and these associations were largely confined to women (OR(BCC) = 2.2, 95% CI 1.4-3.4; SCC: OR(SCC) = 1.8, 95% CI 1.1-3.0). To examine how combinations of these variants contribute to risk of BCC and SCC, we used multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) and classification and regression trees (CART). Results from both of these methods found that in men, a combination of skin type, burns, IL10, IL4R, and possibly TNFR2 were important in both BCC and SCC. In women, skin type, burns, and IL10 were the most critical risk factors in SCC, with risk of BCC involving these same factors plus genetic variants in HTR2A, IL12B and IL4R. These data suggest differential genetic susceptibility to UV-induced immune suppression and skin cancer risk by gender.
Ruan Z, Zhao Y, Yan L, et al.Single nucleotide polymorphisms in IL-4Ra, IL-13 and STAT6 genes occurs in brain glioma.
Front Biosci (Elite Ed). 2011; 3:33-45 [PubMed
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Gliomas are aggressive brain tumor. Association studies were consistent for an inverse association between asthma and allergic conditions (IgE levels) and risk of glioma. Studies reported that the IL-4Ra, IL-13 and STAT6 genes played a relatively strong role in IgE production or allergy. This population-based case-control study aimed to find potential association between single nucleotide polymorphisms IL-13rs20541, IL-4Rars1801275 and glioma susceptibility in population, as well as STAT6 rs1059513 and STAT6 rs324015. Among non-smokers, homozygote GG of STAT6 4610A/G showed an increased association with risk of glioma compared with AA (adjusted OR=1.691, 95%CI=1.152-2.481, p=0.007, corrected p=0.028), and the haplotype with A allele at rs1059513 and G allele at rs324015 was revealed to increase glioma risk significantly (OR=1.321,95%CI= 1.081-1.614, p=0.007,corrected p=0.028). GG genotype of STAT6 4610A/G was a significant risk factor compared with AA in glioblastoma (adjusted OR=1.856, 95%CI=1.153-2.987, p=0.011, corrected p=0.044). GG of STAT6 4610A/G was significantly related to increased WHO IV risk compared with AA (adjusted OR=1.591,95%CI=1.030-2.459, p=0.036, corrected p=0.144). Interaction between IL-13 Arg130Gln and IL-4Ra Gln576Arg was observed in decreasing glioma risk (p=0.045).
Johnson LG, Schwartz SM, Malkki M, et al.Risk of cervical cancer associated with allergies and polymorphisms in genes in the chromosome 5 cytokine cluster.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011; 20(1):199-207 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus is the acknowledged cause of cervical cancer. We hypothesized that allergies, characterized by hyperimmune reaction to common allergens and which have been associated with various cancers, may be related to cervical cancer, and that genetic variation in cytokine genes related to allergies might impact cervical cancer risk.
METHODS: We investigated the risk of invasive squamous cell cervical cancer (SCC) associated with self-reported allergies and with variation in allergy-related cytokine genes using data from a case-control study (561 cases, 1,258 controls) conducted in Washington State. Logistic regression models yielded odds ratios (OR) and 95% CI.
RESULTS: Pollen allergy, the most commonly reported allergy, was associated with reduced SCC risk (OR: 0.6; 95% CI: 0.5-0.8). Of 60 tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms covering eight genes (CSF2, IL3, IL4, IL13, CSF2RB, IL4R, IL13RA1, IL13RA2), several were related to pollen allergies among controls: IL4R rs3024647 (dominant OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.0-2.3; P = 0.04), CSF2RB rs16997517 (dominant OR: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.0-4.7; P = 0.04), and IL13 rs1800925 (per-allele OR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.3-2.4; P = 0.0007). Two variants were inversely associated with SCC risk: IL4R rs3024656 (per-allele OR: 0.8; 95% CI: 0.6-1.0; P = 0.03) and CSF2RB rs16997517 (dominant OR: 0.4; 95% CI: 0.2-0.9; P = 0.04).
CONCLUSIONS: Pollen allergies were related to reduced SCC risk. CSF2RB rs16997517 was directly related to pollen allergies in controls and to reduced SCC risk.
IMPACT: If other studies confirm these results, the mechanism behind allergy-associated immune response associated with SCC risk may be worth exploring in the context of therapeutic or prophylactic vaccines.
Restricting the cytotoxicity of anticancer agents by targeting receptors exclusively expressed on tumor cells is critical when treating infiltrative brain tumors such as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). GBMs express an IL-13 receptor (IL13Rα2) that differs from the physiological IL4R/IL13R receptor. We developed a regulatable adenoviral vector (Ad.mhIL-4.TRE.mhIL-13-PE) encoding a mutated human IL-13 fused to Pseudomonas exotoxin (mhIL-13-PE) that specifically binds to IL13Rα2 to provide sustained expression, effective anti-GBM cytotoxicity, and minimal neurotoxicity. The therapeutic Ad also encodes mutated human IL-4 that binds to the physiological IL4R/IL13R without interacting with IL13Rα2, thus inhibiting potential binding of mhIL-13-PE to normal brain cells. Using intracranial GBM xenografts and syngeneic mouse models, we tested the Ad.mhIL-4.TRE.mhIL-13-PE and two protein formulations, hIL-13-PE used in clinical trials (Cintredekin Besudotox) and a second-generation mhIL-13-PE. Cintredekin Besudotox doubled median survival without eliciting long-term survival and caused severe neurotoxicity; mhIL-13-PE led to ∼40% long-term survival, eliciting severe neurological toxicity at the high dose tested. In contrast, Ad-mediated delivery of mhIL-13-PE led to tumor regression and long-term survival in over 70% of the animals, without causing apparent neurotoxicity. Although Cintredekin Besudotox was originally developed to target GBM, when tested in a phase III trial it failed to achieve clinical endpoints and revealed neurotoxicity. Limitations of Cintredekin Besudotox include its short half-life, which demanded frequent or continued administration, and binding to IL4R/IL13R, present in normal brain cells. These shortcomings were overcome by our therapeutic Ad, thus representing a significant advance in the development of targeted therapeutics for GBM.
Inflammatory mediators are of considerable interest as potential therapeutic targets in various cancers. Here we investigate whether interleukin (IL)-4 receptor alpha (IL4Ralpha), a component of the receptor complex for the T helper 2 cytokines IL4 and IL13, plays a role in colonic tumorigenesis. IL4Ralpha protein expression was seen in tumor cells of 28/48 human colon adenocarcinomas on a tissue microarray. In human and murine colon tumor cell lines analyzed in vitro, all of which expressed IL4Ralpha, treatment with exogenous ligand resulted in dose-dependent increases in proliferation. IL4 decreased apoptosis only in HCT116 cells. An orthotopic allograft model was used to determine in vivo effects of tumor cell-specific IL4Ra ablation. MC38 murine tumor cells with the IL4Ra gene knocked down showed reduced proliferation but no difference in apoptosis compared with controls after implantation in ceca of syngeneic mice. Mice null for IL4Ra and wild-type controls were treated with azoxymethane and dextran sulfate sodium to induce tumor formation. Mice with global deletion of IL4Ra had significantly fewer and smaller tumors. Reduced tumorigenicity correlated with decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis. Systemic blockade of IL4Ralpha-IL4 interactions with a chimeric soluble receptor protein gave similar results in the cecal implant model. Thus, IL4Ralpha, a component of the IL4R and IL13R, contributes to tumor formation in a mouse model of colitis-associated cancer. Proliferation appears to be directly mediated via IL4Ralpha on the epithelial tumor cells. Survival may be an indirect response mediated via other host cells. Our results support therapeutic targeting of IL4Ralpha in colon cancer.
In previous study, we found that the chemokine receptor 9 (CCR9) was highly expressed on CD4+ T cells from patients with T-cell lineage acute lymphocytic leukemia (T-ALL) and mediated leukemia cell infiltration and metastasis. Combined use of interleukin 2 (IL-2) and IL-4 promoted the internalization of CCR9 and therefore attenuated leukemia cell infiltration and metastasis. In this study, we preliminarily investigated the mechanism of internalization of CCR9 on MOLT4 cell model (a human leukemia T-cell line, naturally expresses CCR9) and found that IL-2 upregulated the cell surface expression of IL-4Ralpha (CD124) greatly, whereas IL-4 had no significant influence on alpha (CD25) and beta subunits (CD122) of IL-2R. Moreover, specific inhibitors, such as staurosporine, H89 and heparin, inhibited internalization of CCR9, which indicated a role of protein kinase C (PKC) and G protein-coupled kinase 2 (GRK2), respectively. Furthermore, GRK2 was upregulated and translocated to cell membrane in IL-2 and IL-4 treated cells which indicated that PKC could be a prerequisite for GRK2 activity.
Schoof N, von Bonin F, Zeynalova S, et al.Favorable impact of the interleukin-4 receptor allelic variant I75 on the survival of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients demonstrated in a large prospective clinical trial.
Ann Oncol. 2009; 20(9):1548-54 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: Recently published data indicate that host germline variations in immune genes can influence the outcome of lymphoma patients. Interleukin (IL)-4 and IL13 are crucial immune factors and may influence the course of the disease. Both cytokines signal through the interleukin-4 receptor (IL4R). Therefore, we investigated whether polymorphisms of IL4, IL13 and IL4R genes could predict the outcome of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients.
METHODS: In 228 DLBCL samples of the German High-Grade Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Study Group, the polymorphisms of IL4 (-524CT, rs2243250), IL13 (-1069CT, rs1800925) and IL4R (I75V, rs1805010; S503P, rs1805015; Q576R, rs1801275) were analyzed and the soluble interleukin-4 receptor (sIL4R) serum level was measured before the start of chemotherapy.
RESULTS: Patients harboring IL4R V75 (IL4R(I75V-AG) and IL4R(I75V-GG)) had shorter overall survival (OS) (P = 0.044) and event-free survival (EFS) (P = 0.056) periods compared with I75 carriers (IL4R(I75V-AA)). Multivariate analysis adjusted to the International Prognostic Index revealed a relative risk of 1.9 for carriers of the IL4R V75 (P = 0.011) in relation to OS. DLBCL patients homozygous for the IL4R I75 and low sIL4R serum levels have the most favorable OS and EFS.
CONCLUSIONS: These data support the role for host germline gene variations of immunologically important factors like the IL4R I75V gene variation to predict the survival in DLBCL patients.
Andrie E, Michos A, Kalampoki V, et al.Genetic variants in immunoregulatory genes and risk for childhood lymphomas.
Eur J Haematol. 2009; 83(4):334-42 [PubMed
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To investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in key cytokine and innate immunity genes influence risk for childhood lymphomas, we genotyped 37 children with Hodgkin's (HL) and 48 with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), aged (1 month-14 yr), along with their 85 age- and gender-matched controls suffering from mild medical conditions. Genotypic analysis was performed for 10 SNPs from nine genes with important role in immunoregulatory pathways (IL4, IL4R, IL6, IL10, IL12, IL18, TNFalpha, IFNgamma, CD14). Analysis of SNPs genotypes revealed that the CD14 -159 C>T polymorphism was associated with significantly increased risk for HL regarding both the CC and CT genotypes (OR(CC): 5.36; 95% CI, 1.30-22.14; P = 0.02, OR(CT): 3.76; 95% CI, 1.00-14.16; P = 0.05). An indicative association between IL18-137 G>C polymorphism with the CC genotype and NHL did not reach, however, statistical significance (OR(CC), 3.78; 95% CI, 0.87-16.38; P = 0.08). In conclusion, our findings suggest that genetic variation in the CD14-159 loci may be associated with childhood HL risk; these preliminary findings need to be further confirmed in sizeable multi-centre studies along with determination of cytokines, which could provide an insight on the biologic basis underlying these findings.