Gene Summary

Gene:MAPK3; mitogen-activated protein kinase 3
Aliases: ERK1, ERT2, ERK-1, PRKM3, P44ERK1, P44MAPK, HS44KDAP, HUMKER1A, p44-ERK1, p44-MAPK
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the MAP kinase family. MAP kinases, also known as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), act in a signaling cascade that regulates various cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, and cell cycle progression in response to a variety of extracellular signals. This kinase is activated by upstream kinases, resulting in its translocation to the nucleus where it phosphorylates nuclear targets. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different protein isoforms have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:mitogen-activated protein kinase 3
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (8)

Latest Publications: MAPK3 (cancer-related)

Sun X, Deng Q, Liang Z, et al.
Cigarette smoke extract induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition of human bladder cancer T24 cells through activation of ERK1/2 pathway.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2017; 86:457-465 [PubMed] Related Publications
Bladder cancer is a common genitourinary malignant disease worldwide. Abundant evidence has shown that cigarette smoke (CS) is a crucial risk factor for bladder cancer. Nevertheless, the mechanism underlying the relationship between cigarette smoking and bladder cancer remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effects of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway activation and EMT alterations in human bladder cancer T24 cells, and the preventive effect of extracellular regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) inhibitor U0126 was further examined. Our results illustrated that CSE exposure induced morphological change of human bladder cancer T24 cells, enhanced migratory and invasive capacities, reduced epithelial marker expression and elevated mesenchymal marker expression. Meanwhile, exposure of T24 cells to CSE resulted in activation of ERK1/2 pathway as well as activator protein 1 (AP-1) proteins. Interestingly, treatment with ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126 effectively abrogated CSE-triggered EMT and ERK1/2/AP-1 activation. These findings provide novel insight into the molecular mechanisms of CS-associated bladder cancer and may open up new avenues in the search for potential target of bladder cancer intervention.

Nass N, Streit S, Wybranski C, et al.
Validation of VX2 as a Hepatocellular Carcinoma Model: Comparison of the Molecular Reaction of VX2 and HepG2 Tumor Cells to Sorafenib In Vitro.
Anticancer Res. 2017; 37(1):87-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
As there is currently no superior hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) model with percutaneous vascular access for transarterial treatments available, the VX2 rabbit model is frequently used for in vivo investigations on liver carcinoma. However, the VX2 cell line was derived from a virus-induced skin papilloma that can form carcinosarcoma in liver of rabbits and the transferability of obtained results to HCC treatment remains open. Here we compared the most frequently investigated human HCC model cell line, HepG2, with VX2 cells in vitro in terms of sensitivity towards the broad specificity kinase inhibitor sorafenib and responsiveness to the addition of platelet-derived growth factor AB (PDGF-AB), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hepatic growth factor (HGF), as well as insulin and interleukin-1β (IL1β). Phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT) the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) p38 and p42/44 (extracellular signal-regulated kinase, ERK1/2) and inhibitor of kappa light chain gene enhancer alpha (IĸBα) was determined by western blotting as these events are associated with early signaling cascades. Additionally, the inhibition of phosphorylation under sorafenib treatment was investigated. Sorafenib was equally toxic to both cell lines, but only in HepG2 was activation of caspase 3/7 activity, as a sign of apoptosis, observed. VX2 cells exhibited generally more intense phosphorylation signals in response to the growth factors and also serum. In contrast to VX2, HepG2 cells showed no response to PDGF-AB or VEGF as determined by kinase phosphorylation. In both cell lines, sorafenib inhibited growth factor-induced phosphorylation of ERK and p38-MAPK. AKT phosphorylation was only inhibited in VX2 cells and IĸBα phosphorylation was not influenced by this kinase inhibitor in either cell type. Taken together, the two cellular models for HCC share several features related to sorafenib application, but differed in their responsiveness towards growth factors. Therefore, results obtained with the VX2 model cannot be extended to human HCC without appropriate caution.

Lin ZY, Chuang WL
Contrary influence of clinically applied sorafenib concentrations among hepatocellular carcinoma patients.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2017; 86:27-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
The treatment responses of sorafenib in hepatocellular carcinoma are modest which may be due to different characteristics of cancer cells or insufficient therapeutic concentrations. This study was to clarify this issue. The anti-proliferative effects and differential expressions of 8 genes related to sorafenib anti-cancer mechanisms (tyrosine kinase receptor genes: KDR, PDGFRB; RAF cascade: RAF1, BRAF, MAP2K1, MAP2K2, MAPK1, MAPK3) were investigated in primary cultured hepatocellular carcinoma cells collected from 8 patients using clinically applied sorafenib concentrations (5, 10μg/mL). The anti-proliferative effects of sorafenib at either 5 or 10μg/mL, which were related to down-regulations of KDR, PDGFRB and/or genes in the RAF cascade, were achieved only in one patient (HCC38/KMUH). However, either 5 or 10μg/mL sorafenib promoted proliferation in 4 patients (HCC29/KMUH, HCC62/KMUH, HCC87/KMUH, HCC98/KMUH). Among them, the RAF cascade, PDGFRB and/or KDR were up-regulated in 3 patients but no gene was differentially expressed in the remaining one patient (HCC87/KMUH). Increase the sorafenib concentration to 10μg/mL paradoxically up-regulated and/or obliterated the previously down-regulated genes in the RAF cascade and/or KDR in 4 patients (HCC29/KMUH, HCC76/KMUH, HCC87/KMUH, HCC98/KMUH). Significant down-regulations of the RAF cascade and PDGFRB by sorafenib but without anti-proliferative effects were detected in one patient (HCC54/KMUH). In conclusion, influence of sorafenib on proliferation is not simply through the RAF cascade. The responses of KDR, PDGFRB and the RAF cascade to sorafenib among patients are diverse or even contrary. Increase the sorafenib concentration has potential to up-regulate genes favored angiogenesis and proliferation.

Shi D, Liang L, Zheng H, et al.
Silencing of long non-coding RNA SBDSP1 suppresses tumor growth and invasion in colorectal cancer.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2017; 85:355-361 [PubMed] Related Publications
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play critical roles in tumor development and progression. This study was undertaken to examine the expression and biological functions of a novel lncRNA SBDSP1 in colorectal cancer (CRC). Quantitative real-time PCR analysis was used to measure the expression of SBDSP1 in CRC tissues and cell lines. Knockdown of SBDSP1 via short hairpin RNA technology was performed to determine the roles of SBDSP1 in CRC cell growth, colony formation, cell cycle progression, migration, and invasion. The effect of SBDSP1 knockdown on tumorigenesis of CRC cells was investigated in a subcutaneous tumor mouse model. Western blot analysis was done to examine the involvement of signaling pathways in the action of SBDSP1. Notably, SBDSP1 was overexpressed in CRC tissues and cells relative to corresponding normal controls. Moreover, SBDSP1 expression was significantly greater in CRCs with nodal metastasis than in primary tumors (P=0.0259). Downregulation of SBDSP1 significantly inhibited cell proliferation, colony formation, migration, and invasion in SW480 and HCT116 cells, which was accompanied by suppression of Akt, ERK1/2, and STAT3 phosphorylation. SBDSP1-depleted cells showed a G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and deregulation of p21 and cyclin D1. In vivo studies confirmed that SBDSP1 downregulation retarded the growth of HCT116 xenogaft tumors. Altogether, SBDSP1 plays an essential role in CRC cell growth, invasion, and tumorigenesis, largely through inactivation of multiple signaling pathways. Therefore, targeting SBDSP1 may have therapeutic benefits in the treatment of CRC.

Demiroglu-Zergeroglu A, Candemir G, Turhanlar E, et al.
EGFR-dependent signalling reduced and p38 dependent apoptosis required by Gallic acid in Malignant Mesothelioma cells.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2016; 84:2000-2007 [PubMed] Related Publications
The unrestrained EGFR signalling contributes to malignant phenotype in a number of cancers including Malignant Mesotheliomas. Present study was designed to evaluate EGFR-dependent anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of Gallic acid in transformed Mesothelial (MeT-5A) and Malignant Mesothelioma (SPC212) cells. Gallic acid reduced the viability of Malignant Mesothelioma cells in a concentration and time-dependent manner. However, viability of mesothelial cells reduced only at high concentration and longer time periods. Gallic acid restrained the activation of EGFR, ERK1/2 and AKT proteins and down regulated expression of Cyclin D and Bcl-2 genes, but upregulated the expression of p21 gene in EGF-induced SPC212 cells. GA-induced transitory G1 arrest and triggered mitochondrial and death receptor mediated apoptosis, which requires p38MAPK activation. The data provided here indicate that GA is able to inhibit EGFR dependent proliferation and survival signals and induces p38 pathway dependent apoptosis in Malignant Mesothelioma cells. On the basis of these experimental findings it is worthwhile to investigate further the biological activity of Gallic acid on other Mesothelioma cell lines harbouring aberrant EGFR signals.

Liu L, Xu Y, Reiter RJ, et al.
Inhibition of ERK1/2 Signaling Pathway is Involved in Melatonin's Antiproliferative Effect on Human MG-63 Osteosarcoma Cells.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2016; 39(6):2297-2307 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In a previous study, we found that melatonin inhibits MG-63 osteosarcoma cell proliferation; however, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Akt signaling pathways play key roles in the anticancer effects of melatonin.
AIMS: The present study investigated whether MAPK and Akt signaling pathways are involved in melatonin's antiproliferative actions on the human MG-63 osteosarcoma cells.
METHODS/RESULTS: Western blot analysis confirmed that melatonin significantly inhibited phosphorylation of ERK1/2 but not p38, JNK, or Akt. The expression of ERK1/2, p38, JNK, and Akt was not altered by melatonin. PD98059 and melatonin alone, and especially in combination, significantly inhibited cell proliferation. The changes included G1 and G2/M phase arrest of the cell cycle, and a downregulation of the expression at both the protein and mRNA levels of cyclin D1 and CDK4 (related to the G1 phase) and of cyclin B1 and CDK1 (related to the G2/M phase) as measured by flow cytometry after propidium iodide staining, and both western blot and real-time PCR, respectively. Furthermore, the combination of PD98059 and melatonin synergistically and markedly augmented the action of either agent alone. Co-immunoprecipitation further confirmed that there was an interaction between p-ERK1/2 and cyclin D1, CDK4, cyclin B1, or CDK1, which was blunted in the presence of melatonin or PD98059.
CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that melatonin's antiproliferative action is mediated by inhibition of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway rather than the p38, JNK, or Akt pathways.

Luo Y, Wu JY, Lu MH, et al.
Carvacrol Alleviates Prostate Cancer Cell Proliferation, Migration, and Invasion through Regulation of PI3K/Akt and MAPK Signaling Pathways.
Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2016; 2016:1469693 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
TRPM7 is a potential therapeutic target for treatment of prostate cancer. In this study, we investigated the effects of nonselective TRPM7 inhibitor carvacrol on cell proliferation, migration, and invasion of prostate cancer PC-3 and DU145 cells. Our results showed that carvacrol blocked TRPM7-like currents in PC-3 and DU145 cells and reduced their proliferation, migration, and invasion. Moreover, carvacrol treatment significantly decreased MMP-2, p-Akt, and p-ERK1/2 protein expression and inhibited F-actin reorganization. Furthermore, consistently, TRPM7 knockdown reduced prostate cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion as well. Our study suggests that carvacrol may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of prostate cancer through its inhibition of TRPM7 channels and suppression of PI3K/Akt and MAPK signaling pathways.

Hsia TC, Yu CC, Hsiao YT, et al.
Cantharidin Impairs Cell Migration and Invasion of Human Lung Cancer NCI-H460 Cells via UPA and MAPK Signaling Pathways.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(11):5989-5997 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cantharidin (CTD), a component of natural mylabris (Mylabris phalerata Pallas), has been shown to have biological activities and induce cell death in many human cancer cells. In the present study, we investigated the effect of CTD on cell migration and invasion of NCI-H460 human lung cancer cells. Cell viability was examined and results indicated that CTD decreased the percentage of viable cells in dose-dependent manners. CTD inhibited cell migration and invasion in dose-dependent manners. Gelatin zymography analysis was used to measure the activities of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2/-9) and the results indicated that CTD inhibited the enzymatic activities of MMP-2/-9 of NCI-H460 cells. Western blotting was used to examine the protein expression of NCI-H460 cells after incubation with CTD and the results showed that CTD decreased the expression of MMP-2/-9, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), Ras homolog gene family, member A (Rho A), phospho-protein kinase B (AKT) (Thr308)(p-AKT(308)), phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (p-ERK1/2), phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase (p-p38), phospho c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1/2 (p-JNK1/2), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and urokinase plasminogen activator (UPA). Furthermore, confocal laser microscopy was used to confirm that CTD suppressed the expression of NF-κB p65, but did not significantly affect protein kinase C (PKC) translocation in NCI-H460 cells. Based on those observations, we suggest that CTD may be used as a novel anticancer metastasis agent for lung cancer in the future.

Vesely DL
Heart Peptide Hormones: Adjunct and Primary Treatments of Cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(11):5693-5700 [PubMed] Related Publications
Four heart hormones, namely atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), long-acting natriuretic peptide (LANP), vessel dilator and kaliuretic peptide reduce up to 97% of cancer cells in vitro. These four cardiac hormones eliminate up to 80% of human pancreatic adenocarcinomas, two-thirds of human breast carcinomas and up to 86% of human small-cell lung carcinomas growing in athymic mice. ANP given intravenously for 3 hours after 'curative' lung surgery as an adjunct to surgery results in a 2-year relapse-free survival of 91% compared to 75% for those treated with surgery alone. The anticancer mechanisms of action of these peptides involve binding to receptors on the cancer cells, followed by 95% inhibition of the conversion of inactive to active rat sarcoma-bound guanosine triphosphate (RAS)-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinases 1/2 (MEK 1/2) (98% inhibition)-extracellular signal-related kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) (96% inhibition) cascade in cancer cells. They are dual inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its VEGF2 receptor (up to 89%). They also inhibit MAPK9, i.e. c-JUN-N-terminal kinase 2. One of the downstream targets of VEGF is β-catenin, which these peptides inhibit by up to 88%. These four peptide hormones inhibit the Wingless-related integration site (WNT) pathway 68% and WNT secreted-Frizzled protein is reduced by up to 84%. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), a final 'switch' that activates gene expression that leads to malignancy, is specifically reduced up to 88% by these peptides but they do not affect STAT1. There is crosstalk between the RAS-MEK 1/2-ERK 1/2 kinase cascade, VEGF, β-catenin, JNK, WNT, and STAT pathways and each of these pathways and their crosstalk is inhibited by these peptide hormones. They enter the nucleus of cancer cells where they inhibit the proto-oncogenes c-FOS (by up to 82%) and c-JUN (by up to 61%).
CONCLUSION: These multiple kinase inhibitors have both adjunct and primary anticancer effects.

Lee J, Lee J, Yun JH, et al.
DUSP28 links regulation of Mucin 5B and Mucin 16 to migration and survival of AsPC-1 human pancreatic cancer cells.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(9):12193-12202 [PubMed] Related Publications
The prognosis of pancreatic cancer has not improved despite considerable and continuous effort. Dual-specificity phosphatase 28 (DUSP28) is highly expressed in human pancreatic cancers and exerts critical effects. However, knowledge of its function in pancreatic cancers is extremely limited. Here, we demonstrate the peculiar role of DUSP28 in pancreatic cancers. Analysis using the Gene Expression Omnibus public microarray database indicated higher DUSP28, MUC1, MUC4, MUC5B, MUC16 and MUC20 messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in pancreatic cancers compared with normal pancreas tissues. DUSP28 expression in human pancreatic cancer correlated positively with those of MUC1, MUC4, MUC5B, MUC16 and MUC20. In contrast, there were no significant correlations between DUSP28 and mucins in normal pancreas tissues. Decreased DUSP28 expression resulted in down-regulation of MUC5B and MUC16 at both the mRNA and protein levels; furthermore, transfection with small interfering RNA (siRNA) for MUC5B and MUC16 inhibited the migration and survival of AsPC-1 cells. In addition, transfection of siRNA for MUC5B and MUC16 resulted in a significant decrease in phosphorylation of FAK and ERK1/2 compared with transfection with scrambled-siRNA. These results collectively indicate unique links between DUSP28 and MUC5B/MUC16 and their roles in pancreatic cancer; moreover, they strongly support a rationale for targeting DUSP28 to inhibit development of malignant pancreatic cancer.

Zhou JX, Zhou L, Li QJ, et al.
Association between high levels of Notch3 expression and high invasion and poor overall survival rates in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(5):2893-2901 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a commonly fatal tumour. It is characterized by early metastasis and high mortality. Many patients die as a result of PDAC tumour progression. However, the underlying mechanism of invasion and metastasis in PDAC is still not fully understood. Previous studies showed that the Notch signalling pathway may play an important role in the progression of tumour invasion and metastasis. However, it is not yet known whether the Notch signalling pathway participates in the progression of invasion in PDAC. In the present study, immunohistochemistry showed that a high expression of Notch3 was correlated with tumour grade, metastasis, venous invasion and American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage. Kaplan-Meier curves suggested that a high expression of Notch3 was a significant risk factor for shortened survival time. We also showed that inhibition of Notch3 had an anti‑invasion role in PDAC cells. In vitro, the inhibition of Notch3 reduced the migration and invasion capabilities of PDAC cells by regulating the expressions of E-cadherin, CD44v6, MMP-2, MMP-9, VEGF and uPA via regulating the COX-2 and ERK1/2 pathways. These results indicated that downregulation of the Notch signalling pathway may be a novel and useful approach for preventing and treating PDAC invasion.

Li L, Mei DT, Zeng Y
HDAC2 promotes the migration and invasion of non-small cell lung cancer cells via upregulation of fibronectin.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2016; 84:284-290 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent studies indicated that histone deacetylases (HDACs) can modulate the tumorigenesis and development of cancer cells. We evaluated the expression of class I HDACs in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and found that HDAC2 was significantly increased in NSCLC cells as compared with the normal bronchial epithelial cell line BEAS-2B. Silencing of HDAC2 by its specific siRNAs can significantly inhibit the in vitro migration and invasion of A549 and H1395 cells. While over expression of HDAC2 by transfection of pcDNA/HDAC2 plasmid can trigger the motility of NSCLC cells. Over expression of HDAC2 increased the protein and mRNA expression of firbronectin (FN), which can accelerate the metastasis of cancer cells. Similarly, knock down of HDAC2 suppressed the expression of FN. The inhibitor of NF-κB, while not ERK1/2 or PI3K/Akt, attenuated HDAC2 induced up regulation of FN and invasion of NSCLC cells. Furthermore, HDAC2 can markedly increase both mRNA and protein levels of p65 in NSCLC cells. Collectively, our data revealed that HDAC2 can trigger migration and invasion of NSCLC cells via up regulation FN through activation of NF-κB. It suggested HDAC2 might be a potential therapeutic target for the drug development of NSCLC patients.

Heidarian E, Keloushadi M, Ghatreh-Samani K, Valipour P
The reduction of IL-6 gene expression, pAKT, pERK1/2, pSTAT3 signaling pathways and invasion activity by gallic acid in prostate cancer PC3 cells.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2016; 84:264-269 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prostate cancer (PC) is one of the most common cancers among men. Progression of prostate cancer is associated with an increase in cellular level of interleukin-6 (IL-6). Gallic acid (GA) is a polyhydroxy phenolic compound which can inhibit the growth of cancer cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of GA treatment on cell viability, proliferation, invasion, IL-6 gene expression, IL-6 secretion, cellular levels of pSTAT3, pERK1/2, and pAKT signaling proteins in human prostate cancer PC3 cells. PC3 cells viability after treatment with GA (0-120μM) was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The expression of IL-6 was investigated using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Cellular concentration of pSTAT3, pERK1/2, and pAKT signaling proteins were determined by Western blotting technic. PC3 cells invasion was assessed by invasion assay test. Treatment with GA caused a significant decrease in cell viability, proliferation, invasion, cellular levels of pSTAT3, pERK1/2, and pAKT signaling proteins after 48h in a dose-dependent manner. The level of IL-6 and its gene expression decreased significantly in PC3 cells treated with GA. Our results show that IL-6 down-regulation and decreased IL-6 protein level in PC3 cells by GA resulted in diminishing of pSTAT3, pERK1/2, and pAKT signaling proteins which lead to the reduction of the cell survival, proliferation, and invasion in PC3 cells. Therefore, it seems that GA can be considered an anticancer agent in the treatment of prostate cancer.

Wu XS, Bao TH, Ke Y, et al.
Hint1 suppresses migration and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro by modulating girdin activity.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(11):14711-14719 [PubMed] Related Publications
Histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (Hint1) is a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor gene. Its role in cancer cell migration has not been previously speculated. In the current study, we examined the expression of Hint1 in metastatic and non-metastatic lymph nodes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients and further elucidated the effect of Hint1 expression on girdin expression and phosphorylation of AKT and ERK1/2 and on the migration of HCC cells in vitro. Expression of Hint1 and girdin in primary HCC tissues and metastatic and non-metastatic lymph nodes was determined by RT-PCR assays. HepG2 cells were transfected with plasmid vectors overexpressing Hint1 or small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting Hint1, girdin, Hint1 plus girdin, or the scrambled RNA. Migration and invasion of HCC cells were examined by wound and Transwell assays. Protein expression was detected by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting assays. RT-PCR assays revealed that the messenger RNA (mRNA) transcript levels of Hint1 were markedly lower than those of primary HCC tissues and non-metastatic lymph nodes (P < 0.01). By contrast, the mRNA transcript levels of girdin were significantly higher than non-metastatic lymph nodes (P < 0.05). Furthermore, siRNA knockdown of HINT1 resulted in a significant increase in the mRNA transcript levels of girdin in HepG2 cells (P < 0.05). Wound assays and Transwell assays showed that Hint1 knockdown by siRNA significantly enhanced the migration and invasion of HepG2 cells compared to HepG2 cells transfected with scrambled siRNA. Hint1 knockdown also led to significantly increased phosphorylation of girdin and AKT in HepG2 cells (P < 0.05), which, however, was effectively aborted by girdin knockdown by siRNA (P < 0.05). Hint1 is downregulated in metastatic lymph nodes and is implicated in migration and invasion of HCC cells in vitro by modulating girdin and AKT expression and phosphorylation. The Hint1-girdin-AKT signaling axis should be further dissected for its role in HCC migration and invasion and may be therapeutically targeted to suppress tumor growth and metastasis.

Zhu JY, Xiong Y, Zhang W, et al.
Endophilin B1 regulates EGFR endocytic degradation in prostate cancer cell.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2016; 62(10):37-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prostate cancer (Pca) is one of the most common types of cancer for elder men. Aberrant expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and EGFR downstream signaling have been known to contribute to disease progression in prostate cancer. EGF-stimulated EGFR is internalized and the process of endocytic degradation of EGFR mediates its signaling which is frequently dysregulated in many kinds of cancer. In the present study, we demonstrated that endophilin B1 expression was inhibited and EGFR expression was significantly increased in prostate cancer cell lines. We demonstrated that suppression of endophilin B1 increased EGFR levels via delaying EGFR internalization triggered by EGF and its intracellular degradation. Endophilin B1 decreased also sustained EGFR downstream signaling such as Erk1/2 phosphorylation in response to EGF stimulation and promoted prostate cancer cell proliferation which is EGF independent. Our data indicated that endophilin B1 mediated the biological function of EGFR in cancer cell proliferation through regulating the EGFR endocytic trafficking and downstream signaling.

Luo F, Shi J, Shi Q, et al.
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases and Hypoxic/Ischemic Nephropathy.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2016; 39(3):1051-67 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tissue hypoxia/ischemia is a pathological feature of many human disorders including stroke, myocardial infarction, hypoxic/ischemic nephropathy, as well as cancer. In the kidney, the combination of limited oxygen supply to the tissues and high oxygen demand is considered the main reason for the susceptibility of the kidney to hypoxic/ischemic injury. In recent years, increasing evidence has indicated that a reduction in renal oxygen tension/blood supply plays an important role in acute kidney injury, chronic kidney disease, and renal tumorigenesis. However, the underlying signaling mechanisms, whereby hypoxia alters cellular behaviors, remain poorly understood. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are key signal-transducing enzymes activated by a wide range of extracellular stimuli, including hypoxia/ischemia. There are four major family members of MAPKs: the extracellular signal-regulated kinases-1 and -2 (ERK1/2), the c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), p38 MAPKs, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-5 (ERK5/BMK1). Recent studies, including ours, suggest that these MAPKs are differentially involved in renal responses to hypoxic/ischemic stress. This review will discuss their changes in hypoxic/ischemic pathophysiology with acute kidney injury, chronic kidney diseases and renal carcinoma.

Li J, Liu C, Sato T
Novel Antitumor Invasive Actions of p-Cymene by Decreasing MMP-9/TIMP-1 Expression Ratio in Human Fibrosarcoma HT-1080 Cells.
Biol Pharm Bull. 2016; 39(8):1247-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
p-Cymene (4-isopropyltoluene) has been reported to have beneficial actions such as anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities. To evaluate whether p-cymene exhibits antitumor invasive actions, we examined the effects of p-cymene on the production of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9)/gelatinase B and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) in human fibrosarcoma HT-1080 cells. p-Cymene was found to dose-dependently inhibit the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA)-augmented production and gene expression of MMP-9 in HT-1080 cells. In contrast, p-cymene enhanced the TPA-augmented production and gene expression of TIMP-1 in HT-1080 cells. However, there was no change in the constitutive level of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 mRNAs and TIMP-1 protein in p-cymene-treated cells. In addition, we found that the in-vitro TPA-augmented invasiveness of HT-1080 cells was inhibited by p-cymene in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, p-cymene was found to suppress the constitutive and/or TPA-augmented phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in HT-1080 cells. Thus, these results provide novel evidence that p-cymene is an effective candidate for the prevention of tumor invasion and metastasis through mechanisms that include the inhibition of MMP-9 expression and the augmentation of TIMP-1 production along with the suppression of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK signal pathways in tumor cells.

Hang X, Zhu S, Di H, et al.
NEDD4 Depletion Inhibits Hepatocellular Carcinoma Growth via Targeting PTEN.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2016; 39(2):768-79 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Neural precursor cell-expressed developmentally down-regulated gene 4 (NEDD4) plays an important role in tumor cell growth, yet its role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. This study is to establish NEDD4 as a prognostic biomarker by which the survival of HCC patients can be predicted and to reveal the role of NEDD4 in hepatocellular carcinoma cell growth.
METHODS: The expression of NEDD4 in 219 HCC specimens was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Postoperative overall survival and time to recurrence were evaluated by univariate and multivariate analyses. The roles of NEDD4 in hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation and invasion were determined.
RESULTS: The patients with low NEDD4 expression tumors had an average cumulative survival of 64.9 ± 6.5 months during follow-up while the patients with high NEDD4 expression tumors had an average cumulative survival of 20.3 ± 15.8 months. NEDD4 silencing inhibited Huh7 cell proliferation and altered cell cytoskeletal assembly, and NEDD4 depletion furthermore seemed to suppress cell migration and invasion. A possible molecular mechanism for the observed effects might be that NEDD4 silence led to an increase in PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue) expression, which in turn resulted in the inactivation of STAT3, AKT, and ERK1/2.
CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that NEDD4 may participate in the HCC progression and may therefore be a potential target for HCC therapy.

Yamaguchi R, Harada H, Hirota K
VHL-deficient renal cancer cells gain resistance to mitochondria-activating apoptosis inducers by activating AKT through the IGF1R-PI3K pathway.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(10):13295-13306 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We previously developed (2-deoxyglucose)-(ABT-263) combination therapy (2DG-ABT), which induces apoptosis by activating Bak in the mitochondria of highly glycolytic cells with varied genetic backgrounds. However, the rates of apoptosis induced by 2DG-ABT were lower in von Hippel-Lindau (VHL)-deficient cancer cells. The re-expression of VHL protein in these cells lowered IGF1R expression in a manner independent of oxygen concentration. Lowering IGF1R expression via small interfering RNA (siRNA) sensitized the cells to 2DG-ABT, suggesting that IGF1R interfered with the activation of apoptosis by the mitochondria. To determine which of the two pathways activated by IGF1R, the Ras-ERK pathway or the PI3K-AKT pathway, was involved in the impairment of mitochondria activation, the cells were treated with a specific inhibitor of either PI3K or ERK, and 2DG-ABT was added to activate the mitochondria. The apoptotic rates resulting from 2DG-ABT treatment were higher in the cells treated with the PI3K inhibitor, while the rates remained approximately the same in the cells treated with the ERK inhibitor. In 2DG-ABT-sensitive cells, a 4-h 2DG treatment caused the dissociation of Mcl-1 from Bak, while ABT treatment alone caused the dissociation of Bcl-xL from Bak without substantially reducing Mcl-1 levels. In 2DG-ABT-resistant cells, Mcl-1 dissociated from Bak only when AKT activity was inhibited during the 4-h 2DG treatment. Thus, in VHL-deficient cells, IGF1R activated AKT and stabilized the Bak-Mcl-1 complex, thereby conferring cell resistance to apoptosis.

Imai T, Oue N, Nishioka M, et al.
Overexpression of KIF11 in Gastric Cancer with Intestinal Mucin Phenotype.
Pathobiology. 2017; 84(1):16-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common human cancers. A useful method of gastric cancer stem cell (CSC) characterization is spheroid colony formation. Previously, we reported that KIF11 expression is >2-fold in spheroid-body-forming GC cells compared with parental cells. Here, we analyzed the expression and distribution of KIF11 in human GC by immunohistochemistry.
METHODS: Expression of KIF11 in 165 GC cases was determined using immunohistochemistry. For mucin phenotypic expression analysis of GC, immunostaining of MUC5AC, MUC6, MUC2 and CD10 was evaluated. RNA interference was used to inhibit KIF11 expression in GC cell lines.
RESULTS: In total, 119 of 165 GC cases (72%) were positive for KIF11. Expression of KIF11 was not associated with any clinicopathologic characteristics; however, it was observed frequently in GC exhibiting an intestinal phenotype. Both the number and size of spheres formed by MKN-74 cells were significantly reduced following transfection of KIF11-targeting siRNA compared with negative-control siRNA. Furthermore, levels of phosphorylated Erk1/2 were lower in KIF11 siRNA-transfected cells than with negative-control siRNA-transfected cells.
CONCLUSION: These results indicate that KIF11 is involved in intestinal mucin phenotype GC.

Starska K, Forma E, Jóźwiak P, et al.
Gene/protein expression of CAPN1/2-CAST system members is associated with ERK1/2 kinases activity as well as progression and clinical outcome in human laryngeal cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(10):13185-13203 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent evidence indicates the involvement of calpains (CAPNs), a family of cysteine proteases, in cancer development and progression, as well as the insufficient response to cancer therapies. The contribution of CAPNs and regulatory calpastatin (CAST) and ERK1/2 kinases to aggressiveness, disease course, and outcome in laryngeal cancer remains elusive. This study was aimed to evaluate the CAPN1/2-CAST-ERK1/2 enzyme system mRNA/protein level and to investigate whether they can promote the dynamic of tumor growth and prognosis. The mRNA expression of marker genes was determined in 106 laryngeal cancer (SCLC) cases and 73 non-cancerous adjacent mucosa (NCLM) controls using quantitative real-time PCR. The level of corresponding proteins was analyzed by Western Blot. SLUG expression, as indicator of pathological advancement was determined using IHC staining. Significant increases of CAPN1/2-CAST-ERK1/2 levels of mRNA/protein were noted in SCLC compared to NCLM (p < 0.05). As a result, a higher level of CAPN1 and ERK1 genes was related to larger tumor size, more aggressive and deeper growth according to TFG scale and SLUG level (p < 0.05). There were also relationships of CAPN1/2 and ERK1 with incidences of local/nodal recurrences (p < 0.05). An inverse association for CAPN1/2, CAST, and ERK1/2 transcripts was determined with regard to overall survival (p < 0.05). In addition, a higher CAPN1 and phospho-ERK1 protein level was related to higher grade and stage (p < 0.05) and was found to promote worse prognosis. This is the first study to show that activity of CAPN1/2- CAST-ERK1/2 axis may be an indicator of tumor phenotype and unfavorable outcome in SCLC.

Zhao Y, Zhang B, Lei Y, et al.
Knockdown of USP39 induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in melanoma.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(10):13167-13176 [PubMed] Related Publications
The spliceosome machinery composed of multimeric protein complexes guides precursor messenger RNAs (mRNAs) (pre-mRNAs) splicing in eukaryotic cells. Spliceosome components have been shown to be downregulated in cancer and could be a promising molecular target for anticancer therapy. The ubiquitin-specific protease 39 (USP39) is essential for pre-mRNA splicing, and upregulated USP39 expression is noted in a variety of cancers. However, the role of USP39 in the development and progression of melanoma remains unclear. In the present study, USP39 expression was found to be increased in melanoma tissues compared with that in nevus tissues. USP39 silencing via lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNA (shRNA) significantly suppressed melanoma cell proliferation, induced G0/G1 cell cycle phase arrest, and increased apoptosis in vitro. Moreover, USP39 knockdown suppressed melanoma tumor growth in a xenograft model. In addition, USP39 silencing was associated with the increased expressions of p21, p27, and Bax. Furthermore, the inhibition of USP39 expression decreased the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, indicating that ERK signaling pathways might be involved in the regulation of melanoma cell proliferation by USP39. Our findings suggest that USP39 may play crucial roles in the development and pathogenesis of melanoma, and it may serve as a potential therapeutic target for melanoma.

Wang D, Zhu L, Liao M, et al.
MYO6 knockdown inhibits the growth and induces the apoptosis of prostate cancer cells by decreasing the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and PRAS40.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(3):1285-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prostate cancer is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer among males around the world. Myosin VI (MYO6), as a motor protein, has been reported to be implicated in cancer-related cell migration and cellular functions. To investigate the role of MYO6 in prostate cancer, immunohistochemical analysis was firstly applied to prostate cancer tissues and revealed that MYO6 was closely related with the Gleason score in prostate cancer. Then we used specific short hairpin RNA (shRNA) to downregulate MYO6 expression in DU145 and PC-3 cells and found that decreased MYO6 expression significantly suppressed cell proliferation, as determined by MTT and colony formation assays. Flow cytometry confirmed that the suppression of MYO6 promoted cell cycle arrest at the G2/M and sub-G1 phase in the DU145 cells. Furthermore, PathScan intracellular signaling array analysis demonstrated that the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and PRAS40 was downregulated in the DU145 cells following MYO6 knockdown. Knockdown of MYO6 downregulated the expression of AKT3 and upregulated the expression of PARP, as confirmed by western blot analysis. These results suggest that MYO6 plays an essential role in the progression of prostate cancer and silencing of MYO6 may be a promising therapeutic approach for prostate cancer.

Tian H, Zhou Y, Yang G, et al.
Sulforaphane-cysteine suppresses invasion via downregulation of galectin-1 in human prostate cancer DU145 and PC3 cells.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(3):1361-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Our previous study showed that sulforaphane (SFN) inhibits invasion in human prostate cancer DU145 cells; however, the underlying mechanisms were not profoundly investigated. In the present study, we found that sulforaphane-cysteine (SFN-Cys), as a metabolite of SFN, inhibits invasion and possesses a novel mechanism in prostate cancer DU145 and PC3 cells. The scratch and Transwell assays showed that SFN-Cys (15 µM) inhibited both migration and invasion, with cell morphological changes, such as cell shrinkage and pseudopodia shortening. The cell proliferation (MTS) assay indicated that cell viability was markedly suppressed with increasing concentrations of SFN‑Cys. Furthermore, the Transwell assay showed that inhibition of SFN‑Cys‑triggered invasion was tightly linked to the sustained extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation. Western blot analysis revealed that SFN-Cys downregulated galectin-1 protein, an invasion‑related protein, and that the galectin‑1 reduction could be blocked by ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 (25 µM). Moreover, immunofluorescence staining showed that the expression level of galectin-1 protein was significantly reduced in the cells treated with SFN‑Cys. Hence, SFN‑Cys‑inhibited invasion resulted from the sustained ERK1/2 phosphorylation and ERK1/2‑triggered galectin-1 downregulation, suggesting that galectin-1 is a new SFN-Cys target inhibiting invasion apart from ERK1/2, in the treatment of prostate cancer.

Pierscianek D, Wolf S, Keyvani K, et al.
Study of angiogenic signaling pathways in hemangioblastoma.
Neuropathology. 2017; 37(1):3-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hemangioblastoma (HB) is mainly located in the brain and the spinal cord. The tumor is composed of two major components, namely neoplastic stromal cells and abundant microvessels. Thus, hyper-vascularization is the hallmark of this tumor. Despite the identification of germline and/or epigenetic mutations of Von Hippel Lindau (VHL) gene as an important pathogenic mechanism of HB, little is known about the molecular signaling involved in this highly vascularized tumor. The present study investigated the key players of multiple angiogenic signaling pathways including VEGF/VEGFR2, EphB4/EphrinB2, SDF1α/CXCR4 and Notch/Dll4 pathways in surgical specimens of 22 HB. The expression of key angiogenic factors was detected by RT(2) -PCR and Western blot. Immunofluorescent staining revealed the cellular localization of these proteins. We demonstrated a massive upregulation of mRNA levels of VEGF and VEGFR2, CXCR4 and SDF1α, EphB4 and EphrinB2, as well as the main components of Dll4-Notch signaling in HB. An increase in the protein expression of VEGF, CXCR4 and the core-components of Dll4-Notch signaling was associated with an activation of Akt and Erk1/2 and accompanied by an elevated expression of PCNA. Immuofluorescent staining revealed the expression of VEGF and CXCR4 in endothelial cells as well as in tumor cells. Dll4 protein was predominantly found in tumor cells, whereas EphB4 immunoreactivity was exclusively detected in endothelial cells. We conclude that multiple key angiogenic pathways were activated in HB, which may synergistically contribute to the abundant vascularization in this tumor. Identification of these aberrant pathways provides potential targets for a possible future application of anti-angiogenic therapy for this tumor, particularly when a total surgical resection becomes difficult due to the localization or multiplicity of the tumor.

Lin X, Yu T, Zhang L, et al.
Silencing Op18/stathmin by RNA Interference Promotes the Sensitivity of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells to Taxol and High-Grade Differentiation of Xenografted Tumours in Nude Mice.
Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2016; 119(6):611-620 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a refractory tumour, and chemotherapy is one of the primary treatment modalities. Oncoprotein 18 (Op18)/stathmin is a conserved small cytosolic phosphoprotein and highly expressed in tumours, which plays a vital role in maintaining the malignant phenotype of tumours. Taxol is a clinically widely used chemotherapeutic agent for a broad range of taxol-resistant tumours. This study showed that Op18/stathmin silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) combined taxol cooperatively improved cellular apoptosis in CNE1 cells mainly via initiating endogenous death receptor pathway, impaired the capabilities of cellular proliferation and cellular migration and down-regulated the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) of taxol, meanwhile decreased the expression of the upstream extracellular regulated kinase 1 (ERK1) in vitro. Evidence also showed that taxol cytotoxicity was markedly augmented for Op18/stathmin RNAi in other NPC cells. In vivo animal experiments have demonstrated that early combination of Op18/stathmin silencing and taxol evidently inhibited tumourigenicity of CNE1 cells and growth of xenografted tumours in nude mice. Remarkably, silencing Op18/stathmin by RNAi still promoted transformation of late-stage CNE1 cells in NPC-xenografted tumours from moderately to highly differentiated and inhibited the pleiotropic cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) autocrine by transplanted tumours. These findings suggest that silencing Op18/stathmin by RNAi promotes chemosensitization of NPC to taxol and reverses malignant phenotypes of NPC, which provides a new clue for treating drug-resistant tumours.

Wang Z, Wang W, Xu S, et al.
The role of MAPK signaling pathway in the Her-2-positive meningiomas.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(2):685-95 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Meningiomas are common types of adult nerve system tumors. Although most cases are considered benign, due to its high rate of recurrence and easy malignant progression to anaplastic meningioma they present a puzzle for the current treatment. The HER-2 oncogene has important value for meningioma cells development and progression. So far, little is known about the effect on the exact underlying signal pathway and molecular mechanisms of HER-2-positive meningioma cells. The goal of the present study was to determine the effects of HER-2 gene and possible involvement of MAPK signal pathway in human malignant meningioma. We applied q-PCR analysis, immunofluorescence (IF) staining, western blot analysis, animal model, MAPK inhibition, MTT assay and cell invasion analysis for the investigation. The results demonstrated that the downregulation of the expression of HER-2 significantly inhibited cell motility and proliferation of human meningioma cells in vivo. Accordingly, in the HER-2-overexpression meningioma cells with the inhibition of ERK1/2, ERK5, JNK, in the cells with the ERK1/2, ERK5 inhibition, protein expression was markedly suppressed as well as the cell proliferation resistance. No difference was observed in the HER-2-overexpression meningioma cells with the inhibition of JNK. These findings suggest that HER-2 gene can affect the proliferation ability of human meningioma cells in vivo and MAPK signal pathway may contribute to the carcinogenesis and development of human meningiomas combinating with HER-2.

Yang GY, Zhang AQ, Wang J, et al.
Hepatoma-derived growth factor promotes growth and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Cell Biochem Funct. 2016; 34(4):274-85 [PubMed] Related Publications
We aimed to elucidate the effects of hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) on growth and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. Tissue microarrays with 236 HCC specimens and 18 extrahepatic metastases were utilized to detect the HDGF expression by immunohistochemistry. Meanwhile, HDGF expressions in HCC cell lines with different metastatic potentials were examined using immunofluorescence staining, real-time PCR and western blotting. After HDGF silencing, the growth and metastatic potentials of HCC cells were evaluated by soft agar assay, invasion assay, together with tumorigenicity assay in nude mice. The gelatin zymography was performed by detecting MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels. Additionally, western blotting was conducted to determine the levels of total and phosphorylated ERK1/2, JNK, p38 and Akt. The results showed that HDGF was overexpressed in HCC metastasis tumour, and the expression increased with the differentiation degree of tumours (Grade I 44.0%, Grade II 48.4% and Grade III 65.6%). Consistently, HDGF levels were positively associated with the metastatic capability of HCC cells (MHCC97L < MHCC97H < HCCLM3). The growth and metastasis were suppressed by HDGF-siRNA. Gelatinolytic activities were enhanced in the three metastatic HCC cell lines, but had no significant difference among them. The tumourigenicity and metastatic capability of HCCLM3 cells in nude mice were inhibited after silencing HDGF. Meanwhile, HDGF-siRNA specifically suppressed the total and phosphorylated protein levels of ERK1/2, while not JNK, p38 and Akt. In conclusion, HDGF was overexpressed in HCC patients and cells, and HDGF might be closely correlated with HCC metastasis via regulating ERK signalling pathway. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Michailidou M, Giannouli V, Kotsikoris V, et al.
Novel pyrazolopyridine derivatives as potential angiogenesis inhibitors: Synthesis, biological evaluation and transcriptome-based mechanistic analysis.
Eur J Med Chem. 2016; 121:143-57 [PubMed] Related Publications
Modified purine derivatives exemplified by pyrazolopyrimidines have emerged as highly selective inhibitors of several angiogenic receptor tyrosine kinases. Herein, we designed and synthesized a new series of substituted pyrazolopyridines and explored their ability to influence crucial pro-angiogenic attributes of endothelial cells. Four of the synthesized compounds, possessing analogous substitution pattern, were found able to inhibit at low micromolar concentrations endothelial cell proliferation, migration and differentiation, constitutively or in response to Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and to attenuate VEGF-induced phosphorylation of VEGF receptor-2 and downstream kinases AKT and ERK1/2. Administration of effective compounds in mice delayed the growth of syngeneic Lewis lung carcinoma transplants and reduced tumor microvessel density, without causing toxicity. Genome-wide microarray and gene ontology analyses of treated endothelial cells revealed derivative 18c as the most efficient modulator of gene expression and "mitotic cell cycle/cell division" along with "cholesterol biosynthesis" as the most significantly altered biological processes.

Wu CF, Bohnert S, Thines E, Efferth T
Cytotoxicity of Salvia miltiorrhiza Against Multidrug-Resistant Cancer Cells.
Am J Chin Med. 2016; 44(4):871-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Lamiaceae) is a well-known Chinese herb that possesses numerous therapeutic activities, including anticancer effects. In this study, the cytotoxicity and the biological mechanisms of S. miltiorrhiza (SM) root extract on diverse resistant and sensitive cancer cell lines were investigated. CEM/ADR5000 cells were 1.68-fold resistant to CCRF-CEM cells, while HCT116 (p53[Formula: see text] and U87.MG[Formula: see text]EGFR cells were hypersensitive (collateral sensitive) compared to their parental cells. SM root extract stimulated ROS generation, cell cycle S phase arrest and apoptosis. The induction of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway was validated by increased cleavage of caspase 3, 7, 9 and poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP). MAP kinases including JNK, ERK1/2 and p38 were obviously phosphorylated and nuclear P65 was downregulated upon SM treatment. Transcriptome-wide COMPARE analysis revealed that the expression of encoding genes with diverse functions were associated with the cellular response to cryptotanshinone, one of the main constituents of SM root extract. In conclusion, SM root extract exerted profound cytotoxicity towards various sensitive and resistant cancer cells and induced the intrinsic apoptotic pathway.

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