Gene Summary

Gene:MMP13; matrix metallopeptidase 13
Aliases: CLG3, MDST, MANDP1, MMP-13
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the peptidase M10 family of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Proteins in this family are involved in the breakdown of extracellular matrix in normal physiological processes, such as embryonic development, reproduction, and tissue remodeling, as well as in disease processes, such as arthritis and metastasis. The encoded preproprotein is proteolytically processed to generate the mature protease. This protease cleaves type II collagen more efficiently than types I and III. It may be involved in articular cartilage turnover and cartilage pathophysiology associated with osteoarthritis. Mutations in this gene are associated with metaphyseal anadysplasia. This gene is part of a cluster of MMP genes on chromosome 11. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2016]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:collagenase 3
Source:NCBIAccessed: 09 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (26)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 10 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • TIMP1
  • Sequence Analysis
  • Stromal Cells
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma
  • Thyroid Cancer
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Matrix Metalloproteinases
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
  • p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases
  • Collagenases
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 13
  • Chromosome 11
  • Osteosarcoma
  • Tumor Burden
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Thailand
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • Substrate Specificity
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Wound Healing
  • Bone Cancer
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Messenger RNA
  • Cell Movement
  • Signal Transduction
  • Risk Factors
  • Enzymologic Gene Expression Regulation
  • Transcription Factors
  • MMP1
  • Breast Cancer
  • Up-Regulation
  • S100 Proteins
  • Protein Kinase C
  • Transcriptome
Tag cloud generated 09 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: MMP13 (cancer-related)

Shui Y, Yu X, Duan R, et al.
miR-130b-3p inhibits cell invasion and migration by targeting the Notch ligand Delta-like 1 in breast carcinoma.
Gene. 2017; 609:80-87 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast carcinoma is the most common malignancy in women, and the incidence rate has increased dramatically in recent years. Metastasis is responsible for most advanced breast cancer mortality, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood despite extensive research. Recently, short non-coding RNA molecules, including miRNAs, which mediate changes in signalling pathways, have emerged as metastatic regulators of the breast carcinoma. Previous reports have suggested that miR-130b-3p has both oncogenic and tumour suppressor functions in a cancer type-dependent manner. However, the roles and underlying molecular mechanisms of miR-130b-3p in the development of metastasis in breast carcinoma remain unclear. Here, we reported for the first time that miR-130b-3p was differentially expressed in early-stage non-invasive MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cells and aggressive late-stage MDA-MB-231 cells. In gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies, we demonstrated that miR-130b-3p could inhibit breast carcinoma cell invasion and migration by directly targeting the Notch ligand Delta-like 1 (DLL1). Our data also indicated that MMP-9, MMP-13, and VEGF were regulated by miR-130b-3p and may be involved in the inhibition of cell invasion and migration in breast carcinoma. Collectively, our findings reveal a new regulatory mechanism of miR-130b-3p and suggest that miR-130b-3p may be a potential target against human breast cancer metastasis.

Leopizzi M, Cocchiola R, Milanetti E, et al.
IKKα inibition by a glucosamine derivative enhances Maspin expression in osteosarcoma cell line.
Chem Biol Interact. 2017; 262:19-28 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chronic inflammation has been associated to cancer development by the alteration of several inflammatory pathways, such as Nuclear Factor-κB pathway. In particular, IκB kinase α (IKKα), one of two catalytic subunit of IKK complex, has been described to be associated to cancer progression and metastasis in a number of cancers. The molecular mechanism by which IKKα affects cancer progression is not yet completely clarified, anyway an association between IKKα and the expression of Maspin (Mammary Serine Protease Inhibitor or SerpinB5), a tumor suppressor protein, has been described. IKKα shuttles between cytoplasm and nucleus, and when is localized into the nuclei, IKKα regulates the expression of several genes, among them Maspin gene, whose expression is repressed by high amount of nuclear IKKα. Considering that high levels of Maspin have been associated with reduced metastatic progression, it could be hypothesized that the repression of IKKα nuclear translocation could be associated with the repression of metastatic phenotype. The present study is aimed to explore the ability of a glucosamine derivative, 2-(N-Carbobenzyloxy)l-phenylalanylamido-2-deoxy-β-d-glucose (NCPA), synthesized in our laboratory, to stimulate the production of Maspin in an osteosarcoma cell line, 143B. Immunofluorescence and Western blotting experiments showed that NCPA is able to inhibit IKKα nuclear translocation, and to stimulate Maspin production. Moreover, in association with stimulation of Maspin production we found the decrease of β1 Integrin expression, the down-regulation of metalloproteases MMP-9 and MMP-13 production and cell migration inhibition. Taking in account that β1 Integrin and MMP-9 and -13 have been correlated with the invasiveness of osteosarcoma, considering that NCPA affects the invasiveness of 143B cell line, we suggest that this molecule could affect the osteosarcoma metastatic ability.

Shang D, Zheng T, Zhang J, et al.
Profiling of mRNA and long non-coding RNA of urothelial cancer in recipients after renal transplantation.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(9):12673-12684 [PubMed] Related Publications
The molecular mechanism and signal transduction pathways involved in urothelial cancer (UC) after renal transplantation (RTx) remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the profiling of messenger RNA (mRNA) and long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) in RTx recipients with UC. The mRNA and lncRNA of six pairs of UC and corresponding normal urothelial tissues in RTx recipients were profiled using Arraystar Human lncRNA Microarray V3.0, which is designed for the global profiling of 26,109 coding transcripts and 30,586 lncRNAs. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to validate the differentially expressed mRNAs and lncRNAs. Molecular function classification and biological process classification for the differentially expressed mRNAs were analyzed with Gene Ontology. The key pathways that were associated with UC after RTx were analyzed using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. Compared to normal urothelial tissues, 1597 mRNAs were upregulated and 1032 mRNAs were downregulated in UC; 2107 lncRNAs were upregulated and 1794 lncRNAs were downregulated (greater than twofold). Further qRT-PCR analysis of mRNA and lncRNA expression showed well consistency with the data of microarray analysis. The expression of matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-3, MMP-10, MMP-12, and MMP-13 was significantly increased, while the expression of CD36 was decreased in UC after RTx. Co-expression analysis of lncRNAs and their nearby coding genes showed that lncRNAs may play critical roles in regulating nearby genes in the carcinogenesis of UC. Our results also suggest that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling may be involved in UC after RTx. Moreover, several cytokines and their receptors were also significantly upregulated in UC after RTx, suggesting that cytokines might be modulated and participated in the carcinogenesis of UC after RTx. We analyzed the potential molecular mechanism and pathways involved in the UC of RTx recipients. Our results revealed that several key regulatory pathways and lncRNAs play critical roles in the carcinogenesis of UC, and suggest that UC in RTx recipients may be more likely to invade and metastasis. However, the detailed functional analysis of these mechanisms should be further performed in the future.

Sedighi M, Aledavood SA, Abbaszadegan M, et al.
Matrix Metalloproteinase-13 - A Potential Biomarker for Detection and Prognostic Assessment of Patients with Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016; 17(6):2781-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Matric metalloproteinase (MMP) 13 gene expression is increased in esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCCs) and associated with increasing tumor invasion, lymph node involvement and decreased survival rates. Levels of the circulating enzyme may be elevated and used as a marker of tumor progression. In this study, clinical application of MMP-13 serum levels was evaluated for early detection, prediction of prognosis and survival time of ESCC patients.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Serum levels of MMP13 were determined by ELISA in 66 ESCC patients prior of any treatment and 54 healthy controls for comparison with clinicopathological data through statistical analysis with Man Whitney U and Log-Rank tests. In addition, clinical value of MMP13 levels for diagnosis was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) test.
RESULTS: The serum level of MMP-13 in patients (>250 pg/ml) was significantly higher than in the control group (<100 pg/ml) (p value=0.004). Also the results showed a significant correlation between MMP-13 serum levels with tumor stage (p value = 0.003), depth of tumor invasion (p value=0.008), involvement of lymph nodes (p value = 0.011), tumor size (p value = 0.018) and survival time. While there were no significant correlation with grade and location of tumors. ROC analysis showed that MMP-13 level is an accurate diagnostic marker especially to differentiate pre-invasive/ invasive lesions from normal controls (sensitivity and specificity: 100%).
CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate a potential clinical significance of serum MMP13 measurement for early detection and prognostic assessment in ESCC patients.

Bradbury R, Jiang WG, Cui YX
MDM2 and PSMA Play Inhibitory Roles in Metastatic Breast Cancer Cells Through Regulation of Matrix Metalloproteinases.
Anticancer Res. 2016; 36(3):1143-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Mouse double minute 2 (MDM2) and prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) are currently under investigation as individual therapeutic targets due to their overexpression in many cancer types, as well as their pro-tumorigenic effect on cells. Recently, knockdown of PSMA was linked to a decrease in MDM2 and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) and an increase in MMP3 and MMP13 expression. We aimed to assess the link between PSMA, MDM2 and the MMPs in metastatic breast cancer cell lines.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blotting were used to assess siRNA-mediated knockdown of MDM2 and PSMA in MDA-MB-231 and ZR-75.1 breast cancer cells. Assays to assess the growth, adhesion, migration and invasion of the cells following siRNA treatment were undertaken. MMP and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMP) levels were assessed via quantitative PCR.
RESULTS: Knockdown of MDM2 resulted in a decrease in PSMA expression levels and vice versa; although this trend was not replicated at the protein level. Knockdown of each of the molecules resulted in a decrease in growth, adhesion, migration and invasive ability of breast cancer cells. Both knockdowns led to a decrease in MMP2 and an increase in MMP3, -10 and -13 gene expression.
CONCLUSION: MDM2 and PSMA may co-regulate the expression of certain MMPs and, thus, the functionality of cells in metastatic breast cancer.

Chen H, Wang N, Yang G, et al.
The expression and function of E3 ligase SIAH2 in acute T lymphoblastic leukemia.
Leuk Res. 2016; 42:28-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The seven in absentia homolog 2 (SIAH2) protein plays a significant role in human cancer by regulating hypoxia-inducible factor-a (HIF-1α); however, its role in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is less clear.
METHODS: Immunofluorescence evaluation of SIAH2 protein expression and location were conducted in Jurkat cell (a T-ALL cell line) as well as in bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs) from T-ALL and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) patients. The expression of SIAH2 mRNA was also examined by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) in these cells. Lentivirus-packed shRNA targeting on SIAH2 (Lv-shSIAH2) was used to knock down SIAH2 expression in Jurkat cells. Cell proliferation, apoptosis, invasion and protein levels were then determined by CCK-8 assay, annexin V-PI assay, transwell and Western blotting, respectively.
RESULTS: The mRNA expression of SIAH2 in BMMNCs from primary T-ALL patients was significantly higher than cells from ITP patients (P=0.0312); There were significant positive associations between SIAH2 expression and the extramedullary infiltration (EMI) (P=0.0003), especially with the mediastinal lymph node metastasis (P=0.0168) and the pleural effusion (P=0.014). However, SIAH2 expression in T-ALL BMMNCs was not correlated with age, gender, white cell count or the clinical risk classification. SIAH2 knockdown by shRNA led to increased apoptosis and decreased proliferation, migration and invasion of Jurkat cells. Moreover, Prolyl Hydroxylase (PHD), P27 and Caspase3 were upregulated and HIF-1α, VEGF, VEGF Receptor 2, MMP-13, CyclinE1, C-myc and BCL2 were downregulated in SIAH2 knockdown Jurkat cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that SIAH2 regulates multi processes in T-ALL and may be an attractive therapeutic target.

Hirahata M, Osaki M, Kanda Y, et al.
PAI-1, a target gene of miR-143, regulates invasion and metastasis by upregulating MMP-13 expression of human osteosarcoma.
Cancer Med. 2016; 5(5):892-902 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Despite recent improvements in the therapy for osteosarcoma, 30-40% of osteosarcoma patients die of this disease, mainly due to its lung metastasis. We have previously reported that intravenous injection of miR-143 significantly suppresses lung metastasis of human osteosarcoma cells (143B) in a mouse model. In this study, we examined the biological role and mechanism of miR-143 in the metastasis of human osteosarcoma cells. We identified plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) as a direct target gene of miR-143. To determine the role of PAI-1 in human osteosarcoma cells, siRNA was transfected into 143B cells for knockdown of PAI-1 expression. An in vitro study showed that downregulation of PAI-1 suppressed cell invasion activity, but not proliferation. Moreover, injection of PAI-1 siRNA into a primary lesion in the osteosarcoma mouse model inhibited lung metastasis compared to control siRNA-injected mice, without influencing the proliferative activity of the tumor cells. Subsequent examination using 143B cells revealed that knockdown of PAI-1 expression resulted in downregulation of the expression and secretion of matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13), which is also a target gene of miR-143 and a proteolytic enzyme that regulates tumor-induced osteolysis. Immunohistochemical analysis using clinical samples showed that higher miR-143 expressing cases showed poor expression of PAI-1 in the primary tumor cells. All such cases belonged to the lung metastasis-negative group. Moreover, the frequency of lung metastasis-positive cases was significantly higher in PAI-1 and MMP-13 double-positive cases than in PAI-1 or MMP-13 single-positive or double-negative cases (P < 0.05). These results indicated that PAI-1, a target gene of miR-143, regulates invasion and lung metastasis via enhancement of MMP-13 expression and secretion in human osteosarcoma cells, suggesting that these molecules could be potential therapeutic target genes for preventing lung metastasis in osteosarcoma patients.

Moon HG, Kim N, Jeong S, et al.
The Clinical Significance and Molecular Features of the Spatial Tumor Shapes in Breast Cancers.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(12):e0143811 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Each breast cancer has its unique spatial shape, but the clinical importance and the underlying mechanism for the three-dimensional tumor shapes are mostly unknown. We collected the data on the three-dimensional tumor size and tumor volume data of invasive breast cancers from 2,250 patients who underwent surgery between Jan 2000 and Jul 2007. The degree of tumor eccentricity was estimated by using the difference between the spheroid tumor volume and ellipsoid tumor volume (spheroid-ellipsoid discrepancy, SED). In 41 patients, transcriptome and exome sequencing data obtained. Estimation of more accurate tumor burden by calculating ellipsoid tumor volumes did not improve the outcome prediction when compared to the traditional longest diameter measurement. However, the spatial tumor eccentricity, which was measured by SED, showed significant variation between the molecular subtypes of breast cancer. Additionally, the degree of tumor eccentricity was associated with well-known prognostic factors of breast cancer such as tumor size and lymph node metastasis. Transcriptome data from 41 patients showed significant association between MMP13 and spatial tumor shapes. Network analysis and analysis of TCGA gene expression data suggest that MMP13 is regulated by ERBB2 and S100A7A. The present study validates the usefulness of the current tumor size method in determining tumor stages. Furthermore, we show that the tumors with high eccentricity are more likely to have aggressive tumor characteristics. Genes involved in the extracellular matrix remodeling can be candidate regulators of the spatial tumor shapes in breast cancer.

Jiang YN, Yan HQ, Huang XB, et al.
Interleukin 6 trigged ataxia-telangiectasia mutated activation facilitates lung cancer metastasis via MMP-3/MMP-13 up-regulation.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(38):40719-33 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Our previous studies show that the phosphorylation of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) induced by interleukin 6 (IL-6) treatment contributes to multidrug resistance formation in lung cancer cells, but the exact role of ATM activation in IL-6 increased metastasis is still elusive. In the present study, matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) and MMP-13 were firstly demonstrated to be involved in IL-6 correlated cell migration. Secondly, IL-6 treatment not only increased MMP-3/MMP-13 expression but also augmented its activities. Thirdly, the inhibition of ATM phosphorylation efficiently abolished IL-6 up-regulating MMP-3/MMP-13 expression and increasing abilities of cell migration. Most importantly, the in vivo test showed that the inhibition of ATM abrogate the effect of IL-6 on lung cancer metastasis via MMP-3/MMP-13 down-regulation. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that IL-6 inducing ATM phosphorylation increases the expression of MMP-3/MMP-13, augments the abilities of cell migration, and promotes lung cancer metastasis, indicating that ATM is a potential target molecule to overcome IL-6 correlated lung cancer metastasis.

Lin C, Lin W, Yeh S, et al.
Infiltrating neutrophils increase bladder cancer cell invasion via modulation of androgen receptor (AR)/MMP13 signals.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(40):43081-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Early studies indicated that several inflammatory immune cells, including macrophages, mast cells, B and T cells in the tumor microenvironment, might influence cancer progression. Here we found that bladder cancer (BCa) cells could recruit more neutrophils than normal bladder cells. The consequences of recruiting more neutrophils might then increase BCa cell invasion via up-regulating androgen receptor (AR) signals. Mechanism dissection revealed infiltrating neutrophils could up-regulate AR signals via either increased AR mRNA/protein expression or increased AR transactivation. The increased AR signals might then enhance BCa cell invasion via increasing MMP13 expression. Together, these results might provide us a new potential therapeutic approach to better battle BCa metastasis via targeting the newly identified signaling from infiltrating neutrophils to BCa through AR to MMP13 signals.

Romero D, Al-Shareef Z, Gorroño-Etxebarria I, et al.
Dickkopf-3 regulates prostate epithelial cell acinar morphogenesis and prostate cancer cell invasion by limiting TGF-β-dependent activation of matrix metalloproteases.
Carcinogenesis. 2016; 37(1):18-29 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dickkopf-3 (Dkk-3) is a secreted protein whose expression is downregulated in many types of cancer. Endogenous Dkk-3 is required for formation of acini in 3D cultures of prostate epithelial cells, where it inhibits transforming growth factor (TGF)-β/Smad signaling. Here, we examined the effects of Dkk-3 on the expression and activity of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs), which mediate the effects of TGF-β on extracellular matrix disassembly during tissue morphogenesis and promote invasion of tumor cells. Silencing of Dkk-3 in prostate epithelial cells resulted in increased expression and enzyme activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9. Inhibition of MMP-9 partially restored normal acinar morphogenesis in Dkk-3-silenced RWPE-1 prostate epithelial cells. In PC3 prostate cancer cells, Dkk-3 inhibited TGF-β-dependent migration and invasion. Inhibition was mediated by the Dkk-3 C-terminal cysteine-rich domain (Cys2), which also inhibited TGF-β-induced expression of MMP9 and MMP13. In contrast, Dkk-3, but not Cys2, increased formation of normal acini in Dkk-3-silenced prostate epithelial cells. These observations highlight a role for Dkk-3 in modulating TGF-β/MMP signals in the prostate, and suggest that the Dkk-3 Cys2 domain can be used as a basis for therapies that target the tumor promoting effects of TGF-β signaling in advanced prostate cancer.

Artacho-Cordón F, Ríos-Arrabal S, Olivares-Urbano MA, et al.
Valproic acid modulates radiation-enhanced matrix metalloproteinase activity and invasion of breast cancer cells.
Int J Radiat Biol. 2015; 91(12):946-56 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To evaluate matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity and invasion after ionizing radiation (IR) exposure and to determine whether MMP could be epigenetically modulated by histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two human breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7) were cultured in monolayer (2D) and in laminin-rich extracellular matrix (3D). Invasion capability, collagenolytic and gelatinolytic activity, MMP and TIMP protein and mRNA expression and clonogenic survival were analyzed after IR exposure, with and without a HDAC inhibition treatment [1.5 mM valproic acid (VA) or 1 μM trichostatin-A (TSA)].
RESULTS: IR exposure resulted in cell line-dependent stimulation of invasion capacity. In contrast to MCF-7 cells, irradiated MDA-MB-231 showed significantly enhanced mRNA expression of mmp-1, mmp-3 and mmp-13 and of their regulators timp-1 and timp-2 relative to unirradiated controls. This translated into increased collagenolytic and gelatinolytic activity and could be reduced after valproic acid (VA) treatment. Additionally, VA also mitigated IR-enhanced mmp and timp mRNA expression as well as IR-increased invasion capability. Finally, our data confirm the radiosensitizing effect of VA.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that IR cell line-dependently induces upregulation of MMP mRNA expression, which appears to be mechanistically linked to a higher invasion capability that is modifiable by HDAC inhibition.

Pan D, Zhu Y, Zhou Z, et al.
The CBM Complex Underwrites NF-κB Activation to Promote HER2-Associated Tumor Malignancy.
Mol Cancer Res. 2016; 14(1):93-102 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: The HER2/Neu protein is overexpressed in a large fraction of human breast cancers. NF-κB is one of several transcription factors that are aberrantly activated in HER2-positive breast cancers; however, the molecular mechanism by which HER2 activates NF-κB remains unclear. The CARMA3-BCL10-MALT1 (CBM) complex is required for GPCR- and EGFR-induced NF-κB activation. In the current study, the role of the CBM complex in HER2-mediated NF-κB activation and HER2-positive breast cancer was investigated. Interestingly, HER2-mediated NF-κB activation requires protein kinase C (PKC) activity rather than AKT activity. Using biochemical and genetic approaches, it was shown that the CBM complex is required for HER2-induced NF-κB activation and functionally contributes to multiple properties of malignancy, such as proliferation, avoidance of apoptosis, migration, and invasion, both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, CARMA3-mediated NF-κB activity was required for the upregulation of two matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), MMP1 and MMP13, both of which contribute to tumor metastasis. To further access the physiologic role of CBM complex-mediated NF-κB activation in HER2-positive breast cancer progression, Malt1 knockout mice (Malt1(-/-)) were crossed with MMTV-Neu mice, in which mammary tumors spontaneously developed with HER2 overexpression. We observed delayed onset and prolonged progression time in mammary tumors in Malt1 knockout mice compared with control mice. In summary, these data demonstrate that the CBM complex is a crucial component mediating HER2-induced NF-κB signaling and tumor malignancy in HER2-positive breast cancer.
IMPLICATIONS: The CBM complex bridges key signaling pathways to confer malignant phenotypes and metastatic potential in HER2-associated breast cancer.

Tan M, Gong H, Wang J, et al.
SENP2 regulates MMP13 expression in a bladder cancer cell line through SUMOylation of TBL1/TBLR1.
Sci Rep. 2015; 5:13996 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Bladder cancer (BC) is the most popular malignant urinary cancer in China. BC has the highest incidence and mortality among all genitourinary system tumors. Although the early-stage BC could be treated with advanced electron flexible systourethroscope, early metastasis of the BC occur frequently, and often results in poor prognosis. Recently, we reported that small ubiquitin related modifier (SUMO)-specific protease 2 (SENP2) was downregulated in BC specimen. SENP2 appeared to inhibit migration and invasion of bladder cancer cells in vitro, through suppressing MMP13 in BC cells. However, the exact underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we reported that SENP2 inhibited nuclear translocation of β-catenin, which targeted the promotor of MMP13 to activate MMP13 to enhance BC cell metastasis. WNT ligands induced TBL1/TBLR1 SUMOylation to form complexes with β-catenin to facilitate β-catenin nuclear translocation, which could be efficiently inhibited through suppression of SUMOylation of TBL1/TBLR1. Together, our data suggest that SENP2 inhibits MMP13 expression in BC cells through de-SUMOylation of TBL1/TBLR1, which inhibits nuclear translocation of β-catenin. Thus, SENP2 may be a promising therapeutic target for BC.

Chou YC, Chang MY, Wang MJ, et al.
PEITC inhibits human brain glioblastoma GBM 8401 cell migration and invasion through the inhibition of uPA, Rho A, and Ras with inhibition of MMP-2, -7 and -9 gene expression.
Oncol Rep. 2015; 34(5):2489-96 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioblastoma is the most aggressive primary brain malignancy, and the efficacy of multimodality treatments remains unsatisfactory. Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), one member of the isothiocyanate family, was found to inhibit the migration and invasion of many types of human cancer cells. In our previous study, PEITC induced the apoptosis of human brain glioblastoma GBM 8401 cells through the extrinsic and intrinsic signaling pathways. In the present study, we first investigated the effects of PEITC on the migration and invasion of GBM 8401 cells. PEITC decreased the migration of GBM 8401 cells in a dose-dependent manner as determined from scratch wound healing and Transwell migration assays. The percentage of inhibition ranged from 46.89 to 15.75%, and from 27.80 to 7.31% after a 48-h treatment of PEITC as determined from the Transwell migration assay and invasion assay, respectively. The western blot analysis indicated that PEITC decreased the levels of proteins associated with migration and invasion, Ras, uPA, RhoA, GRB2, p-p38, p-JNK, p-ERK, p65, SOS1, MMP-2, MMP-9 and MMP-13, in a dose-dependent manner. Real-time PCR analyses revealed that PEITC reduced the mRNA levels of MMP-2, MMP-7, MMP-9 and RhoA in a dose- and time-dependent manner. PEITC exhibited potent anticancer activities through the inhibition of migration and invasion in the GBM 8401 cells. Our findings elucidate the possible molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways of the anti-metastatic effects of PEITC on human brain glioblastoma cells, and PEITC may be considered as a therapeutic agent.

Yang S, Long M, Tachado SD, Seng S
Cigarette smoke modulates PC3 prostate cancer cell migration by altering adhesion molecules and the extracellular matrix.
Mol Med Rep. 2015; 12(5):6990-6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second leading cause of cancer‑related mortality among American males. Studies suggest that cigarette smoking is associated with the progression of PCa; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this process have not been extensively investigated. PCa progression is characterized by increased cell migration and alterations in extracellular matrix (ECM)‑ and cell adhesion molecule (CAM)‑related gene expression. In the present study, the influence of cigarette smoke medium (SM) on cell migration and on the expression of ECM‑ and CAM‑related genes in PC3 prostate adenocarcinoma cells was investigated. According to a wound‑healing assay, SM treatment promoted PC3 cell migration. RNA expression levels from SM‑treated and control cells were analyzed using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) array. Of 84 genes analyzed, 27.38% (23/84) exhibited a ≥2‑fold change in threshold cycle in PC3 cells following 0.5% SM treatment. Functional gene grouping analysis demonstrated that SM treatment modulated the RNA transcription of approximately 18.4% of CAMs and 33.93% of ECM‑related genes. Quantitative PCR analysis showed that SM treatment led to a significant decrease in transcription levels of the following genes: Collagen 5 α‑1(V), connective tissue growth factor, integrin β‑2, kallmann syndrome 1, laminin α 3, matrix metallopeptidase 7 (MMP7), MMP13, secreted protein acidic cysteine‑rich, thrombospondin‑2 and versican; and that SM significantly increased the transcription levels of MMP2 and MMP12. Furthermore, MMP2 knockdown significantly reduced the migration of SM‑treated PC3 cells. The present study provides novel insights into the association of cigarette smoking with PCa progression, via the alteration of ECM/CAM interactions.

Li J, Zhu SC, Li SG, et al.
TKTL1 promotes cell proliferation and metastasis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2015; 74:71-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Transketolase-like-1 (TKTL1), which is a rate-limiting enzyme in the non-oxidative part of the pentose-phosphate pathway, has been demonstrated to promote carcinogenesis through enhanced aerobic glycolysis. Dysregulation of TKTL1 expression also leads to poor prognosis in patients with urothelial and colorectal cancer. However, the expression pattern and underlying cellular functions in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remain largely unexplored. In this study, we measured TKTL1 expression in ESCC cell lines and paraffin-embedded ESCC tumor tissues. Our results revealed that TKTL1 expression was upregulated in all of the four ESCC cell lines and in 61.25% (98/160) of ESCC specimens detected, while only 27.5% (11/40) in normal epithelium. Silencing of TKTL1 expression decreased cell proliferation through inhibiting the expression of MKI67 and cyclins including Ccna2, Ccnb1, Ccnd1 and Ccne1. Meanwhile, down-regulation of TKTL1 also associated with increased apoptotic ratio and altered protein expression of Bcl-2 family in ESCC cells. Furthermore, knockdown of TKTL1 significantly reduced the invasive potential of ESCC cells through up-regulation of anti-metastasis genes (MTSS1, TIMP2 and CTSK) and down-regulation of pr-metastasis genes (MMP2, MMP9, MMP10 and MMP13). Taken together, our results indicate that TKTL1 is associated with a more aggressive behavior in ESCC cells and suppresses its expression or enzyme activity might represents a potential target for developing novel therapies in human ESCCs.

Datar I, Feng J, Qiu X, et al.
RKIP Inhibits Local Breast Cancer Invasion by Antagonizing the Transcriptional Activation of MMP13.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(8):e0134494 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Raf Kinase Inhibitory Protein or RKIP was initially identified as a Raf-1 binding protein using the yeast 2-hybrid screen. RKIP inhibits the activation phosphorylation of MEK by Raf-1 by competitively inhibiting the binding of MEK to Raf-1 and thus exerting an inhibitory effect on the Raf-MEK-Erk pathway. RKIP has been identified as a metastasis suppressor gene. Expression of RKIP is low in cancer metastases. Although primary tumor growth remains unaffected, re- expression of RKIP inhibits cancer metastasis. Mechanistically, RKIP constrains metastasis by inhibiting angiogenesis, local invasion, intravasation, and colonization. The molecular mechanism of how RKIP inhibits these individual steps remains undefined. In our present study, using an unbiased PCR based screening and by analyzing DNA microarray expression datasets we observe that the expression of multiple metalloproteases (MMPs) including MMP1, MMP3, MMP10 and MMP13 are negatively correlated with RKIP expression in breast cancer cell lines and clinical samples. Since expression of MMPs by cancer cells is important for cancer metastasis, we hypothesize that RKIP may mediate suppression of breast cancer metastasis by inhibiting multiple MMPs. We show that the expression signature of RKIP and MMPs is better at predicting high metastatic risk than the individual gene. Using a combination of loss- and gain-of-function approaches, we find that MMP13 is the cause of RKIP-mediated inhibition of local cancer invasion. Interestingly expression of MMP13 alone is not sufficient to reverse the inhibition of breast cancer cell metastasis to the lung due to the expression of RKIP. We find that RKIP negatively regulates MMP13 through the Erk2 signaling pathway and the repression of MMP13 by RKIP is transcription factor AP-1 independent. Together, our findings indicate that RKIP inhibits cancer cell invasion, in part, via MMP13 inhibition. These data also implicate RKIP in the regulation of MMP transcription, suggesting a potential mechanism by which RKIP inhibits tumor progression and metastasis.

Ou Z, Wang Y, Liu L, et al.
Tumor microenvironment B cells increase bladder cancer metastasis via modulation of the IL-8/androgen receptor (AR)/MMPs signals.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(28):26065-78 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
While B cells in the tumor microenvironment may play important roles in cancer progression, their impacts on the bladder cancer (BCa) metastasis remain unclear. Here we found from human clinical BCa samples that BCa tissues could recruit more B cells than the surrounding normal bladder tissues and the in vitro co-culture assay also demonstrated that B cells could be recruited more easily towards BCa cells compared to normal bladder cells. Chamber invasion and 3D invasion assays showed the recruited B cells could then significantly increase the BCa cell invasion. Mechanism dissection found that recruited B cells could increase IL-8/androgen receptor (AR) signals in BCa cells that could then promote the expression of metastasis genes including MMP1 and MMP13. Blocking the IL-8/AR/MMPs signals either by anti-IL-8 neutralizing antibody, AR-siRNA, or MMPs inhibitors all partially reversed the infiltrating B cells capacity to increase the BCa cell invasion. The in vivo data from orthotopically xenografted BCa mouse model also confirmed that infiltrating B cells could increase BCa cell invasion via increasing AR signals. Together, these results demonstrate the key roles of B cells within the bladder tumor microenvironment that increase the BCa metastasis and may help us to develop the potential therapies via targeting these newly identified IL-8/AR/MMPs signals to better battle the BCa progression.

Xu W, Wan Q, Na S, et al.
Suppressed invasive and migratory behaviors of SW1353 chondrosarcoma cells through the regulation of Src, Rac1 GTPase, and MMP13.
Cell Signal. 2015; 27(12):2332-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chondrosarcoma is the second frequent type of primary bone cancer. In response to stress to the endoplasmic reticulum, activation of eIF2α-mediated signaling is reported to induce apoptosis. However, its effects on invasive and migratory behaviors of chondrosarcoma have not been understood. Focusing on potential roles of Src kinase, Rac1 GTPase, and MMP13, we investigated eIF2α-driven regulation of SW1353 chondrosarcoma cells. In particular, we employed two chemical agents (salubrinal, Sal; and guanabenz, Gu) that elevate the level of eIF2α phosphorylation. The result revealed that both Sal and Gu reduced invasion and motility of SW1353 chondrosarcoma cells in a dose dependent manner. Live imaging using a fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET) technique showed that Sal and Gu downregulated activities of Src kinase as well as Rac1 GTPase in an eIF2α dependent manner. RNA interference experiments supported an eIF2α-mediated regulatory network in the inhibitory role of Sal and Gu. Partial silencing of MMP13 also suppressed malignant phenotypes of SW1353 chondrosarcoma cells. However, MMP13 was not regulated via eIF2α since administration of Sal but not Gu reduced expression of MMP13. In summary, we demonstrate that eIF2α dependent and independent pathways regulate invasion and motility of SW1353 chondrosarcoma cells, and inactivation of Src, Rac1, and MMP13 by Sal could provide a potential adjuvant therapy for combating metastatic chondrosarcoma cells.

Xue J, Chen Z, Gu X, et al.
MicroRNA-148a inhibits migration of breast cancer cells by targeting MMP-13.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(2):1581-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer is a threat to the health of women, and metastasis of breast cancer cells plays an important role in the deterioration of breast cancer. MicroRNAs play a critical role in the tumorigenesis and development of breast cancer. MicroRNA-148a (miR-148a) is associated with the growth and metastasis of tumor cells. In the present study, we investigated the role of miR-148a in migration of breast cancer cells as well as the underlying mechanism. MiR-148a was found to inhibit the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells. To further explore the mechanism through which miR-148a plays its antitumor role, matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) was identified as a target of miR-148a by western blot and luciferase reporter assay. Moreover, silence of MMP-13 mimicked the effect of miR-148a, whereas overexpression of MMP-13 rescued the impaired migration caused by miR-148a. Our study demonstrates that miR-148a inhibits the migration of breast cancer cells by targeting MMP-13 and also lays theoretical foundation for further exploration for the function of miR-148a.

Heo JH, Song JY, Jeong JY, et al.
Fibulin-5 is a tumour suppressor inhibiting cell migration and invasion in ovarian cancer.
J Clin Pathol. 2016; 69(2):109-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: Fibulin-5 is an extracellular matrix (ECM) glycoprotein which has a role in the organisation and stabilisation of ECM structures and regulating cell proliferation and tumourigenesis. Here, the expression of fibulin-5 and its functional effects on the migration and invasion of ovarian cancer cells were assessed.
METHODS: Expression of fibulin-5 was detected in 44 ovarian tumour tissues by qRT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. We performed cell migration and invasion assays, and cell cycle analysis in fibulin-5 transfected SKOV3 (SKOV3-FBLN5) cells and the parental SKOV3 cells. We further examined the expression of three tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) and seven matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) by RT-PCR.
RESULTS: mRNA and protein expression of fibulin-5 were down-regulated (0.05-fold and 0.1-fold) in ovarian carcinomas compared with control tissues (p<0.01 and p=0.022). In wound-healing and invasion assays, significantly fewer SKOV3-FBLN5 cells than SKOV3 control cells migrated and invaded (39.1%, p=0.046 and 70%, p=0.03, respectively), which was reversed by siRNA-treatment. Overexpression of fibulin-5 induced G2/M arrest and increased cyclin B1, CDC2 and CDC25C. Expression of TIMP-2 (0.56-fold), MMP-3 (0.43-fold) and MMP-13 (0.18-fold) was lower and MMP-9 expression (2.20-fold) was higher in SKOV3-FBLN5 cells than in control cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Fibulin-5 is significantly down-regulated in ovarian carcinoma and acts as a tumour suppressor by inhibiting the migration and invasion of ovarian cancer cells.

Luo Q, Wang C, Jin G, et al.
LIFR functions as a metastasis suppressor in hepatocellular carcinoma by negatively regulating phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT pathway.
Carcinogenesis. 2015; 36(10):1201-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes for cancer related mortality worldwide. Poor prognosis of HCC patients is mainly due to frequent metastasis and recurrence. Deregulation of metastasis suppressors in malignant cells plays critical roles during cancer metastasis. Thus, novel metastasis suppressors are urgently needed to be uncovered to shed new light on molecular mechanisms driving HCC metastasis. In the present study, decreased expression of leukemia inhibitory factor receptor (LIFR) was demonstrated in HCC, and its expression levels were even lower in HCC with metastasis. Downregulated LIFR expression predicted poor prognosis in HCC patients. LIFR was an independent and significant risk factor for their recurrence and survival. Silencing LIFR resulted in forced metastasis of HCC cells, whereas ectopic overexpression of LIFR attenuated migration and invasion of HCC cells in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, LIFR knockdown could activate phosphoinositide 3-kinase/V-akt Murine Thymoma Viral Oncogene Homolog (PI3K/AKT) signaling through enhancing phosphorylation of Janus kinase 1 (JAK1), which successively promoted matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP13) expression and HCC metastasis. Combination of LIFR and p-AKT or MMP13 was a more powerful predictor of poor prognosis for HCC patients. Together, these findings conclude that LIFR functions as a novel metastasis suppressor in HCC and may serve as a prognostic biomarker for HCC patients.

Li H, Liang X, Qin X, et al.
Association of matrix metalloproteinase family gene polymorphisms with lung cancer risk: logistic regression and generalized odds of published data.
Sci Rep. 2015; 5:10056 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Many studies have reported the association between the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) polymorphisms and lung cancer susceptibility, but the results were inconclusive. We conducted a meta-analysis, using a comprehensive strategy based on the logistic regression and a model-free approach, to derive a more precise estimation of the relationship between MMP1, MMP2, MMP9 and MMP13 polymorphisms with lung cancer risk. A total of 22 case-control studies including 8202 cases and 7578 controls were included in this meta-analysis. For MMP1-1607 1G/2G, increased lung cancer risk was found among Asians in additive model(OR = 1.34, 95%CI:1.18-1.53) and with model-free approach(ORG = 1.41, 95%CI:1.21-1.65). For MMP2-1306 C/T and -735 C/T, based on the model-free approach, a significantly reduced risk was found in Asians(MMP2-1306 C/T:ORG = 0.49,95%CI:0.42-0.57; MMP2-735 C/T: ORG = 0.71, 95%CI:0.61-0.84). For MMP9-1562 C/T, a significantly increased risk was found among Asians(OR = 2.73, 95%CI:1.74-4.27) with model-free approach. For MMP13-77A/G, there was no association between this polymorphism and lung cancer risk in the recessive model(OR = 1.02, 95%CI:0.83-1.26) and with the model-free approach(ORG = 0.95, 95%CI:0.76-1.17). Therefore, this meta-analysis suggests that the MMP1-1607 1G/2G, MMP2-1306 C/T, MMP2-735 C/T, MMP9 -1562 C/T polymorphisms were risk factors for lung cancer among Asians, while MMP13 -77A/G polymorphism was not associated with lung cancer risk.

Deng B, Qiu B
Shikonin inhibits invasiveness of osteosarcoma through MMP13 suppression.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(12):9311-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignant bone tumor, notorious for its metastasis. We have recently shown that shikonin, an effective constituent extracted from Chinese medicinal herb, induces necroptosis in OS cells. Nevertheless, the effects of low-dose shikonin on the invasiveness of OS cells are unknown. Here, we showed that shikonin dose-dependently decreased OS cell invasiveness in both scratch wound healing assay and transwell cell migration assay. Moreover, the direct target of shikonin on cell invasiveness was found to be matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13. Further, the inhibitory effects of shikonin on cell invasiveness were completely abolished in MMP13-overexpressing OS cells. Together, these data suggest that shikonin may suppress OS invasiveness through MMP13 suppression. Thus, our data highlight a previous unappreciated role for shikonin in suppressing OS cell metastasis.

Sassano A, Mavrommatis E, Arslan AD, et al.
Human Schlafen 5 (SLFN5) Is a Regulator of Motility and Invasiveness of Renal Cell Carcinoma Cells.
Mol Cell Biol. 2015; 35(15):2684-98 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We provide evidence that human SLFN5, an interferon (IFN)-inducible member of the Schlafen (SLFN) family of proteins, exhibits key roles in controlling motility and invasiveness of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells. Our studies define the mechanism by which this occurs, demonstrating that SLFN5 negatively controls expression of the matrix metalloproteinase 1 gene (MMP-1), MMP-13, and several other genes involved in the control of malignant cell motility. Importantly, our data establish that SLFN5 expression correlates with a better overall survival in a large cohort of patients with RCC. The inverse relationship between SLFN5 expression and RCC aggressiveness raises the possibility of developing unique therapeutic approaches in the treatment of RCC, by modulating SLFN5 expression.

Xia J, Yu X, Tang L, et al.
P2X7 receptor stimulates breast cancer cell invasion and migration via the AKT pathway.
Oncol Rep. 2015; 34(1):103-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
Purinergic signaling has been implicated in the regulation of many cellular processes. A high concentration of ATP has been observed in the tumor microenvironment, suggesting a possible role of extracellular ATP in tumor progression. The P2X7 receptor, which belongs to the ligand-gated ion channel receptor family, is involved in tumor development and metastasis. In the present study, we found that extracellular ATP stimulated the invasion and migration of human T47D breast cancer cells, in a dose-dependent manner. BzATP (ATP analogue), but not ADP, also promoted invasion and migration. We further found that the P2X7 receptor was highly expressed in the T47D cells. After knockdown of the P2X7 receptor, ATP-stimulated invasion and migration were markedly inhibited. Moreover, activation of the P2X7 receptor by ATP downregulated the protein level of E-cadherin and upregulated the production of MMP-13. In addition, ATP time-dependently induced the activation of AKT via the P2X7 receptor, and the AKT pathway was required for the ATP-mediated invasion and migration. Taken together, our results revealed that activation of the P2X7 receptor by ATP promotes breast cancer cell invasion and migration, possibly via activation of the AKT pathway and regulation of E-cadherin and MMP-13 expression. Therefore, the P2X7 receptor may be a useful therapeutic target for the treatment of breast cancer.

Fan Y, Gan Y, Shen Y, et al.
Leptin signaling enhances cell invasion and promotes the metastasis of human pancreatic cancer via increasing MMP-13 production.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(18):16120-34 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Emerging evidence has suggested that leptin, an adipokine related to energy homeostasis, plays a role in cancer growth and metastasis. However, its impact on pancreatic cancer is rarely studied. In this study, we found that leptin's functional receptor Ob-Rb was expressed in pancreatic cancer cell lines. Treatment with leptin enhanced the migration and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells but did not affect the proliferation of human pancreatic cancer cells. Leptin up-regulated the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) via the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway. The overexpression of leptin was shown to significantly promote tumor growth and lymph node metastasis in a subcutaneous model and an orthotopic model of human pancreatic cancer, respectively. Furthermore, in human pancreatic cancer tissues, the expression of Ob-Rb was positively correlated with the MMP-13 level. The increased expression of either Ob-Rb or MMP-13 was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis and tended to be associated with the TNM stage in patients with pancreatic cancer. Our findings suggest that leptin enhances the invasion of pancreatic cancer through the increase in MMP-13 production, and targeting the leptin/MMP-13 axis could be an attractive therapeutic strategy for pancreatic cancer.

Foda AA, El-Hawary AK, Aziz AA
Colorectal adenocarcinoma with mucinous component: relation of MMP-13, EGFR, and E-cadherin expressions to clinicopathological features and prognosis.
APMIS. 2015; 123(6):502-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of this study was to compare colorectal adenocarcinoma with mucinous component, ordinary adenocarcinoma (OA) and mucinous adenocarcinoma (MA) regarding clinicopathological parameters, survival, EGFR, MMP-13, and E-cadherin. We studied tumor tissue specimens from 28 patients with adenocarcinoma with mucinous component, 47 with OA, and 56 with MA, who underwent radical surgery from January 2007 to January 2012 at the Gastroenterology Centre, Mansoura University, Egypt. High density manual tissue microarrays were constructed and immunohistochemistry for EGFR, MMP-13, and E-cadherin was done. Colorectal adenocarcinoma with mucinous component (AWMC) was significantly associated with more perineural invasion, lower EGFR, and MMP-13 expressions than OA, with no difference in E-cadherin expression. Conversely, only microscopic abscess formation was significantly more with colorectal AWMC than MC with no difference in EGFR, MMP-13 and E-cadherin expression between both groups. Colorectal AWMC showed a better survival than MA with no difference with OA. In a univariate analysis, EGFR, MMP-13, and E-cadherin expressions did not show a significant impact on disease-free or overall survival in patients with colorectal AWMC. Colorectal AWMC remains a vague entity that resembles OA in some clinicopathological and molecular respects as well as MA.

Mendonsa AM, VanSaun MN, Ustione A, et al.
Host and tumor derived MMP13 regulate extravasation and establishment of colorectal metastases in the liver.
Mol Cancer. 2015; 14:49 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common liver diseases in the United States and worldwide. Our studies have previously shown an increase in metastatic burden in steatotic vs. normal livers using a mouse model of diet induced steatosis. In the present study we aim to identify and evaluate the molecular factors responsible for this increase in tumor burden.
METHODS: We assessed changes in expression of a panel of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) using qRT-PCR between normal and steatotic livers and validated them with western blot analysis of protein levels. To evaluate the role of MMP13 on tumor development, we utilized a splenic injection model of liver metastasis in Wildtype and Mmp13 deficient mice, using either parental or stable Mmp13 knockdown cell lines. Further, to evaluate changes in the ability of tumor cells to extravasate we utilized whole organ confocal microscopy to identify individual tumor cells relative to the vasculature. MTT, migration and invasion assays were performed to evaluate the role of tumor derived MMP13 on hallmarks of cancer in vitro.
RESULTS: We found that MMP13 was significantly upregulated in the steatotic liver both in mice as well as human patients with NAFLD. We showed a decrease in metastatic tumor burden in Mmp13-/- mice compared to wildtype mice, explained in part by a reduction in the number of tumor cells extravasating from the hepatic vasculature in the Mmp13-/- mice compared to wildtype mice. Additionally, loss of tumor derived MMP13 through stable knockdown in tumor cell lines lead to decreased migratory and invasive properties in vitro and metastatic burden in vivo.
CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that stromal as well as tumor derived MMP13 contribute to tumor cell extravasation and establishment of metastases in the liver microenvironment.

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