Gene Summary

Gene:MMP13; matrix metallopeptidase 13
Aliases: CLG3, MDST, MANDP1, MMP-13
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the peptidase M10 family of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Proteins in this family are involved in the breakdown of extracellular matrix in normal physiological processes, such as embryonic development, reproduction, and tissue remodeling, as well as in disease processes, such as arthritis and metastasis. The encoded preproprotein is proteolytically processed to generate the mature protease. This protease cleaves type II collagen more efficiently than types I and III. It may be involved in articular cartilage turnover and cartilage pathophysiology associated with osteoarthritis. Mutations in this gene are associated with metaphyseal anadysplasia. This gene is part of a cluster of MMP genes on chromosome 11. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2016]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:collagenase 3
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (26)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma
  • MicroRNAs
  • Thyroid Cancer
  • Tumor Burden
  • Breast Cancer
  • Messenger RNA
  • Chromosome 11
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • S100 Proteins
  • Bone Cancer
  • Thailand
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 13
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
  • DNA Sequence Analysis
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Collagenases
  • TIMP1
  • Stromal Cells
  • Cell Movement
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Sp1 Transcription Factor
  • Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Protein Kinase C
  • Substrate Specificity
  • Transcriptome
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Sequence Analysis
  • Osteolysis
  • Risk Factors
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • RNA Interference
  • Wound Healing
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Osteosarcoma
  • Transcription Factors
  • Enzymologic Gene Expression Regulation
  • MMP1
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Cell Proliferation
  • p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: MMP13 (cancer-related)

Ren J, Liu J, Sui X
Correlation of COX-2 and MMP-13 expressions with gastric cancer and their effects on prognosis.
J BUON. 2019 Jan-Feb; 24(1):187-193 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To study the expressions of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) genes in gastric cancer, and to investigate the correlation between them and gastric cancer and their effects on prognosis.
METHODS: 80 cases of tumor tissues and 40 cases of normal tumor-adjacent tissues were collected from patients with gastric cancer admitted to the Surgical Department of our hospital. The mRNA expression levels of COX-2 and MMP-13 in tumor tissues and normal tumor-adjacent tissues were detected via real-time fluorescence reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The expressions of COX-2 and MMP-13 in gastric cancer tissues and normal tumor-adjacent tissues were detected via immunohistochemical method. The clinical data of patients were recorded and the correlation between the COX-2 and MMP-13 expressions and the pathological parameters and prognosis of patients with gastric cancer were analyzed.
RESULTS: RT-PCR results showed that the mRNA expressions of COX-2 and MMP-13 in gastric cancer tissues were significantly higher than those in normal tumor-adjacent tissues. Immunohistochemical results showed that the positive expression rates of COX-2 and MMP-13 in gastric cancer tissues were 76.25% (60/80) and 71.25% (57/80), respectively and the high expression was related to the invasion, metastasis and tumor stage. The 5-year overall survival of patients was 16.6% (13/80). Single-factor survival analysis showed that both COX-2 and MMP-13 were factors influencing the overall survival of patients with gastric cancer (p<0.01).
CONCLUSION: The high expressions of COX-2 and MMP-13 are closely related to the pathological parameters of patients with gastric cancer, especially the invasion, metastasis and tumor stage. COX-2 and MMP-13 can be used as reference indexes to guide the treatment of gastric cancer and predict the disease prognosis.

Li W, Jia MX, Wang JH, et al.
Association of MMP9-1562C/T and MMP13-77A/G Polymorphisms with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer in Southern Chinese Population.
Biomolecules. 2019; 9(3) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are capable of degrading and modifying most components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and the basal membrane (BM), and play crucial roles in cancer invasion and metastasis. MMP gene expressions were regulated primarily at the transcriptional level, which was associated with tumor spread and patient prognosis. Polymorphisms in MMPs have been reported to be associated with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The objective of this study aim to evaluate the serum levels and polymorphisms of MMP-9 and MMP-13 in non-small cell lung cancer patients compared to normal subjects and their correlation to non-small cell lung cancer histopathology findings in Southern Chinese people.
METHODS: This case⁻control study included 245 patients with NSCLC and 258 healthy controls. Genomic DNA was extracted by using DNA extraction kit, genotyping was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and direct DNA sequencing, and serum levels of MMP-9 and MMP-13 were measured by using a specific ELISA, Human Matrix Metalloproteinase Enzyme Immunoassay Kits. Statistical analysis was carried out using the SPSS 23.0 software package.
RESULTS: The subjects carrying the TT genotype had a decreased risk of lung cancer in MMP9-1562C/T comparing with the CC genotype (
CONCLUSIONS: The results of these analyses underline the support of the notion that the CC genotype of MMP9-1562C/T and GG genotypes of MMP13-77G/A were associated with the increased risk NSCLC, and the serum levels of MMP9 and MMP13 were consistent with the results of the SNP analysis. MMP13 and MMP9 might be function as a key oncogene in NSCLC with a Southern Chinese population. Combined detection of SNP and enzyme activity between MMP9 and MMP13 are expected to be a potential diagnostic method of non-small cell lung cancer.

Qu Y, Dou P, Hu M, et al.
circRNA‑CER mediates malignant progression of breast cancer through targeting the miR‑136/MMP13 axis.
Mol Med Rep. 2019; 19(4):3314-3320 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chondrocyte extracellular matrix‑related circular RNAs (circRNA‑CER) have been demonstrated to be involved in various diseases. However, its role in the development of human breast cancer is not clearly understood. The aims of the present study were to assess circRNA‑CER expression in paired cancer tissue and adjacent non‑tumor tissue from 24 patients with breast cancer, and to explore the roles and mechanisms by which circRNA‑CER mediates the malignant progression of breast cancer cells. The results revealed that circRNA‑CER and matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP13) were upregulated, whereas miR‑136 was downregulated in breast cancer tissues compared with adjacent non‑tumor tissues. In vitro silencing of circRNA‑CER using small interfering RNA (siRNA) had inhibitory effects on MCF‑7 breast cancer cell proliferation and migration, and similar results were obtained following overexpression of microRNA (miR)‑136 in MCF‑7 cells by transfection with miR‑136 mimics. The subsequent mechanistic study revealed that the expression levels of MMP13 were significantly lower in MCF‑7 cells following transfection with miR‑136 mimics, and silencing of circRNA‑CER enhanced miR‑136 and decreased MMP13 expression levels. Furthermore, silencing of miR‑136 by transfection with miR‑136 inhibitors resulted in an increase in MCF‑7 cell proliferation and migration. miR‑136 inhibitor‑derived biological effects were reversed by co‑transfection of cells with miR‑136 inhibitors and circRNA‑CER siRNA. Taken together, the present results suggested that circRNA‑CER may serve an important role in the progression of breast cancer by regulating the activity of the miR‑136/MMP13 axis, and may be a potential biomarker for the prediction and treatment of breast cancer.

Yamada D, Fujikawa K, Kawabe K, et al.
RUNX2 Promotes Malignant Progression in Glioma.
Neurochem Res. 2018; 43(11):2047-2054 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive and lethal form of brain tumor. However, therapeutic strategies against malignant gliomas have not been completely established. Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) is an essential gene for skeletal development but its regulatory role in the malignant progression of glioma remains unclear. Here we investigated expression levels of RUNX2 in glioma tissues and its regulatory effects on aberrant growth of glioma cells. RUNX2 mRNA levels were higher in GBM tissues than that of normal brains or low-grade gliomas. RUNX2 protein was detected in five out of seven human GBM cell lines and its level was positively correlated with proliferative capacity. Stable transduction of dominant-negative Runx2 in rat-derived C6 glioma cells not only inhibited the promoter activity containing Runx2 response element, but also decreased mRNA expression levels of Runx2 target genes, such as Mmp13 and Spp1, as well as the proliferative capacity. Furthermore, transient introduction of Runx2-targeted siRNAs into C6 glioma cells significantly decreased mRNA expression levels of Mmp13 and Spp1 and the proliferative capacity. Furthermore, Runx2 knockdown suppressed both Ccnd1 mRNA expression and activation of the Ccnd1 promoter by forskolin, a PKA-activating reagent, in C6 glioma cells. Our results demonstrate that cross-talk between cAMP/PKA signaling and RUNX2 promotes a malignant phenotype of glioma cells.

Białkowska K, Marciniak W, Muszyńska M, et al.
Association of zinc level and polymorphism in MMP-7 gene with prostate cancer in Polish population.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(7):e0201065 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Prostate cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed malignancies among men in Western populations. Evidence reported in the literature suggests that zinc may be related to prostate cancer. In this study we evaluated the association of serum zinc levels and polymorphisms in genes encoding zinc-dependent proteins with prostate cancer in Poland.
METHODS: The study group consisted of 197 men affected with prostate cancer and 197 healthy men. Serum zinc levels were measured and 5 single nucleotide polymorphisms in MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-7, MMP-13, MT2A genes were genotyped.
RESULTS: The mean serum zinc level was higher in prostate cancer patients than in healthy controls (898.9±12.01 μg/l vs. 856.6±13.05 μg/l, p<0.01). When compared in quartiles a significant association of higher zinc concentration with the incidence of prostate cancer was observed. The highest OR (OR = 4.41, 95%CI 2.07-9.37, p<0.01) was observed in 3rd quartile (>853.0-973.9 μg/l). Among five analyzed genetic variants, rs11568818 in MMP-7 appeared to be correlated with 2-fold increased prostate cancer risk (OR = 2.39, 95% CI = 1.19-4.82, p = 0.015).
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest a significant correlation of higher serum zinc levels with the diagnosis of prostate cancer. The polymorphism rs11568818 in MMP-7 gene was also associated with an increased prostate cancer risk in Poland.

Dumortier M, Ladam F, Damour I, et al.
ETV4 transcription factor and MMP13 metalloprotease are interplaying actors of breast tumorigenesis.
Breast Cancer Res. 2018; 20(1):73 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The ETS transcription factor ETV4 is involved in the main steps of organogenesis and is also a significant mediator of tumorigenesis and metastasis, such as in breast cancer. Indeed, ETV4 is overexpressed in breast tumors and is associated with distant metastasis and poor prognosis. However, the cellular and molecular events regulated by this factor are still misunderstood. In mammary epithelial cells, ETV4 controls the expression of many genes, MMP13 among them. The aim of this study was to understand the function of MMP13 during ETV4-driven tumorigenesis.
METHODS: Different constructs of the MMP13 gene promoter were used to study the direct regulation of MMP13 by ETV4. Moreover, cell proliferation, migration, invasion, anchorage-independent growth, and in vivo tumorigenicity were assayed using models of mammary epithelial and cancer cells in which the expression of MMP13 and/or ETV4 is modulated. Importantly, the expression of MMP13 and ETV4 messenger RNA was characterized in 456 breast cancer samples.
RESULTS: Our results revealed that ETV4 promotes proliferation, migration, invasion, and anchorage-independent growth of the MMT mouse mammary tumorigenic cell line. By investigating molecular events downstream of ETV4, we found that MMP13, an extracellular metalloprotease, was an ETV4 target gene. By overexpressing or repressing MMP13, we showed that this metalloprotease contributes to proliferation, migration, and anchorage-independent clonogenicity. Furthermore, we demonstrated that MMP13 inhibition disturbs proliferation, migration, and invasion induced by ETV4 and participates to ETV4-induced tumor formation in immunodeficient mice. Finally, ETV4 and MMP13 co-overexpression is associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer.
CONCLUSION: MMP13 potentiates the effects of the ETV4 oncogene during breast cancer genesis and progression.

Chen L, Luan S, Xia B, et al.
Integrated analysis of HPV-mediated immune alterations in cervical cancer.
Gynecol Oncol. 2018; 149(2):248-255 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the primary cause of cervical cancer. HPV-mediated immune alterations are known to play crucial roles in determining viral persistence and host cell transformation. We sought to thoroughly understand HPV-directed immune alterations in cervical cancer by exploring publically available datasets.
METHODS: 130 HPV positive and 7 HPV negative cervical cancer cases from The Cancer Genome Atlas were compared for differences in gene expression levels and functional enrichment. Analyses for copy number variation (CNV) and genetic mutation were conducted for differentially expressed immune genes. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to assess survival and relapse differences across cases with or without alterations of the identified immune signature genes.
RESULTS: Genes up-regulated in HPV positive cervical cancer were enriched for various gene ontology terms of immune processes (P=1.05E-14~1.00E-05). Integrated analysis of the differentially expressed immune genes identified 9 genes that displayed either CNV, genetic mutation and/or gene expression changes in at least 10% of the cases of HPV positive cervical cancer. Genomic amplification may cause elevated levels of these genes in some HPV positive cases. Finally, patients with alterations in at least one of the nine signature genes overall had earlier relapse compared to those without any alterations. The altered expression of either TFRC or MMP13 may indicate poor survival for a subset of cervical cancer patients (P=1.07E-07).
CONCLUSIONS: We identified a novel immune gene signature for HPV positive cervical cancer that is potentially associated with early relapse of cervical cancer.

Chen HQ, Zhao J, Li Y, et al.
Gene expression network regulated by DNA methylation and microRNA during microcystin-leucine arginine induced malignant transformation in human hepatocyte L02 cells.
Toxicol Lett. 2018; 289:42-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
Microcystin (MC) is a cyclic heptapeptide compound which could lead to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the underlying epigenetic regulation mechanism is largely unknown. In this study, microcystin-LR (L: lysine, R: arginine, MC-LR) was used to induce the malignant transformation of human hepatocyte L02 cell line. The profile of gene expression, microRNA (miRNA) and DNA methylation were detected through high-throughput sequencing. Compared with control group, the expression of 826 genes and 187 miRNAs changed significantly in MC-LR treated group. DNA methylation sequencing analysis showed that 2592 CpG sites differentially methylated in promoter or the coding DNA sequence (CDS) of genes, while DNA methyltransferase 3 alpha (DNMT3a) and DNA methyltransferase 3 beta (DNMT3b) were dramatically up-regulated. Functional analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis showed that significantly changed mRNAs and microRNAs were mainly involved in the formation of cancer, proliferation, invasion, migration and metabolism. MiRNA-mRNA network and mRNA-mRNA network analysis showed that hsa-miR-320a, hsa-miR-331-3p, hsa-miR-26a-5p, hsa-miR-196a-5p, hsa-miR-221-3p, coiled-coil domain containing 180 (CCDC180), melanoma antigen gene family member D1 (MAGED1), membrane spanning 4-domains A7 (MS4A7), hephaestin like 1 (HEPHL1), BH3 (Bcl-2 homology 3)-like motif containing, cell death inducer (BLID), matrix metallopeptidase 13 (MMP13), guanylate binding protein 5 (GBP5), adipogenesis regulatory factor (ADIRF), formin homology 2 domain containing 1 (FHDC1), protein kinase CAMP-dependent type II regulatory subunit beta (PRKAR2B), nodium leak channel, non-selective (NALCN), myosin light chain kinase 3 (MYLK3), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and zinc finger protein 704 (ZNF704) were key miRNAs and genes in the malignant transformation induced by MC-LR in L02 cells. Moreover, we found that expression of MYLK3, EGFR and ZNF704 were regulated by DNA methylation and miRNAs, and these genes affected the cell cycle and cell division. Our study suggested that characteristic gene alterations regulated by DNA methylation and miRNA could play an important role in environmental MC-LR induced hepatic carcinogenesis.

Malcherczyk D, Heyse TJ, El-Zayat BF, et al.
Expression of MMP-9 decreases metastatic potential of Chondrosarcoma: an immunohistochemical study.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2018; 19(1):9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Chondrosarcoma is the second most common primary malignant bone tumor. Because of their heterogeneity, with differences in invasive and metastatic behavior, it is important to identify biological markers that will allow for a more accurate estimation of prognosis in patients with these tumors. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) play a crucial role in tumor progression, invasion and metastasis. The mechanism of tumor progression dependent of MMPs is complex and influences malignant transformation, angiogenesis and tumor growth at the primary and metastatic sites. The purpose of this study was to investigate immunohistochemicaly the influence of MMP-1, MMP-3, MMP-9 and MMP-13 expression on prognostic parameter in chondrosarcoma.
METHODS: We investigated tissue samples of 28 patients with chondrosarcoma. Immunohistochemical staining to evaluate the expression of MMP-1, MMP-3, MMP-9 and MMP-13 was performed. Subsequently, the expression level was correlated with metastatic potential, histological grading and overall survival in patients with this neoplasm.
RESULTS: In consideration of semi quantitative scoring 64% of chondrosarcoma were scored as positive for MMP-1, 46% for MMP-3, 61% for MMP-9. The specimens had shown no expression of MMP-13. High expression of MMP-9 was associated with better histological differentiation, decreased metastatic potential and favourable overall survival. No correlation was found for expression of MMP-1, MMP-3 or MMP-13.
CONCLUSIONS: MMP-1, MMP-3 and MMP-9 are expressed in chondrosarcoma. Our findings suggest that the expression of MMP-9 is associated with clinical outcome parameters in chondrosarcoma.

Cai Y, Zhang M, Qiu X, et al.
Upregulation of FBXW7 Suppresses Renal Cancer Metastasis and Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition.
Dis Markers. 2017; 2017:8276939 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background and Objective: FBXW7, known as a general tumor suppressor, is commonly lowly expressed in metastatic malignancies. We aim to investigate the potential influence of FBXW7 overexpression on renal cell carcinoma (RCC) metastasis.
Methods: We employed quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting (WB) to quantify the FBXW7 expression in RCC cell lines. Upregulation of FBXW7 was performed
Results: FBXW7 was significantly downregulated in RCC cell lines, dominated by 786-O and ACHN, when compared to normal renal cell line HK-2. Moreover, upregulation of FBXW7 in 786-O and ACHN cell lines significantly inhibited cell migration and invasion, as well as EMT. Present study also showed that FBXW7 was involved in the migration and invasion of RCC cells via regulating the expressions of MMP-2, MMP-9, and MMP-13.
Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that upregulation of FBXW7 inhibits RCC metastasis and EMT. FBXW7 is a potential therapeutic target for RCC patients.

Mei LL, Wang WJ, Qiu YT, et al.
miR-125b-5p functions as a tumor suppressor gene partially by regulating HMGA2 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
PLoS One. 2017; 12(10):e0185636 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in the progression of human cancer including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Although previous reports showed that miR-125b-5p was down-regulated in ESCC, the roles and mechanisms of loss of function of miR-125b-5p in ESCC were still unknown. Using microRNA microarray and GEO datasets, we found and confirmed that miR-125b-5p was down-regulated in ESCC tissues. In-vitro assays showed that ectopic miR-125b-5p expression repressed cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and induced cell senescence. We also found that miR-125b-5p reduced the expressions of cell cycle regulatory genes including CCNA2, CCND1 and CCNE1, and regulated the markers of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) including E-cadherin, N-cadherin and EMT associated transcription factor Slug, and also decreased the MMPs including MMP2, MMP7 and MMP13. Furthermore, the candidate target gene HMGA2 was negatively regulated by miR-125b-5p both in mRNA and protein levels. Importantly, knockdown of HMGA2 partially phenocopied the effects of miR-125b-5p overexpression on cell cycle regulators and EMT markers. In conclusion, our results suggested that overexpression of miR-125b-5p inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion partially by down-regulating HMGA2 in ESCC.

Xiong Y, Wang L, Li Y, et al.
The Long Non-Coding RNA XIST Interacted with MiR-124 to Modulate Bladder Cancer Growth, Invasion and Migration by Targeting Androgen Receptor (AR).
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2017; 43(1):405-418 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUNDS/AIMS: Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) X-inactive specific transcript (XIST) is involved in the progression of several tumors. The interaction between lncRNA and miRNA or miRNA's target genes is reported to play crucial roles in malignancy. In addition, Androgen receptor (AR) is considered to be involved in bladder cancer progression. In this study, we investigated the role of XIST in human bladder cancer and its interaction with miR-124 and AR.
METHODS: XIST and AR expression was detected in bladder tumor samples and cell lines. Effects of XIST and AR on bladder cancer cells growth, invasion and migration were analyzed. Bioinformatic analysis and luciferase assays were used to identify the interaction among XIST, AR and miR-124. The correlations of miR-124 with XIST and AR in bladder cancer samples were statistically analyzed.
RESULTS: XIST and AR were upregulated in bladder cancer tissues and positively correlated. Higher XIST and AR expression were related to poorer TNM stage of bladder cancer. XIST knockdown reduced bladder cancer cells' proliferation, invasion and migration. While this inhibitory effect could be partially restored by AR overexpression. XIST inhibited miR-124 expression by directly targeting. Moreover, miR-124 could bind to the 3'UTR of AR to regulate its expression. MiR-124 inhibition partially restored the XIST knockdown-induced reduction of AR, c-myc, p27, MMP13 and MMP9 expression. In bladder cancer tissues, miR-124 level was inversely correlated with the expression of XIST and AR, respectively.
CONCLUSION: These findings indicated that XIST might be an oncogenic lncRNA that promoted the bladder cancer growth, invasion and migration via miR-124 dependent AR regulation.

Mei LL, Wang WJ, Qiu YT, et al.
miR-145-5p Suppresses Tumor Cell Migration, Invasion and Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition by Regulating the Sp1/NF-κB Signaling Pathway in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
Int J Mol Sci. 2017; 18(9) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in the progression of human cancer. Although previous reports have shown that miR-145-5p is down-regulated in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), the roles and mechanisms of down-regulation of miR-145-5p in ESCC are still largely unknown. Using microRNA microarray and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) datasets, we confirmed that miR-145-5p was down-regulated in ESCC tissues. In vitro assays revealed that ectopic miR-145-5p expression repressed cell proliferation, migration, invasion and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). miR-145-5p also reduced the expressions of cell cycle genes including cyclin A2 (

Mei LL, Qiu YT, Huang MB, et al.
MiR-99a suppresses proliferation, migration and invasion of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells through inhibiting the IGF1R signaling pathway.
Cancer Biomark. 2017; 20(4):527-537 [PubMed] Related Publications
miR-99a is down-regulated in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), however the role and underlying mechanism are still unknown. We aim to explore the role and mechanism of miR-99a down-regulation in ESCC. The expression of miR-99a in ESCC tissues and cell lines was detected by Human miRNA Microarrays and Real-time PCR. The effects of miR-99a on cell proliferation, migration and invasion were determined by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, transwell migration and invasion assay. Target gene of miR-99a were analyzed by target prediction software and validated by Real-time PCR and Western blotting assay. Our microarray results and four Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) datasets showed lower expression level of miR-99a in ESCC tissues. Overexpression of miR-99a using mimics significantly suppressed cell proliferation, and decreased expressions of CCND1, CCNA2 and CCNE1. We also found that enhanced miR-99a significantly inhibited migration, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of ESCC cells, and down-regulated EMT associated transcription factor Slug, and MMPs including MMP2, MMP7 and MMP13. TargetScan predicted insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) as the cadidate target gene of miR-99a, and western blotting confirmed the negative correlation between miR-99a and IGF1R. Importantly, we further found that knockdown of IGF1R also significantly inhibited the proliferation, migration, invasion and slug-induced EMT of ESCC cells, and reduced the cell cycle regulatory proteins and MMPs. In conclusion, our findings suggested that loss of miR-99a in ESCC promoted the tumor cell proliferation, migration, invasion and slug-induced EMT through activating IGF1R signaling pathway.

Shih YL, Au MK, Liu KL, et al.
Ouabain impairs cell migration, and invasion and alters gene expression of human osteosarcoma U-2 OS cells.
Environ Toxicol. 2017; 32(11):2400-2413 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ouabain, the specific Na

Li Y, Sun B, Zhao X, et al.
MMP-2 and MMP-13 affect vasculogenic mimicry formation in large cell lung cancer.
J Cell Mol Med. 2017; 21(12):3741-3751 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have critical functions in tumour vasculogenic mimicry (VM). This study explored the mechanisms underlying MMP-13 and MMP-2 regulation of tumour VM formation in large cell lung cancer (LCLC). In our study, laminin5 (Ln-5) fragments cleaved by MMP-2 promoted tubular structure formation by the LCLC cell lines H460 and H661 in three-dimensional (3D) cultures. Transient up-regulation of MMP-13 or treatment with recombinant MMP-13 protein abrogated tubular structure formation of H460 cells in 3D culture. Treated cells with Ln-5 fragments cleaved by MMP-2 stimulated EGFR and F-actin expression. Ln-5 fragments cleaved by MMP-13 decreased EGFR/F-actin expression and disrupted VM formation. MMP-13 expression was negatively correlated with VM, Ln-5 and EGFR in LCLC tissues and xenograft. In vivo experiments revealed that VM was decreased when the number of endothelium-dependent vessels (EDVs) increased during xenograft tumour growth, whereas MMP-13 expression was progressively increased. In conclusion, MMP-2 promoted and MMP-13 disrupted VM formation in LCLC by cleaving Ln-5 to influence EGFR signal activation. MMP-13 may regulate VM and EDV formation.

Chang YT, Yeh YS, Ma CJ, et al.
Optimization of a multigene biochip for detection of relapsed and early relapsed colorectal cancer.
J Surg Res. 2017; 220:427-437 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: With the recent development of molecular markers, strategies for identifying patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) having a high risk of postoperative early relapse (within 1 y) and relapse have been improved. We previously constructed a multigene biochip with 19 candidate genes. The objective of the present study was to optimize a multigene biochip for detecting the risk of postoperative early relapse and relapse in patients with CRC.
METHODS: We included 357 patients with stage I-III CRC who underwent curative resection at a single institution between June 2010 and May 2015. During each follow-up, a postoperative surveillance strategy including the National Comprehensive Cancer Network recommendations and a multigene biochip was used. A statistical algorithm was developed to select candidate biomarkers for an optimal combination.
RESULTS: After a 30.9-mo median follow-up, 67 patients (18.8%) had postoperative relapse, of whom 25 (7.0%) relapsed within 1 y after operation and accounted for 37.3% of all relapsed patients. Of the 19 circulating biomarkers, ELAVL4, PTTG1, BIRC5, PDE6D, CHRNB1, MMP13, and PSG2, which presented significant predictive validity, were selected for combination. The expression of the seven-biomarker biochip resulted in area under the receiver operating characteristic curve values of 0.854 (95% confidence interval: 0.756-0.952) for early relapse and 0.884 (95% confidence interval: 0.830-0.939) for relapse. Moreover, the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive accuracy levels were 84.0%, 83.1%, and 83.2% for early relapse and 76.1%, 91.0%, and 88.2% for relapse (P = 0.415, 0.006, and 0.054, respectively). The median lead times before the detection of postoperative early relapse and relapse were 3.8 and 10.4 mo, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: From 19 circulating biomarkers, we optimized seven contemporary circulating biomarkers. The prediction model used for the early and accurate identification of Taiwanese patients with CRC having a high risk of postoperative early relapse and relapse seems to be feasible and comparable.

Olivares O, Mayers JR, Gouirand V, et al.
Collagen-derived proline promotes pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cell survival under nutrient limited conditions.
Nat Commun. 2017; 8:16031 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tissue architecture contributes to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) phenotypes. Cancer cells within PDAC form gland-like structures embedded in a collagen-rich meshwork where nutrients and oxygen are scarce. Altered metabolism is needed for tumour cells to survive in this environment, but the metabolic modifications that allow PDAC cells to endure these conditions are incompletely understood. Here we demonstrate that collagen serves as a proline reservoir for PDAC cells to use as a nutrient source when other fuels are limited. We show PDAC cells are able to take up collagen fragments, which can promote PDAC cell survival under nutrient limited conditions, and that collagen-derived proline contributes to PDAC cell metabolism. Finally, we show that proline oxidase (PRODH1) is required for PDAC cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Collectively, our results indicate that PDAC extracellular matrix represents a nutrient reservoir for tumour cells highlighting the metabolic flexibility of this cancer.

Zhai W, Sun Y, Guo C, et al.
LncRNA-SARCC suppresses renal cell carcinoma (RCC) progression via altering the androgen receptor(AR)/miRNA-143-3p signals.
Cell Death Differ. 2017; 24(9):1502-1517 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
While the androgen receptor (AR) might promote renal cell carcinoma (RCC) initiation and progression, the molecular mechanisms involved remain largely unclear. Here, we discovered the novel LncRNA-SARCC, which was suppressed and associated with better prognosis in RCC. Preclinical studies using multiple RCC cells and in vivo mouse model indicated that LncRNA-SARCC could attenuate RCC cell invasion, migration and proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, LncRNA-SARCC bound and destabilized AR protein with an inhibition of AR function, which led to transcriptionally de-repress miR-143-3p expression, thus inhibition of its downstream signals including AKT, MMP-13, K-RAS and P-ERK. In addition, bisulfite sequencing analysis substantiated that LncRNA-SARCC promoter was highly methylated in renal cancer tissues compared with paired non-cancerous renal tissues. Notably, treating with Sunitinib, the multi-targeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, increased the expression of LncRNA-SARCC, which decreased RCC cells resistance to Sunitinib. Thus, our study presented a road map for targeting this newly identified LncRNA-SARCC and its pathway, which expands potential therapeutic strategies for RCC treatment.

Mansoori B, Mohammadi A, Hashemzadeh S, et al.
Urtica dioica extract suppresses miR-21 and metastasis-related genes in breast cancer.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2017; 93:95-102 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer has a high prevalence among women worldwide. Tumor invasion and metastasis still remains an open issue that causes most of the therapeutic failures and remains the prime cause of patient mortality. Hence, there is an unmet need to develop the most effective therapeutic approach with the lowest side effects and highest cytotoxicity that will effectively arrest or eradicate metastasis.
METHODS: An MTT assay and scratch test were used to assess the cytotoxicity and migration effects of Urtica dioica on the breast cancer cells. The QRT-PCR was used to study the expression levels of miR-21, MMP1, MMP9, MMP13, CXCR4, vimentin, and E-cadherin.
RESULTS: The results of gene expression in tumoral groups confirmed the overexpression of miR-21, MMP1, MMP9, MMP13, vimentin, and CXCR4, and the lower expression of E-cadherin compared to control groups (P<0.05). Moreover, the results of the MTT assay show that Urtica dioica significantly inhibited breast cancer cell proliferation. Moreover, findings from the scratch assay exhibited the inhibitory effects of Urtica dioica on the migration of breast cancer cell lines.
CONCLUSION: Urtica dioica extract could inhibit cancer cell migration by regulating miR-21, MMP1, MMP9, MMP13, vimentin, CXCR4, and E-Cadherin. Moreover, our findings demonstrated that the extract could decrease miR-21 expression, which substantially lessens the overexpressed MMP1, MMP9, MMP13, vimentin, and CXCR4 and increases E-cadherin in the tumoral group.

Farshchian M, Nissinen L, Siljamäki E, et al.
Tumor cell-specific AIM2 regulates growth and invasion of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(28):45825-45836 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is the most common metastatic skin cancer. Inflammation is a typical feature in cSCC progression. Analysis of the expression of inflammasome components in cSCC cell lines and normal human epidermal keratinocytes revealed upregulation of the expression of AIM2 mRNA and protein in cSCC cells. Elevated levels of AIM2 mRNA were noted in cSCCs in vivo compared with normal skin. Strong and moderate tumor cell specific expression of AIM2 was detected with immunohistochemistry (IHC) in sporadic human cSCCs in vivo, whereas expression of AIM2 was moderate in cSCC in situ (cSCCIS) and low or absent in actinic keratosis (AK) and normal skin. IHC of cSCCs, cSCCIS and AKs from organ transplant recipients also revealed strong and moderate tumor cell specific expression of AIM2 in cSCCs. Knockdown of AIM2 resulted in reduction in viability of cSCC cells and onset of apoptosis. RNA-seq and pathway analysis after knockdown of AIM2 in cSCC cells revealed downregulation of the biofunction category Cell cycle and upregulation of the biofunction category Cell Death and Survival. Knockdown of AIM2 also resulted in reduction in invasion of cSCC cells and downregulation in production of invasion proteinases MMP1 and MMP13. Knockdown of AIM2 resulted in suppression of growth and vascularization of cSCC xenografts in vivo. These results provide evidence for the role of AIM2 in the progression of cSCC and identify AIM2 inflammasome function as a potential therapeutic target in these invasive and metastatic tumors.

Wei H, Xu Z, Liu F, et al.
Hypoxia induces oncogene yes-associated protein 1 nuclear translocation to promote pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma invasion via epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(5):1010428317691684 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is one of the most lethal cancers. The Hippo pathway is involved in tumorigenesis and remodeling of tumor microenvironments. Hypoxia exists in the microenvironment of solid tumors, including pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and plays a vital role in tumor progression and metastasis. However, it remains unclear how hypoxia interacts with the Hippo pathway to regulate these events. In this study, expressions of yes-associated protein 1 and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α were found to be elevated in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma samples compared with those in matched adjacent non-tumor samples. Moreover, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α expression was positively correlated with yes-associated protein 1 level in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma tissues. The higher expression of nuclear yes-associated protein 1 was associated with poor histological grade and prognosis for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma patients. In vitro, yes-associated protein 1 was highly expressed in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells. Depletion of yes-associated protein 1 inhibited the invasion of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells via downregulation of Vimentin, matrix metalloproteinase-2, and matrix metalloproteinase-13, and upregulation of E-cadherin. In addition, hypoxia promoted the invasion of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells via regulating the targeted genes. Hypoxia also deactivated the Hippo pathway and induced yes-associated protein 1 nuclear translocation. Furthermore, depletion of yes-associated protein 1 or hypoxia-inducible factor-1α suppressed the invasion of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells under hypoxia. Mechanism studies showed that nuclear yes-associated protein 1 interacted with hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and activated Snail transcription to participate in epithelial-mesenchymal transition-mediated and matrix metalloproteinase-mediated remodeling of tumor microenvironments. Collectively, yes-associated protein 1 is an independent prognostic predictor that interacts with hypoxia-inducible factor-1α to enhance the invasion of pancreatic cancer cells and remodeling of tumor microenvironments. Therefore, yes-associated protein 1 may serve as a novel promising target to enhance therapeutic effects for treating pancreatic cancer.

Karimi L, Mansoori B, Shanebandi D, et al.
Function of microRNA-143 in different signal pathways in cancer: New insights into cancer therapy.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2017; 91:121-131 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs which participate in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. They play important roles in cellular events such as growth and differentiation. Deregulation of miRNAs is frequently evident in human cancers where their aberrant expression is associated with uncontrolled proliferation, metastasis, impaired cell cycle and DNA damage response. The miRNAs are important in cancer as ∼50% of miRNA genes are located in cancer-associated regions such as fragile sites of genome. MiRNA-143 is defined as an important tumor suppressor in a variety of neoplasms including solid tumors and B-cell malignancies. MiRNA-143 is involved in the pathogenesis of cancers by directly targeting several mRNAs such as Bcl-2, KRAS, HK2, DNMT3A, TP53 and MMP-13. In this study, an overview of the miRNA-143 function in different signaling pathways in cancer will be provided.

Zeng L, Rong XF, Li RH, Wu XY
Icariin inhibits MMP‑1, MMP‑3 and MMP‑13 expression through MAPK pathways in IL‑1β‑stimulated SW1353 chondrosarcoma cells.
Mol Med Rep. 2017; 15(5):2853-2858 [PubMed] Related Publications
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common type of arthritis and is a leading cause of disability worldwide, resulting in pain, reduced quality of life and socioeconomic burden. Current therapies for OA focus on mitigating the symptoms of advanced disease, but novel therapeutic agents are needed to inhibit the processes leading to OA. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of Icariin on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)‑1, MMP‑3 and MMP‑13 expression in interleukin (IL)‑1β‑stimulated human SW1353 chondrosarcoma cells, and to investigate the possible mechanism underlying the chondroprotective effects of Icariin. In the present study, IL‑1β was applied on SW1353 chondrosarcoma cells to mimic the microenvironment of osteoarthritis. The cells were treated with Icariin and mitogen‑activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway activators or inhibitors. MMP‑1, MMP‑3, MMP‑13, phosphorylated (P)‑p38, P‑c‑Jun N‑terminal kinase (JNK) and P‑extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK) expression was assessed using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction, ELISA and western blot analysis. The results of the present study demonstrated that Icariin inhibited the expression of MMP‑1, MMP‑3, MMP‑13, P‑p38, P‑ERK and P‑JNK. Furthermore, it was revealed that the inhibition of p38 and ERK contributed to the inhibition of MMP‑1 and MMP‑3 by Icariin, whereas the inhibition of p38 and JNK contributed to the inhibition of MMP‑13. The present results suggested that Icariin may have a chondroprotective effect, exerted through the inhibition of MMP‑1, MMP‑3 and MMP‑13 via MAPK pathways. Therefore, Icariin may have potential as a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of osteoarthritis.

Zhang HX, Liu OS, Deng C, et al.
Genome-wide gene expression profiling of tongue squamous cell carcinoma by RNA-seq.
Clin Oral Investig. 2018; 22(1):209-216 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) is significantly more malignant than other type of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). In this study, we aimed to identify specific global gene expression signatures of TSCC to investigate the more invasive behavior of the deeply infiltrating cancer.
METHODS: Using RNA-seq technology, we detected gene expression of 20 TSCCs, 20 matched paratumor tissues, and 10 healthy normal mucosa tissues. Enrichment analysis of gene ontology (GO) and pathway was conducted using online tools DAVID for the dysregulated genes. Additionally, we performed the quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) to validate the findings of RNA-Seq in 10 samples of TSCC, matched paratumor, and normal mucosa, respectively.
RESULTS: We detected 252 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between TSCC and matched paratumor tissue, including 117 up-regulated and 135 down-regulated genes. For comparison between TSCC and normal mucosa, 234 DEGS were identified, consisting of 67 up-regulated and 167 down-regulated genes. For both two comparisons, GO categories of muscle contraction (GO: 0006936), epidermis development (GO: 0008544), epithelial cell differentiation (GO: 0030855), and keratinization (GO: 0031424) were commonly enriched. Altered gene expression affected some cancer-related pathways, such as tight junction. The qRT-PCR validation showed that gene expression patterns of FOLR1, NKX3-1, TFF3, PIGR, NEFL, MMP13, and HMGA2 were fully in concordance with RNA-Seq results.
CONCLUSION: Findings in this study demonstrated the genetic and molecular alterations associated with TSCC, providing new clues for understanding the molecular mechanisms of TSCC pathogenesis.

Guo X, Zhu X, Zhao L, et al.
Tumor-associated calcium signal transducer 2 regulates neovascularization of non-small-cell lung cancer via activating ERK1/2 signaling pathway.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(3):1010428317694324 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lung cancer, especially the non-small-cell lung cancer, is a highly aggressive vascular cancer with excessively activated signaling pathways. Tumor-associated calcium signal transducer 2, also known as trop2, was identified to be correlated with tumor proliferation and invasion of non-small-cell lung cancer; however, the biological role of trop2 in neovascularization of non-small-cell lung cancer remained elusive. In this study, we first verified that trop2 was overexpressed in non-small-cell lung cancer tissues as well as cell lines and that the increased expression of trop2 promoted non-small-cell lung cancer cell proliferation and invasion. Then, we expanded the biological role of trop2 by in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis assay. The tubular formation analysis revealed that trop2 promoted non-small-cell lung cancer angiogenesis in vitro, and the immunohistochemistry staining of vascular markers (CD31 and CD34) provided evidences that trop2 promoted in vivo neovascularization. The results of polymerase chain reaction array revealed that trop2 promoted the expression level of two well-known angiogenesis factors MMP13 and PECAM1. By screening the trop2-related signaling pathways, we observed that excessive angiogenesis was correlated with activation of ERK1/2 signaling pathway, and ERK1/2 inhibitor (U0126) could suppress the tubular formation ability induced by trop2 expression. These results suggested that trop2 facilitated neovascularization of non-small-cell lung cancer via activating ERK1/2 signaling pathway. Targeting trop2 might provide novel anti-angiogenesis strategy for non-small-cell lung cancer treatment.

Guo Y, Li W, Qin J, et al.
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)-encoded microRNAs promote matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) expression and pro-angiogenic cytokine secretion in endothelial cells.
J Med Virol. 2017; 89(7):1274-1280 [PubMed] Related Publications
The human oncogenic virus Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is linked to Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), a tumor of endothelial cells characterized by angiogenesis and invasiveness. KSHV genome encodes 25 mature microRNAs (miRNAs), but their roles in KSHV-induced tumor dissemination and angiogenesis are not fully understood. In this study, we constructed the sensor reporters of KSHV miRNAs and used a luciferase reporter assay to demonstrate the function of the mimics of KSHV miRNAs. Then, we examined the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and pro-angiogenic cytokines that are related to cell migration and angiogenesis in the KSHV 25 miRNAs transfected endothelial cells. We found that all KSHV miRNAs increased the expression of the transcripts of MMP1, MMP13, VEGFA, and VEGFR2 in different degrees, as well as the secretion of VEGFA protein in the supernatant of endothelial cells. Our results reveal that KSHV miRNAs contribute to regulating MMPs and expression of pro-angiogenic factors, thus, suggesting that these miRNAs might play a crucial role in KSHV-induced cell motility and angiogenesis.

Shui Y, Yu X, Duan R, et al.
miR-130b-3p inhibits cell invasion and migration by targeting the Notch ligand Delta-like 1 in breast carcinoma.
Gene. 2017; 609:80-87 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast carcinoma is the most common malignancy in women, and the incidence rate has increased dramatically in recent years. Metastasis is responsible for most advanced breast cancer mortality, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood despite extensive research. Recently, short non-coding RNA molecules, including miRNAs, which mediate changes in signalling pathways, have emerged as metastatic regulators of the breast carcinoma. Previous reports have suggested that miR-130b-3p has both oncogenic and tumour suppressor functions in a cancer type-dependent manner. However, the roles and underlying molecular mechanisms of miR-130b-3p in the development of metastasis in breast carcinoma remain unclear. Here, we reported for the first time that miR-130b-3p was differentially expressed in early-stage non-invasive MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cells and aggressive late-stage MDA-MB-231 cells. In gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies, we demonstrated that miR-130b-3p could inhibit breast carcinoma cell invasion and migration by directly targeting the Notch ligand Delta-like 1 (DLL1). Our data also indicated that MMP-9, MMP-13, and VEGF were regulated by miR-130b-3p and may be involved in the inhibition of cell invasion and migration in breast carcinoma. Collectively, our findings reveal a new regulatory mechanism of miR-130b-3p and suggest that miR-130b-3p may be a potential target against human breast cancer metastasis.

Sheibani S, Mahmoudian RA, Abbaszadegan MR, et al.
Expression analysis of matrix metalloproteinase-13 in human gastric cancer in the presence of Helicobacter Pylori infection.
Cancer Biomark. 2017; 18(4):349-356 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) can degrade essentially the extracellular matrix (ECM) components. MMPs are important regulators of tumor growth; hence the enzymes are considered as important targets for cancer therapy. MMP-13 is specially activated in gastric cancer and promotes the invasiveness of the primary tumors. Helicobacter Pylori (H.pylori) interacts with gastric epithelial cells and stimulates it to produce MMP-13in vitro.
OBJECTIVE: The relation between MMP-13 gene expression and clinicopathological characteristics of gastric cancer in the presence of H.pylori infection was investigated in fifty patients.
METHODS: The level of MMP-13 gene expression was measured by quantitative Real-time PCR method and was evaluated between two groups of normal and carcinomatous tissues.
RESULTS: The results showed 30% elevation of MMP-13 expression in tumor tissues. H.pylori infection did not have a significant effect on the expression of MMP-13. There was a correlation between gene expression and tumor type (P value = 0.032). In addition, there was a significant correlation between MMP-13 gene expression and tumor stage in intestinal group (P value = 0.023).
CONCLUSIONS: Based on the results, it might be concluded that in intestinal group, immune system plays an important role in reducing gene expression. Results also showed over expression (60%) in diffuse group. These findings suggest that using MMP-13 inhibitors in diffuse group might contribute to the control of tumor growth.

Rath N, Morton JP, Julian L, et al.
ROCK signaling promotes collagen remodeling to facilitate invasive pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma tumor cell growth.
EMBO Mol Med. 2017; 9(2):198-218 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a major cause of cancer death; identifying PDAC enablers may reveal potential therapeutic targets. Expression of the actomyosin regulatory ROCK1 and ROCK2 kinases increased with tumor progression in human and mouse pancreatic tumors, while elevated ROCK1/ROCK2 expression in human patients, or conditional ROCK2 activation in a Kras

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