Gene Summary

Gene:MTHFD1; methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase, cyclohydrolase and formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase 1
Summary:This gene encodes a protein that possesses three distinct enzymatic activities, 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase, 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate cyclohydrolase and 10-formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase. Each of these activities catalyzes one of three sequential reactions in the interconversion of 1-carbon derivatives of tetrahydrofolate, which are substrates for methionine, thymidylate, and de novo purine syntheses. The trifunctional enzymatic activities are conferred by two major domains, an aminoterminal portion containing the dehydrogenase and cyclohydrolase activities and a larger synthetase domain. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:C-1-tetrahydrofolate synthase, cytoplasmic
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Latest Publications: MTHFD1 (cancer-related)

Wang C, Lu D, Ling Q, et al.
Donor one‑carbon metabolism gene single nucleotide polymorphisms predict the susceptibility of cancer recurrence after liver transplantation.
Gene. 2019; 689:97-101 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Many enzymes involved in one‑carbon metabolism (OCM) are considered to have important roles in carcinogenesis, especially in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the influence of polymorphisms in OCM genes on recurrence in HCC patients with liver transplantation has yet not been reported. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of donor liver graft OCM gene polymorphism on the prognosis of liver transplant recipients with HCC.
METHODS: This study enrolled 100 liver transplantation patients from a Chinese Han population to detect the association between donor OCM genes polymorphisms and post-transplant HCC recurrence. Nine SNPs from seven OCM genes (MTHFD1, MTR, MTRR, DHFR, ALDH1L1, SHMT1, and CBS) were evaluated by Chi-square test and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis.
RESULT: None of the nine SNPs were significantly associated with cancer recurrence after liver transplantation. However, tumor-free survival for recipients with the AA genotype of rs1801394 polymorphism was significantly shorter than patients with AG/GG genotype (1097 ± 155 vs. 1657 ± 173 days, P < 0.05) among patients with alpha-fetoprotein < 400 ng/ml. Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed that recipients with donor rs1127717 homozygous TT had a significantly longer tumor-free survival and overall survival than heterozygous CT/CC recipients (tumor-free survival 1395 ± 128 vs. 671 ± 233 days, P < 0.05; overall survival 1540 ± 114 vs. 925 ± 242 days, P < 0.05) in the patient subgroup with well or moderately differentiated HCC.
CONCLUSION: This is the first genetic study to examine the relation between donor liver graft OCM gene polymorphisms and the risk of HCC recurrence after liver transplantation. Our findings support the hypothesis that polymorphisms of donor genes related to OCM play important roles in post-transplant HCC recurrence. Furthermore, donor rs1801394 and rs1127717 polymorphism may serve as promising prognostic biomarkers for HCC recurrence in liver transplant recipients.

Bidkhori G, Benfeitas R, Klevstig M, et al.
Metabolic network-based stratification of hepatocellular carcinoma reveals three distinct tumor subtypes.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018; 115(50):E11874-E11883 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most frequent forms of liver cancer, and effective treatment methods are limited due to tumor heterogeneity. There is a great need for comprehensive approaches to stratify HCC patients, gain biological insights into subtypes, and ultimately identify effective therapeutic targets. We stratified HCC patients and characterized each subtype using transcriptomics data, genome-scale metabolic networks and network topology/controllability analysis. This comprehensive systems-level analysis identified three distinct subtypes with substantial differences in metabolic and signaling pathways reflecting at genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic levels. These subtypes showed large differences in clinical survival associated with altered kynurenine metabolism, WNT/β-catenin-associated lipid metabolism, and PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling. Integrative analyses indicated that the three subtypes rely on alternative enzymes (e.g., ACSS1/ACSS2/ACSS3, PKM/PKLR, ALDOB/ALDOA, MTHFD1L/MTHFD2/MTHFD1) to catalyze the same reactions. Based on systems-level analysis, we identified 8 to 28 subtype-specific genes with pivotal roles in controlling the metabolic network and predicted that these genes may be targeted for development of treatment strategies for HCC subtypes by performing in silico analysis. To validate our predictions, we performed experiments using HepG2 cells under normoxic and hypoxic conditions and observed opposite expression patterns between genes expressed in high/moderate/low-survival tumor groups in response to hypoxia, reflecting activated hypoxic behavior in patients with poor survival. In conclusion, our analyses showed that the heterogeneous HCC tumors can be stratified using a metabolic network-driven approach, which may also be applied to other cancer types, and this stratification may have clinical implications to drive the development of precision medicine.

He D, Yu Z, Liu S, et al.
Methylenetetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase 1 (MTHFD1) is Underexpressed in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma Tissue and Transfection and Overexpression in Caki-1 Cells Inhibits Cell Proliferation and Increases Apoptosis.
Med Sci Monit. 2018; 24:8391-8400 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND The aims of this study were to investigate the expression of methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase 1 (MTHFD1) in human tissue containing clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) compared with normal renal tissue, and the effects of upregulating the expression of MTHFD1 in the human CCRCC cell line, Caki-1. MATERIAL AND METHODS Tumor and adjacent normal renal tissue were obtained from 44 patients who underwent radical nephrectomy for CCRCC. Caki-1 human CCRCC cells were divided into the control group, the empty vector (EV) group, and the plasmid-treated group that overexpressed MTHFD1. MTHFD1 mRNA and protein levels were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blot, respectively. The cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay measured cell viability. Flow cytometry evaluated apoptosis and the cell cycle. Western blot measured the protein levels of MTHFD1, Bax, Bcl-2, Akt, p53, and cyclin D1, and qRT-PCR determined the gene expression profiles. RESULTS MTHFD1 mRNA and protein levels in CCRCC tumor tissues were significantly lower compared with adjacent normal renal tissue. MTHFD1 over-expression in Caki-1 cells inhibited cell proliferation, arrested cells in the G1 phase, increased cell apoptosis, and upregulated gene and protein expression of Bax/Bcl-2 and p53 and inhibited p-Akt, and cyclin D1. CONCLUSIONS MTHFD1 was underexpressed in CCRCC tissue when compared with normal renal tissue. MTHFD1 transfection of human CCRCC Caki-1 cells in vitro inhibited cell proliferation and promoted apoptosis, associated with reduced expression of cyclin D1, reduced Akt phosphorylation, and increased expression of Bax/Bcl-2 and p53.

Pérez-Ramírez C, Cañadas-Garre M, Alnatsha A, et al.
Impact of DNA repair, folate and glutathione gene polymorphisms on risk of non small cell lung cancer.
Pathol Res Pract. 2018; 214(1):44-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lung cancer, particularly non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) subtype, is the leading cause of cancer-related death related worldwide. Numerous gene polymorphisms in DNA repair, folate and glutathione pathways have been associated with susceptibility of NSCLC. We conducted this study to evaluate the effects of ERCC1, ERCC2, ERCC5, XRCC1, XRCC3, MTHFR, MTR, MTHFD1, SLC19A1 and GSTP1 gene polymorphisms on risk of NSCLC. No association between these gene polymorphisms and susceptibility of NSCLC were found in our patients, suggesting that genetic variations in genes involved in DNA repair, folate and glutathione metabolism pathways may not influence the risk of NSCLC.

Yang YS, Yuan Y, Hu WP, et al.
The role of mitochondrial folate enzyme MTHFD1L in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Scand J Gastroenterol. 2018; 53(5):533-540 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The lack of novel therapeutic targets poses the major challenge to prolong survival and improve the quality of life for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase 1-like (MTHFD1L) plays critical roles in folate cycle maintenance. However, little information is available concerning the role of MTHFD1L in cancer cells, and no studies have addressed such issues in esophageal cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHOD: Surgical cancer and adjacent normal esophageal tissues were obtained from patients with esophagectomy and esophagogastrostomy for ESCC. Western blot, immunohistochemistry and Quantitative RT-PCR were performed to evaluate protein and RNA expression levels of MTHFD1L. Knockdown of MTHFD1L expression was achieved by using short hairpin RNA. The effects of MTHFD1L silencing on ESCC cell proliferation and apoptosis were assessed by the MTT assay, Celigo assays, Annexin V FACS assay and Caspase-3/7 array in vitro.
RESULTS: Twenty-three paired cancer and adjacent normal esophageal tissues from patients with ESCC were included in this study. MTHFD1L protein and RNA expression levels were significantly upregulated in ESCC tissue as compared with normal tissue. High expression of MTHFD1 was also detected in two esophageal cancer cell lines (TE-1 and EC109). Knockdown of MTHFD1L expression inhibited the proliferation of TE-1 cells, and the apoptosis was distinctly increased following shMTHFD1L infection.
CONCLUSIONS: Our preliminary study highlighted for the first time that MTHFD1L might be involved in the development of ESCC, which may provide a new potential tumor-specific therapeutic targeting for anti-folate agents.

Moruzzi S, Guarini P, Udali S, et al.
One-carbon genetic variants and the role of MTHFD1 1958G>A in liver and colon cancer risk according to global DNA methylation.
PLoS One. 2017; 12(10):e0185792 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Several polymorphic gene variants within one-carbon metabolism, an essential pathway for nucleotide synthesis and methylation reactions, are related to cancer risk. An aberrant DNA methylation is a common feature in cancer but whether the link between one-carbon metabolism variants and cancer occurs through an altered DNA methylation is yet unclear. Aims of the study were to evaluate the frequency of one-carbon metabolism gene variants in hepatocellular-carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma and colon cancer, and their relationship to cancer risk together with global DNA methylation status. Genotyping for BHMT 716A>G, DHFR 19bp ins/del, MTHFD1 1958G>A, MTHFR 677C>T, MTR 2756A>G, MTRR 66A>G, RFC1 80G>A, SHMT1 1420C>T, TCII 776C>G and TS 2rpt-3rpt was performed in 102 cancer patients and 363 cancer-free subjects. Methylcytosine (mCyt) content was measured by LC/MS/MS in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) DNA. The MTHFD1 1958AA genotype was significantly less frequent among cancer patients as compared to controls (p = 0.007) and related to 63% reduction of overall cancer risk (p = 0.003) and 75% of colon cancer risk (p = 0.006). When considering PBMCs mCyt content, carriers of the MTHFD1 1958GG genotype showed a lower DNA methylation as compared to carriers of the A allele (p = 0.048). No differences were highlighted by evaluating a possible relationship between the other polymorphisms analyzed with cancer risk and DNA methylation. The MTHFD1 1958AA genotype is linked to a significantly reduced cancer risk. The 1958GG genotype is associated to PBMCs DNA hypomethylation as compared to the A allele carriership that may exert a protective effect for cancer risk by preserving from DNA hypomethylation.

Goričar K, Kovač V, Dolžan V
Clinical-pharmacogenetic models for personalized cancer treatment: application to malignant mesothelioma.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7:46537 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Large interindividual differences in treatment outcome are observed in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Our aim was to develop and validate clinical-pharmacogenetic prediction models of gemcitabine/cisplatin or pemetrexed/cisplatin treatment outcome and develop an algorithm for genotype-based treatment recommendations in malignant mesothelioma (MM). We genotyped 189 MM patients for polymorphisms in gemcitabine, pemetrexed and cisplatin metabolism, transport and drug target genes and DNA repair pathways. To build respective clinical-pharmacogenetic models, pharmacogenetic scores were assigned by rounding regression coefficients. Gemcitabine/cisplatin model was based on training group of 71 patients and included CRP, histological type, performance status, RRM1 rs1042927, ERCC2 rs13181, ERCC1 rs3212986, and XRCC1 rs25487. Patients with higher score had shorter progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (P < 0.001). This model's sensitivity was 0.615 and specificity 0.812. In independent validation group of 66 patients the sensitivity and specificity were 0.667 and 0.641, respectively. Pemetrexed/cisplatin model was based on 57 patients and included CRP, MTHFD1 rs2236225, and ABCC2 rs2273697. Patients with higher score had worse response and shorter PFS (P < 0.001). This model's sensitivity was 0.750 and specificity 0.607. In independent validation group of 20 patients the sensitivity and specificity were 0.889 and 0.500, respectively. The proposed algorithm based on these models could enable the choice of the most effective chemotherapy for 85.5% of patients and lead to improved treatment outcome in MM.

Sadahiro S, Suzuki T, Tanaka A, et al.
Gene expression levels of gamma-glutamyl hydrolase in tumor tissues may be a useful biomarker for the proper use of S-1 and tegafur-uracil/leucovorin in preoperative chemoradiotherapy for patients with rectal cancer.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2017; 79(6):1077-1085 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) using 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy is the standard of care for rectal cancer. The effect of additional chemotherapy during the period between the completion of radiotherapy and surgery remains unclear. Predictive factors for CRT may differ between combination chemotherapy with S-1 and with tegafur-uracil/leucovorin (UFT/LV).
METHODS: The subjects were 54 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who received preoperative CRT with S-1 or UFT/LV. The pathological tumor response was assessed according to the tumor regression grade (TRG). The expression levels of 18 CRT-related genes were determined using RT-PCR assay.
RESULTS: A pathological response (TRG 1-2) was observed in 23 patients (42.6%). In a multivariate logistic regression analysis for pathological response, the overall expression levels of four genes, HIF1A, MTHFD1, GGH and TYMS, were significant, and the accuracy rate of the predictive model was 83.3%. The effects of the gene expression levels of GGH on the response differed significantly according to the treatment regimen. The total pathological response rate of both high-GGH patients in the S-1 group and low-GGH patients in the UFT/LV group was 58.3%.
CONCLUSION: Additional treatment with 5-FU-based chemotherapy during the interval between radiotherapy and surgery is not beneficial in patients who have received 5-FU-based CRT. The expression levels of four genes, HIF1A, MTHFD1, GGH and TYMS, in tumor tissues can predict the response to preoperative CRT including either S-1 or UFT/LV. In particular, the gene expression level of GGH in tumor tissues may be a useful biomarker for the appropriate use of S-1 and UFT/LV in CRT.

Moruzzi S, Udali S, Ruzzenente A, et al.
The RFC1 80G>A, among Common One-Carbon Polymorphisms, Relates to Survival Rate According to DNA Global Methylation in Primary Liver Cancers.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(12):e0167534 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Polymorphisms within one-carbon metabolism genes have been largely studied in relation to cancer risk for the function of this pathway in nucleotide synthesis and DNA methylation. Aims of this study were to explore the possible link among several common functional gene polymorphisms within one-carbon metabolism and survival rate in primary liver cancers, i.e., hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma, and to assess the additional effect of global DNA methylation on survival rate and mortality risk. Forty-seven primary liver cancer patients were genotyped for ten polymorphisms: DHFR 19bp ins/del, TS 2rpt-3rpt, MTHFD1 1958G>A, MTHFR 677C>T, MTR 2756A>G, MTRR 66A>G, RFC1 80G>A, SHMT1 1420C>T, BHMT 716 A>G, TC II 776C>G. Methylation was determined in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) DNA as methylcytosine (mCyt) content using LC/MS/MS. Among the polymorphisms analysed, the RFC1 80G>A (rs1051266) influenced the survival rate in primary liver cancers. The RFC1 80AA was associated to a significantly reduced survival rate (22.2%) as compared to both GG and GA genotypes (61.5% and 76% respectively, p = 0.005). When the cancer patients were stratified according to the mCyt median value as high (>5.34%) or low (≤5.34%), the concomitant presence of AA genotype and low mCyt level led to a significantly worse survival rate as compared to the G allele carriership (p<0.0001) with a higher Hazard Ratio (HR = 6.62, p = 0.001). The subjects carrying the AA genotype in association with high mCyt did not show a significant difference in survival rate as compared with the G allele carriers (p = 0.919). The RFC1 80G>A polymorphism influenced the survival rate, and the presence of RFC1 80AA genotype with low global methylation in PBMCs DNA was associated with poorer prognosis and higher mortality risk, therefore highlighting novel molecular signatures potentially helpful to define prognostic markers for primary liver cancers.

Lévesque N, Christensen KE, Van Der Kraak L, et al.
Murine MTHFD1-synthetase deficiency, a model for the human MTHFD1 R653Q polymorphism, decreases growth of colorectal tumors.
Mol Carcinog. 2017; 56(3):1030-1040 [PubMed] Related Publications
The common R653Q variant (∼20% homozygosity in Caucasians) in the synthetase domain of the folate-metabolizing enzyme MTHFD1 reduces purine synthesis. Although this variant does not appear to affect risk for colorectal cancer, we questioned whether it would affect growth of colorectal tumors. We induced tumor formation in a mouse model for MTHFD1-synthetase deficiency (Mthfd1S

Piskounova E, Agathocleous M, Murphy MM, et al.
Oxidative stress inhibits distant metastasis by human melanoma cells.
Nature. 2015; 527(7577):186-91 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Solid cancer cells commonly enter the blood and disseminate systemically, but are highly inefficient at forming distant metastases for poorly understood reasons. Here we studied human melanomas that differed in their metastasis histories in patients and in their capacity to metastasize in NOD-SCID-Il2rg(-/-) (NSG) mice. We show that melanomas had high frequencies of cells that formed subcutaneous tumours, but much lower percentages of cells that formed tumours after intravenous or intrasplenic transplantation, particularly among inefficiently metastasizing melanomas. Melanoma cells in the blood and visceral organs experienced oxidative stress not observed in established subcutaneous tumours. Successfully metastasizing melanomas underwent reversible metabolic changes during metastasis that increased their capacity to withstand oxidative stress, including increased dependence on NADPH-generating enzymes in the folate pathway. Antioxidants promoted distant metastasis in NSG mice. Folate pathway inhibition using low-dose methotrexate, ALDH1L2 knockdown, or MTHFD1 knockdown inhibited distant metastasis without significantly affecting the growth of subcutaneous tumours in the same mice. Oxidative stress thus limits distant metastasis by melanoma cells in vivo.

Moussa C, Ross N, Jolette P, MacFarlane AJ
Altered folate metabolism modifies cell proliferation and progesterone secretion in human placental choriocarcinoma JEG-3 cells.
Br J Nutr. 2015; 114(6):844-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
Folate is an essential B vitamin required for de novo purine and thymidylate synthesis, and for the remethylation of homocysteine to form methionine. Folate deficiency has been associated with placenta-related pregnancy complications, as have SNP in genes of the folate-dependent enzymes, methionine synthase (MTR) and methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase 1 (MTHFD1). We aimed to determine the effect of altered folate metabolism on placental cell proliferation, viability and invasive capacity and on progesterone and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) secretion. Human placental choriocarcinoma (JEG-3) cells cultured in low folic acid (FA) (2 nM) demonstrated 13% (P<0.001) and 26% (P<0.001) lower proliferation, 5.5% (P=0.025) and 7.5% (P=0.004) lower invasion capacity, and 5 to 7.5% (P=0.004-0.025) lower viability compared with control (20 nM) or supplemented (100 nM) cells, respectively. FA concentration had no effect on progesterone or hCG secretion. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of MTR gene and protein expression resulted in 17.7% (P<0.0001) lower proliferation and 61% (P=0.014) higher progesterone secretion, but had no effect on cell invasion and hCG secretion. siRNA knockdown of MTHFD1 gene expression in the absence of detectable changes in protein expression resulted in 10.3% (P=0.001) lower cell proliferation, but had no effect on cell invasion and progesterone or hCG secretion. Our data indicate that impaired folate metabolism can result in lower trophoblast proliferation, and could alter viability, invasion capacity and progesterone secretion, which may explain in part the observed associations between folate and placenta-related complications.

Cheng TY, Makar KW, Neuhouser ML, et al.
Folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism genes and interactions with nutritional factors on colorectal cancer risk: Women's Health Initiative Observational Study.
Cancer. 2015; 121(20):3684-91 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Investigations of folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism (FOCM) genes and gene-nutrient interactions with respect to colorectal cancer (CRC) risk are limited to candidate polymorphisms and dietary folate. This study comprehensively investigated associations between genetic variants in FOCM and CRC risk and whether the FOCM nutrient status modified these associations.
METHODS: Two hundred eighty-eight candidate and tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 30 FOCM genes were genotyped for 821 incident CRC case-control matched pairs in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study cohort. FOCM biomarkers (red blood cell [RBC] folate, plasma folate, pyridoxal-5'-phosphate [PLP], vitamin B12, and homocysteine) and self-reported alcohol consumption were measured at the baseline. Conditional logistic regression was implemented; effect modification was examined on the basis of known enzyme-nutrient relations.
RESULTS: Statistically significant associations were observed between CRC risk and functionally defined candidate SNPs of methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase 1 (MTHFD1; K134R), 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase reductase (MTRR; P450R), and PR domain containing 2 with ZNF domain (PRDM2; S450N) and a literature candidate SNP of thymidylate synthase (TYMS; g.676789A>T; nominal P < .05). In addition, suggestive associations were noted for tagging SNPs in cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS), dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase 3β (DNMT3B), methionine adenosyltransferase I α (MAT1A), MTHFD1, and MTRR (nominal P < .05; adjusted P, not significant). Significant interactions between nutrient biomarkers and candidate polymorphisms were observed for 1) plasma/RBC folate and folate hydrolase 1 (FOLH1), paraoxonase 1 (PON1), transcobalamin II (TCN2), DNMT1, and DNMT3B; 2) plasma PLP and TYMS TS3; 3) plasma B12 and betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase 2 (BHMT2); and 4) homocysteine and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and alanyl-transfer RNA synthetase (AARS).
CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variants in FOCM genes are associated with CRC risk among postmenopausal women. FOCM nutrients continue to emerge as effect modifiers of genetic influences on CRC risk.

Gézsi A, Lautner-Csorba O, Erdélyi DJ, et al.
In interaction with gender a common CYP3A4 polymorphism may influence the survival rate of chemotherapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Pharmacogenomics J. 2015; 15(3):241-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
CYP3A4 has an important role in the metabolisms of many drugs used in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) therapy; still, there are practically no publications about the role of CYP3A4 polymorphisms in ALL pharmacogenomics. We genotyped eight common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 genes in 511 children with ALL and investigated whether they influenced the survival of the patients. We involved additional 127 SNPs in 34 candidate genes and searched for interactions with respect to the survival rates. Significant association between the survival rates and the common rs2246709 SNP in the CYP3A4 gene was observed. The gender of the patients and the rs1076991 in the MTHFD1 gene strongly influenced this effect. We calculated new risk assessments involving the gender-rs2246709 interaction and showed that they significantly outperformed the earlier risk-group assessments at every time point. If this finding is confirmed in other populations, it can have a considerable prognostic significance.

Lautner-Csorba O, Gézsi A, Erdélyi DJ, et al.
Roles of genetic polymorphisms in the folate pathway in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia evaluated by Bayesian relevance and effect size analysis.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(8):e69843 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In this study we investigated whether polymorphisms in the folate pathway influenced the risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) or the survival rate of the patients. For this we selected and genotyped 67 SNPs in 15 genes in the folate pathway in 543 children with ALL and 529 controls. The results were evaluated by gender adjusted logistic regression and by the Bayesian network based Bayesian multilevel analysis of relevance (BN-BMLA) methods. Bayesian structure based odds ratios for the relevant variables and interactions were also calculated. Altogether 9 SNPs in 8 genes were associated with altered susceptibility to ALL. After correction for multiple testing, two associations remained significant. The genotype distribution of the MTHFD1 rs1076991 differed significantly between the ALL and control population. Analyzing the subtypes of the disease the GG genotype increased only the risk of B-cell ALL (p = 3.52×10(-4); OR = 2.00). The GG genotype of the rs3776455 SNP in the MTRR gene was associated with a significantly reduced risk to ALL (p = 1.21×10(-3); OR = 0.55), which resulted mainly from the reduced risk to B-cell and hyperdiploid-ALL. The TC genotype of the rs9909104 SNP in the SHMT1 gene was associated with a lower survival rate comparing it to the TT genotype (80.2% vs. 88.8%; p = 0.01). The BN-BMLA confirmed the main findings of the frequentist-based analysis and showed structural interactional maps and the probabilities of the different structural association types of the relevant SNPs especially in the hyperdiploid-ALL, involving additional SNPs in genes like TYMS, DHFR and GGH. We also investigated the statistical interactions and redundancies using structural model properties. These results gave further evidence that polymorphisms in the folate pathway could influence the ALL risk and the effectiveness of the therapy. It was also shown that in gene association studies the BN-BMLA could be a useful supplementary to the traditional frequentist-based statistical method.

Zhang H, Ma H, Li L, et al.
Association of methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase 1 polymorphisms with cancer: a meta-analysis.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(7):e69366 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Studies investigating the association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase 1 (MTHFD1) and cancer risk report conflicting results. To derive a more precise estimation of the relationship between MTHFD1 polymorphisms and cancer risk, the present meta-analysis was carried out.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A comprehensive search was conducted to determine all the eligible studies about MTHFD1 polymorphisms and cancer risk. Combined odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of the association between the MTHFD1 polymorphisms and cancer risk. We investigated by meta-analysis the effects of 2 polymorphisms in MTHFD1: G1958A (17 studies, 12348 cases, 44132 controls) and G401A (20 studies, 8446 cases, 14020 controls). The overall results indicated no major influence of these 2 polymorphisms on cancer risk. For G1958A, a decreased cancer risk was found in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)/Asians (the dominant: OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.58-0.94, P = 0.01; allelic: OR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.65-0.99, P = 0.04) and other cancers (recessive: OR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.66-0.96, P = 0.02). For G401A, the data showed that MTHFD1 G401A polymorphism was associated with a decreased colon cancer risk under dominant model (OR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.80-0.99, P = 0.04).
CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that MTHFD1 G1958A polymorphism might be associated with a decreased risk of ALL and other cancers. Meanwhile, the MTHFD1 G401A might play a protective role in the development of colon cancer. Large-scale and well-designed case-control studies are necessary to validate the risk identified in the present meta-analysis.

Ashmore JH, Lesko SM, Muscat JE, et al.
Association of dietary and supplemental folate intake and polymorphisms in three FOCM pathway genes with colorectal cancer in a population-based case-control study.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2013; 52(10):945-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
Previous research has shown that greater intakes of dietary folate are associated with reduced risk for colorectal cancer (CRC) and that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism (FOCM) also may be involved in altering CRC risk. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of folate intake (and intakes of related dietary components such as methionine), 35 SNPs in three FOCM pathway genes (MTHFD1, MTHFR, and TYMS), and their interactions on CRC risk in a population-based case-control study in Pennsylvania (686 cases, 740 controls). Diet and supplement use was assessed for the year before diagnosis or interview for cases and controls, respectively, with a modified Diet History Questionnaire from the National Cancer Institute. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. Using a dominant model for the variant allele, several SNPs were significantly associated with CRC including MTHFD1 rs8003379 (OR = 1.65; 95% CI = 1.00-2.73) and rs17824591 (OR = 1.98; 95% CI = 1.14-3.41) and the TYMS rs2853533 SNP (OR = 1.38; 95% CI = 1.05-1.80). Using a nondominant model, the AA genotype for MTHFR rs1476413 exhibited a marginally significant (OR = 1.56; 95% CI = 1.00-2.44) association with CRC. Two TYMS SNPs (rs16948305 and rs495139) exhibited significant (P = 0.024 and P = 0.040, respectively) gene-diet interactions with folate intake. One MTHFD1 (P = 0.019) and one MTHFR (P = 0.042) SNP exhibited gene-diet interactions with methionine intake. These findings suggest that allelic variants in genes involved in FOCM interact with dietary factors including folate and methionine to modify risk for CRC.

Figueiredo JC, Levine AJ, Crott JW, et al.
Folate-genetics and colorectal neoplasia: what we know and need to know next.
Mol Nutr Food Res. 2013; 57(4):607-27 [PubMed] Related Publications
SCOPE: The metabolism of folate involves a complex network of polymorphic enzymes that may explain a proportion of the risk associated with colorectal neoplasia. Over 60 observational studies primarily in non-Hispanic White populations have been conducted on selected genetic variants in specific genes, MTHFR, MTR, MTRR, CBS, TCNII, RFC, GCPII, SHMT, TYMS, and MTHFD1, including five meta-analyses on MTHFR 677C>T (rs1801133) and MTHFR 1298C>T (rs1801131); two meta-analyses on MTR-2756A>C (rs1805087); and one for MTRR 66A>G (rs1801394).
METHODS AND RESULTS: This systematic review synthesizes these data, highlighting the consistent inverse association between MTHFR 677TT genotype and risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) and its null association with adenoma risk. Results for other variants varied across individual studies; in our meta-analyses we observed some evidence for SHMT 1420C>T (rs1979277) ((odds ratio) OR = 0.85; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.73-1.00 for TT v. CC) and TYMS 5' 28 bp repeat (rs34743033) and CRC risk (OR = 0.84; 95% CI = 0.75-0.94 for 2R/3R v. 3R/3R and OR = 0.82; 95% CI = 0.69-0.98 for 2R/2R v. 3R/3R).
CONCLUSION: To gain further insight into the role of folate variants in colorectal neoplasia will require incorporating measures of the metabolites, including B-vitamin cofactors, homocysteine and S-adenosylmethionine, and innovative statistical methods to better approximate the folate one-carbon metabolism pathway.

Babyshkina N, Malinovskaya E, Nazarenko M, et al.
The effect of folate-related SNPs on clinicopathological features, response to neoadjuvant treatment and survival in pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer patients.
Gene. 2013; 518(2):397-404 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study aimed to investigate the relationship of ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the MTHFR, MTR, MTRR, DHFR, MTHFD1, TS, RFC1 and DNMT3b genes with cancer survival, therapeutic response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and clinicopathological characteristics in 300 pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer patients of a Russian Western Siberian population. We found that the MTHFR 677CT genotype as well as combination of MTHFR 677CT and 677TT genotype was related to tumor size and estrogen-positive status in postmenopausal group. The RFC1 80А allele was associated with an increased risk of lymph node metastases among postmenopausal women. The MTHFR 677TT genotype was significantly correlated with a better progression-free survival in premenopausal patients. In contrast, a worse outcome was observed in this group patient with MTHFD1 1958AA genotype. In the multivariate analysis, the MTHFD1 1958AA genotype was identified as an independent prognostic factor for premenopausal breast cancer survival. Our findings provide evidence for associations of breast cancer survival with folate-related SNPs in a population of Western Siberian region of Russia and the MTHFD1 (1958G>A) may have additional prognostic value especially among premenopausal patients.

Zee RY, Rose L, Chasman DI, Ridker PM
Genetic variation of fifteen folate metabolic pathway associated gene loci and the risk of incident head and neck carcinoma: the Women's Genome Health Study.
Clin Chim Acta. 2013; 418:33-6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of folate metabolic pathway (FMP) in the pathogenesis of head and neck carcinoma (HNC). Whether the genetic variation within the FMP associated genes modulates HNC remains elusive. To date, prospective, epidemiological data on the relationship of FMP gene variation with the risk of HNC are sparse.
METHODS: The association between 203 tag-SNPs (tSNPs) of 15 FMP associated genes (CBS, BHMT, DHFR, FOLR1, FOLR2, FOLR3, MTHFR, MTR, MTRR, MTHFD1, RFC1, SHMT1, SLC19A1, TCN2, and TYMS) and incident HNC was investigated in 23,294 Caucasian female participants of the prospective Women's Genome Health Study. All were free of known cancer at baseline. During a 15-year follow-up period, 55 participants developed a first ever HNC. Multivariable Cox regression analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between genotypes and HNC risk assuming an additive genetic model. Haplotype-block analysis was also performed.
RESULTS: A total of 11 tSNPs within DHFR, MTHFR, RFC1, and TYMS were associated with HNC risk (all p-uncorrected <0.050). Further investigation using the haplotype-block analysis revealed an association of several prespecified haplotypes of RFC1 with HNC risk (all p-uncorrected <0.050).
CONCLUSION: If corroborated in other large prospective studies, the present findings suggest that genetic variation within the folate metabolic pathway gene loci examined, in particular, the replication factor C-1 (RFC1) gene variation may influence HNC risk.

Liu AY, Scherer D, Poole E, et al.
Gene-diet-interactions in folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism modify colon cancer risk.
Mol Nutr Food Res. 2013; 57(4):721-34 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
SCOPE: The importance of folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism (FOCM) in colorectal carcinogenesis is emphasized by observations that high dietary folate intake is associated with decreased risk of colon cancer (CC) and its precursors. Additionally, polymorphisms in FOCM-related genes have been repeatedly associated with risk, supporting a causal relationship between folate and colorectal carcinogenesis.
METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated ten candidate polymorphisms with defined or probable functional impact in eight FOCM-related genes (SHMT1, DHFR, DNMT1, MTHFD1, MTHFR, MTRR, TCN2, and TDG) in 1609 CC cases and 1974 controls for association with CC risk and for interaction with dietary factors. No polymorphism was statistically significantly associated with overall risk of CC. However, statistically significant interactions modifying CC risk were observed for DNMT1 I311V with dietary folate, methionine, vitamin B2 , and vitamin B12 intake and for MTRR I22M with dietary folate, a predefined one-carbon dietary pattern, and vitamin B6 intake. We observed statistically significant gene-diet interactions with five additional polymorphisms.
CONCLUSION: Our results provide evidence that FOCM-related dietary intakes modify the association between CC risk and FOCM allelic variants. These findings add to observations showing that folate-related gene-nutrient interactions play an important role in modifying the risk of CC.

Pawlik P, Mostowska A, Lianeri M, et al.
Folate and choline metabolism gene variants in relation to ovarian cancer risk in the Polish population.
Mol Biol Rep. 2012; 39(5):5553-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
Data indicates that genetic factors alone do not account for ovarian tumorigenesis, suggesting that epigenetic status additionally affects this process. Therefore, we assessed the possible contribution of polymorphic variants of genes that may affect DNA methylation to the risk of ovarian cancer incidence in the Polish population. Using PCR-RFLP and HRM analyses, we studied the distribution of BHMT (rs3733890), MTHFD1 (rs2236225), MTHFR (rs1801133), MTR (rs1805087), MTRR (rs1801394) and TCN2 (rs1801198) genotypes and alleles in patients with ovarian cancer (n = 136) and controls (n = 160). Moreover, using DNA and methylation-specific PCR (MSP) we also determined the methylation of the Cadherin 13 (CDH13) promoter in cancerous tissue from these patients. We did not observe a significant association between all studied gene variants and the incidence of ovarian cancer. The lowest P (trend) = 0.1226 was observed for the MTHFR Ala222Val polymorphism. Moreover, the lowest P = 0.0772 was found in the comparison of MTHFR Ala/Ala versus Val/Val and Val/Ala genotypes in patients and control groups. The multifactor dimensionality reduction analysis also did not indicate a significant interactive genetic effect on ovarian cancer incidence for all analyzed SNPs. However, we observed frequent methylation of the CDH13 promoter in approximately 21% (29/136) patients with ovarian carcinomas. Our results might suggest that the selected polymorphic gene variants may not contribute to ovarian cancer incidence.

Erčulj N, Kotnik BF, Debeljak M, et al.
Influence of folate pathway polymorphisms on high-dose methotrexate-related toxicity and survival in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Leuk Lymphoma. 2012; 53(6):1096-104 [PubMed] Related Publications
The prediction of high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) toxicity is a key issue in the individualization of treatment in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Our aim was to evaluate the influence of MTX pathway polymorphisms on HD-MTX treatment outcome in children with ALL. In total, 167 children with ALL were genotyped for methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (MTHFD1) 1958G > A, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C > T and 1298A > C and thymidylate synthase (TYMS) 2R > 3R polymorphisms. The MTHFD1 1958A allele significantly reduced the odds of hepatotoxicity (adjusted p = 0.009), while the TYMS 3R allele significantly reduced the odds of leukocytopenia and thrombocytopenia (adjusted p = 0.005 and adjusted p = 0.002, respectively). MTHFR polymorphisms did not influence HD-MTX-related toxicity, but a significant effect of MTHFR 677C > T-TYMS 2R > 3R and MTHFD1 1958G > A-MTHFR 677C > T interactions on HD-MTX-related toxicity was observed. None of the investigated polymorphisms influenced survival. Our study suggests an important role of polymorphisms and gene-gene interactions within the folate pathway in HD-MTX-related toxicity in childhood ALL.

Galbiatti AL, da Silva LM, Ruiz-Cintra MT, et al.
Association between 11 genetic polymorphisms in folate-metabolising genes and head and neck cancer risk.
Eur J Cancer. 2012; 48(10):1525-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
Genetic polymorphisms in folate metabolism may affect the risk of head and neck cancer (HNSCC) due to its involvement in DNA methylation and synthesis. We conducted a case-control study (265 HNSCC cases and 466 non-cancer controls) to investigate associations of MTHFR C677T and A1298C, MTR A2756G, MTRR A66G, RFC1 A80G, MTHFD1 G1958A, CBS 844ins68, TC2 C776G and A67G, SHMT C1420T and BHMT G742A polymorphisms with HNSCC risk. Interactions between polymorphisms and survival time, tobacco and alcohol habits, age, gender and tumour staging (TNM classification) were evaluated by multiple logistic regression analysis. We found that age ≥ 49 years (P<0.001), male gender (P=0.03), tobacco habit (P<0.001), MTHFR 1298AC/CC (P=0.028), MTR 2756AG/GG (P=0.010) and RFC1 80AG/GG (P=0.015) genotypes were associated with an increased risk of HNSCC. There were interactions between lower survival and CBS 844ins68 (P=0.005); age ≥ 49 years and MTR 2756 AG/GG (P=0.004) and RFC1 80AG/GG (P=0.006) genotypes; male gender and MTHFR 1298 AC/CC (P=0.030), MTR 2756 AG/GG (P=0.006) and RFC1 80 AG/GG (P=0.009); tobacco non-habit and MTHFD1 1958GA/AA (P=0.040); tobacco and MTHFR 1298 AC/CC (P=0.054) and MTR 2756 AG/GG (P=0.010); alcohol non-consume and RFC1 80 AG/GG (P=0.008) with HNSCC increased risk. MTHFR C677CT/TT genotypes were less frequently in advanced tumours (P=0.04). In conclusion, our data provide evidence that folate metabolism genetic polymorphisms associated with variables as advanced age, male gender, tobacco and alcohol increase HNSCC development; CBS 844ins68 and MTHFR C677T polymorphisms are associated with less survival time and advanced stage tumours, respectively.

Windsor RE, Strauss SJ, Kallis C, et al.
Germline genetic polymorphisms may influence chemotherapy response and disease outcome in osteosarcoma: a pilot study.
Cancer. 2012; 118(7):1856-67 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Osteosarcoma is the most common malignant bone tumor in children and young people. Efficacy of multiagent MAP (methotrexate, doxorubicin [Adriamycin], cisplatin) chemotherapy may be influenced by multiple cellular pathways. This pilot study aimed to investigate the association of 36 candidate genetic polymorphisms in MAP pathway genes with histological response, survival, and grade 3-4 chemotherapy toxicity in osteosarcoma.
METHODS: Blood samples were obtained from 60 patients who had completed MAP chemotherapy. All patients were manually genotyped for 5 polymorphisms. The remaining 31 polymorphisms were genotyped in 50 patients using the Illumina 610-Quad microarray. Associations between candidate polymorphisms and histological response, progression-free survival, and toxicity were estimated using Pearson chi-square and Fisher exact tests, the Kaplan-Meier method, the log-rank test, and the Cox proportional hazards model.
RESULTS: Poor histological response was increased in variants of ABCC2 c.24C>T (P = .011) and GSTP1 c.313A>G p.Ile(105)Val (P = .009), whereas MTHFD1 c.1958G>A p.Arg(653)Gln was protective (P = .03). Methotrexate toxicity was increased in variants of MTHFR c.1298A>C p.Glu(429)Ala (P = .038), ABCB1 c.3435T>C Ile(145)Ile (P = .027), and ABCC2 c.3563T>A p.Val(1188)Glu (P = .028). Variants of GSTP1 c.313A>G p.Ile(105)Val were at increased risk of myelosuppression (P = .024) and cardiac damage (P = .008).
CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study represents the most comprehensive study to date examining the role of genetic polymorphisms in osteosarcoma. Although small and retrospective, it shows that several polymorphisms appear to significantly influence toxicity and clinical outcome. These deserve prospective validation in the hope of optimizing treatment for resistant disease and reducing the late effects burden.

Metayer C, Scélo G, Chokkalingam AP, et al.
Genetic variants in the folate pathway and risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Cancer Causes Control. 2011; 22(9):1243-58 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Folate is involved in the one-carbon metabolism that plays an essential role in the synthesis, repair, and methylation of DNA. We examined whether child's germline genetic variation in the folate pathway is associated with childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and whether periconception maternal folate and alcohol intake modify the risk.
METHODS: Seventy-six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including 66 haplotype-tagging SNPs in 10 genes (CBS, DHFR, FOLH1, MTHFD1, MTHFR, MTR, MTRR, SHMT1, SLC19A1, and TYMS), were genotyped in 377 ALL cases and 448 controls. Log-additive associations between genotypes and ALL risk were adjusted for age, sex, Hispanic ethnicity (when appropriate), and maternal race.
RESULTS: Single and haplotype SNPs analyses showed statistically significant associations between SNPs located in (or adjacent to) CBS, MTRR, TYMS/ENOFS, and childhood ALL. Many regions of CBS were associated with childhood ALL in Hispanics and non-Hispanics (p < 0.01). Levels of maternal folate intake modified associations with SNPs in CBS, MTRR, and TYMS.
CONCLUSION: Our data suggest the importance of genetic variability in the folate pathway and childhood ALL risk.

Yang L, Liu L, Wang J, et al.
Polymorphisms in folate-related genes: impact on risk of adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia rather than pediatric in Han Chinese.
Leuk Lymphoma. 2011; 52(9):1770-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Folate metabolism plays an essential role in the processes of DNA synthesis and methylation. An aberrant folate metabolism caused by a genetic polymorphism may lead to genomic instability and affect the susceptibility to malignancies including acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). This study was designed to explore the correlation between the polymorphisms in folate-related genes and the risk of ALL in Han Chinese. The DNA was isolated from 231 patients with pediatric ALL, 130 patients with adult ALL, and 367 healthy subjects (as controls). Polymorphisms were examined for RFC1 80G > A, DHFR 19 bp del/ins and 317A > G, SHMT1 1420C > T, MTHFR 677C > T and 1298A > C, MTR 2756A > G, MTRR 66A > G, TYMS 3R/2R, MTHFD1 1958G > A, and ABCG2 421G > T using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). The risk of adult ALL was increased by the RFC1 80AA variant (odds ratio [OR] = 2.09; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.19-3.67) and MTRR 66GG variant (OR = 2.15; 95% CI 1.06-4.39) but reduced by the MTHFR 677TT variant (OR = 0.47; 95% CI 0.25-0.88), ABCG2 421GT variant (OR = 0.62; 95% CI 0.41-0.96), and ABCG2 421GT + TT variant (OR = 0.60; 95% CI 0.40-0.90). The increase in risk of adult ALL with the RFC1 80AA associated with the MTRR 66GG variant was even more significant (OR = 8.92; 95% CI 1.97-40.42). Furthermore, the MTHFR 677TT associated with the ABCG2 421GT + TT variant more significantly reduced the risk of adult ALL (OR = 0.32; 95% CI 0.12-0.85). However, all gene polymorphisms tested in this study failed to affect the pediatric ALL risk. Our study clearly demonstrates that polymorphisms in folate-related genes only modulate the susceptibility to adult ALL, but not to pediatric ALL, in Han Chinese.

da Silva LM, Galbiatti AL, Ruiz MT, et al.
MTHFD1 G1958A, BHMT G742A, TC2 C776G and TC2 A67G polymorphisms and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma risk.
Mol Biol Rep. 2012; 39(2):887-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
Alterations in folate metabolism may contribute to the process of carcinogenesis by influencing DNA methylation and genomic stability. Polymorphisms in genes encoding enzymes involved in this pathway may alter enzyme activity and consequently interfere in concentrations of homocysteine and S-adenosylmethionine that are important for DNA synthesis and cellular methylation reactions. The objectives were to investigate MTHFD1 G1958A, BHMT G742A, TC2 C776G and TC2 A67G polymorphisms involved in folate metabolism on head and neck cancer risk and the association between these polymorphisms with risk factors. Polymorphisms were investigated in 762 individuals (272 patients and 490 controls) by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and Real Time-PCR. Chi-square and Multiple logistic regression were used for the statistical analysis. Multiple logistic regression showed that tobacco and male gender were predictors for the disease (P < 0.05). Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium showed that the genotypic distributions were in equilibrium for both groups in all polymorphisms studied. The BHMT 742GA or AA genotypes associated with tobacco consumption (P = 0.016) increase the risk for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The present study suggests that BHMT 742GA polymorphism associated to tobacco modulate HNSCC risk. However, further investigation of gene-gene interactions in folate metabolism and studies in different populations are needed to investigate polymorphisms and HNSCC risk.

Mostowska A, Myka M, Lianeri M, et al.
Folate and choline metabolism gene variants and development of uterine cervical carcinoma.
Clin Biochem. 2011; 44(8-9):596-600 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: It has been reported that aberrant DNA methylation can be associated with HPV infection and cervical tumorigenesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility that polymorphic variants of genes that may affect DNA methylation status are associated with the risk of cervical cancer in the Polish population.
DESIGN AND METHOD: Employing PCR-RFLPs and HRM analyses, we examined the prevalence of BHMT Arg239Gln (rs3733890), MTR Asp919Gly (rs1805087), MTHFR Ala222Val (rs1801133), MTHFD1 Arg653Gln (rs2236225) and MTRR Ile22Met (rs1801394) genotypes and alleles in patients with advanced cervical cancer (n=124) and controls (n=168).
RESULTS: The odds ratio (OR) for BHMT Gln/Gln genotype was 0.433 (95% CI=0.1780-1.054; p=0.0602). The OR for patients having the BHMT Arg/Gln or Gln/Gln genotypes was 0.579 (95% CI=0.3622-0.924; p=0.0216). We also observed a significantly higher frequency of the BHMT 239Gln allele in controls than in patients, p=0.0165. The genotype and allele frequencies of the MTR Asp919Gly, MTHFR Ala222Val, MTHFD1 Arg653Gln and MTRR Ile22Met gene variants did not display statistical differences between patients with cervical cancer and controls. We also did not find a significant association between the distribution of any genotypes or alleles and cancer characteristics.
CONCLUSION: Our results might suggest the protective role of the BHMT 239Gln variant in cervical cancer incidence.

Harlid S, Ivarsson MI, Butt S, et al.
A candidate CpG SNP approach identifies a breast cancer associated ESR1-SNP.
Int J Cancer. 2011; 129(7):1689-98 [PubMed] Related Publications
Altered DNA methylation is often seen in malignant cells, potentially contributing to carcinogenesis by suppressing gene expression. We hypothesized that heritable methylation potential might be a risk factor for breast cancer and evaluated possible association with breast cancer for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) either involving CpG sequences in extended 5'-regulatory regions of candidate genes (ESR1, ESR2, PGR, and SHBG) or CpG and missense coding SNPs in genes involved in methylation (MBD1, MECP2, DNMT1, MGMT, MTHFR, MTR, MTRR, MTHFD1, MTHFD2, BHMT, DCTD, and SLC19A1). Genome-wide searches for genetic risk factors for breast cancers have in general not investigated these SNPs, because of low minor allele frequency or weak haplotype associations. Genotyping was performed using Mass spectrometry-Maldi-Tof in a screening panel of 538 cases and 1,067 controls. Potential association to breast cancer was identified for 15 SNPs and one of these SNPs (rs7766585 in ESR1) was found to associate strongly with breast cancer, OR 1.30 (95% CI 1.17-1.45; p-value 2.1 × 10(-6)), when tested in a verification panel consisting of 3,211 unique breast cancer cases and 4,223 unique controls from five European biobank cohorts. In conclusion, a candidate gene search strategy focusing on methylation-related SNPs did identify a SNP that associated with breast cancer at high significance.

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