Gene Summary

Gene:TYMS; thymidylate synthetase
Aliases: TS, TMS, HST422
Summary:Thymidylate synthase catalyzes the methylation of deoxyuridylate to deoxythymidylate using 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate (methylene-THF) as a cofactor. This function maintains the dTMP (thymidine-5-prime monophosphate) pool critical for DNA replication and repair. The enzyme has been of interest as a target for cancer chemotherapeutic agents. It is considered to be the primary site of action for 5-fluorouracil, 5-fluoro-2-prime-deoxyuridine, and some folate analogs. Expression of this gene and that of a naturally occuring antisense transcript rTSalpha (GeneID:55556) vary inversely when cell-growth progresses from late-log to plateau phase. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:thymidylate synthase
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: TYMS (cancer-related)

Cao Y, Zhang G, Wang P, et al.
Clinical significance of UGT1A1 polymorphism and expression of ERCC1, BRCA1, TYMS, RRM1, TUBB3, STMN1 and TOP2A in gastric cancer.
BMC Gastroenterol. 2017; 17(1):2 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Individualized therapeutic regimen is a recently intensively pursued approach for targeting diseases, in which the search for biomarkers was considered the first and most important. Thus, the goal of this study was to investigate whether the UGT1A1, ERCC1, BRCA1, TYMS, RRM1, TUBB3, STMN1 and TOP2A genes are underlying biomarkers for gastric cancer, which, to our knowledge, has not been performed.
METHODS: Ninety-eight tissue specimens were collected from gastric cancer patients between May 2012 and March 2015. A multiplex branched DNA liquidchip technology was used for measuring the mRNA expressions of ERCC1, BRCA1, TYMS, RRM1, TUBB3, STMN1 and TOP2A. Direct sequencing was performed for determination of UGT1A1 polymorphisms. Furthermore, correlations between gene expressions, polymorphisms and clinicopathological characteristics were investigated.
RESULTS: The expressions of TYMS, TUBB3 and STMN1 were significantly associated with the clinicopathological characteristics of age, gender and family history of gastric cancer, but not with differentiation, growth patterns, metastasis and TNM staging in patients with gastric cancer. No clinical characteristics were correlated with the expressions of ERCC1, BRCA1, RRM1 and TOP2A. Additionally, patients carrying G allele at -211 of UGT1A1 were predisposed to developing tubular adenocarcinoma, while individuals carrying 6TAA or G allele respectively at *28 or -3156 of UGT1A1 tended to have a local invasion.
CONCLUSIONS: The UGT1A1 polymorphism may be useful to screen the risk population of gastric cancer, while TYMS, TUBB3 and STMN1 may be potential biomarkers for prognosis and chemotherapy guidance.

Roberto M, Romiti A, Botticelli A, et al.
Evaluation of 5-fluorouracil degradation rate and Pharmacogenetic profiling to predict toxicity following adjuvant Capecitabine.
Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2017; 73(2):157-164 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: On account of the lack of predictive biomarkers of toxicity, we investigated whether polymorphisms of genes involved in fluoropyrimidine metabolism and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) degradation rate were associated with outcomes of adjuvant capecitabine in patients with early stage gastrointestinal cancers.
METHODS: Genotyping of DPYD GIVS14A, MTHFR C677T and A1298C SNPs were performed by pyro-sequencing technology. PCR analysis was used for genotyping TYMS-TSER. We also evaluated the 5-FU degradation rate, which determines the amount of drug consumed by PBMC in a time unit. Association of these variables with clinical outcome was evaluated using multivariate logistic regression analysis.
RESULTS: One hundred forty-two patients with early stage colon (39%), rectal (28%), stomach (20%) and pancreatic (13%) cancer, treated with adjuvant capecitabine, were included in this retrospective analysis. Seventy and 20% of the patients suffered from at least one G1-4 and G3-4 adverse events, respectively. According to the 5-FU degradation rate, three and 13 patients were assigned as poor (<0.86 ng/mL/10(6) cells/min) and ultra-rapid (>2.1 ng/mL/10(6) cells/min) metabolizers, respectively. At a multivariate logistic regression analysis, an altered 5-FU degradation rate (values <0.86 or >2.10 ng/mL/10(6) cells/min) was associated with grade 3-4 adverse events (OR = 2.09, 95% CI: 1.14-3.82, P = 0.01). No correlation was reported between toxicity and gene polymorphisms except for hand-foot syndrome that was more frequent in the MTHFR 1298CC homozygous variant genotype (OR = 2.03, 95% CI 1.04-3.96, P = 0.03).
CONCLUSIONS: 5-FU degradation rate may be regarded as possible predictive biomarker of capecitabine toxicity in early stage gastrointestinal cancer.

Patricia Rios-Ibarra C, Janeth Rodriguez-Silva C, Alonso Lopez-Chuken Y, et al.
Thymidylate synthase polymorphism in Mexican patients with colon cancer treated with 5-fluorouracil.
J BUON. 2016 Jul-Aug; 21(4):935-940 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: We analyzed the genotype and allele frequency of variable number tandem repeats (VNTR)-thymidylate synthase (TS) and its relationship with the disease evolution in colon cancer patients.
METHODS: We selected 24 paraffin-embedded colon cancer tissue samples from Mexican patients who received a 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy regimen. Tumor tissue was digested with proteinase K and genomic DNA was isolated by the standard method with phenol-chloroform extraction. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed for TS genotyping of VNTR and the results were evaluated directly in a stained agarose gel.
RESULTS: The allele frequency of 2 repeats (2R) was greater (0.66) than 3R (0.34) in metastatic colon cancer (x(2)=10.24; p=0.001)) however, no difference in allelic distribution between 2R (0.54) and 3R (0.46) in non metastatic patients was observed (x(2)=0.640; p=0.424).
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that Mexican patients with colon cancer present differences in the allelic distribution, the 2R allele being the most frequent.

Lam SW, Guchelaar HJ, Boven E
The role of pharmacogenetics in capecitabine efficacy and toxicity.
Cancer Treat Rev. 2016; 50:9-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
Capecitabine is an oral prodrug of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and approved for treatment of various malignancies. Hereditary genetic variants may affect a drug's pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics and account for differences in treatment response and adverse events among patients. In this review we present the current knowledge on genetic variants, commonly single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), tested in cohorts of cancer patients and possibly useful for prediction of capecitabine efficacy or toxicity. Capecitabine is activated to 5-FU by CES, CDA and TYMP, of which SNPs in CDA and CES2 were found to be associated with efficacy and toxicity. In addition, variants in genes of the 5-FU metabolic pathway, including TYMS, MTHFR and DPYD also influenced capecitabine efficacy and toxicity. In particular, well-known SNPs in TYMS and DPYD as well as putative DPYD SNPs had an association with clinical outcome as well as adverse events. Inconsistent findings may be attributable to factors related to ethnic differences, sample size, study design, study endpoints, dosing schedule and the use of multiple agents. Of the SNPs described in this review, dose reduction of fluoropyrimidines based on the presence of DPYD variants (*)2A (rs3918290), (*)13 (rs55886062), -2846A>T (rs67376798) and -1236G>A/HapB3 (rs56038477) has already been recommended. Other variants merit further validation to establish their definite role in explanation of interindividual differences in the outcome of capecitabine-based therapy.

Smid D, Kulda V, Srbecka K, et al.
Tissue microRNAs as predictive markers for gastric cancer patients undergoing palliative chemotherapy.
Int J Oncol. 2016; 48(6):2693-703 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs have the potential to become valuable predictive markers for gastric cancer. Samples of biopsy tissue, routinely taken from gastric cancer patients undergoing palliative chemotherapy, constitute suitable material for microRNA profiling with the aim of predicting the effect of chemotherapy. Our study group consisted of 54 patients, all of whom underwent palliative chemotherapy based on 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) or 5-FU in combination with platinum derivatives between 2000 and 2013. The expression of 29 selected microRNAs and genes BRCA1, ERCC1, RRM1 and TS, in gastric cancer tissue macrodissected from FFPE tissue samples, was measured by quantitative RT-PCR. The relationship between gene expression levels and time to progression (TTP) and overall survival (OS) was analysed. From the set of the 29 microRNAs of interest, we found high expression of miR-150, miR-342-3p, miR-181b, miR-221, miR-224 and low levels of miR-520h relate to shorter TTP. High levels of miR-150, miR-192, miR-224, miR-375 and miR-342-3p related to shorter OS. In routinely available FFPE tissue samples, we found 6 miRNAs with a relation to TTP, which may serve as predictors of the effectiveness of palliative treatment in gastric cancer patients. These miRNAs could also help in deciding whether to indicate palliative chemotherapy.

Katz SC, Point GR, Cunetta M, et al.
Regional CAR-T cell infusions for peritoneal carcinomatosis are superior to systemic delivery.
Cancer Gene Ther. 2016; 23(5):142-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Metastatic spread of colorectal cancer (CRC) to the peritoneal cavity is common and difficult to treat, with many patients dying from malignant bowel obstruction. Chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR-T) immunotherapy has shown great promise, and we previously reported murine and phase I clinical studies on regional intrahepatic CAR-T infusion for CRC liver metastases. We are now studying intraperitoneal (IP) delivery of CAR-Ts for peritoneal carcinomatosis. Regional IP infusion of CAR-T resulted in superior protection against carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA+) peritoneal tumors, when compared with systemically infused CAR-Ts. IP CAR-Ts also provided prolonged protection against IP tumor re-challenges and demonstrated an increase in effector memory phenotype over time. IP CAR-Ts provided protection against tumor growth at distant subcutaneous (SC) sites in association with increases in serum IFNγ levels. Given the challenges posed by immunoinhibitory pathways in solid tumors, we combined IP CAR-T treatment with suppressor cell targeting. High frequencies of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) and regulatory T cells (Treg) were found within the IP tumors, with MDSC expressing high levels of immunosuppressive PD-L1. Combinatorial IP CAR-T treatment with depleting antibodies against MDSC and Treg further improved efficacy against peritoneal metastases. Our data support further development of combinatorial IP CAR-T immunotherapy for peritoneal malignancies.

Pekarsky Y, Balatti V, Palamarchuk A, et al.
Dysregulation of a family of short noncoding RNAs, tsRNAs, in human cancer.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016; 113(18):5071-6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common human leukemia, and transgenic mouse studies indicate that activation of the T-cell leukemia/lymphoma 1 (TCL1) oncogene is a contributing event in the pathogenesis of the aggressive form of this disease. While studying the regulation of TCL1 expression, we identified the microRNA cluster miR-4521/3676 and discovered that these two microRNAs are associated with tRNA sequences and that this region can produce two small RNAs, members of a recently identified class of small noncoding RNAs, tRNA-derived small RNAs (tsRNAs). We further proved that miR-3676 and miR-4521 are tsRNAs using Northern blot analysis. We found that, like ts-3676, ts-4521 is down-regulated and mutated in CLL. Analysis of lung cancer samples revealed that both ts-3676 and ts-4521 are down-regulated and mutated in patient tumor samples. Because tsRNAs are similar in nature to piRNAs [P-element-induced wimpy testis (Piwi)-interacting small RNAs], we investigated whether ts-3676 and ts-4521 can interact with Piwi proteins and found these two tsRNAs in complexes containing Piwi-like protein 2 (PIWIL2). To determine whether other tsRNAs are involved in cancer, we generated a custom microarray chip containing 120 tsRNAs 16 bp or more in size. Microarray hybridization experiments revealed tsRNA signatures in CLL and lung cancer, indicating that, like microRNAs, tsRNAs may have an oncogenic and/or tumor-suppressor function in hematopoietic malignancies and solid tumors. Thus, our results show that tsRNAs are dysregulated in human cancer.

Ramena G, Yin Y, Yu Y, et al.
CLCA2 Interactor EVA1 Is Required for Mammary Epithelial Cell Differentiation.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(3):e0147489 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
CLCA2 is a p53-, p63-inducible transmembrane protein that is frequently downregulated in breast cancer. It is induced during differentiation of human mammary epithelial cells, and its knockdown causes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). To determine how CLCA2 promotes epithelial differentiation, we searched for interactors using membrane dihybrid screening. We discovered a strong interaction with the cell junctional protein EVA1 (Epithelial V-like Antigen 1) and confirmed it by co-immunoprecipitation. Like CLCA2, EVA1 is a type I transmembrane protein that is regulated by p53 and p63. It is thought to mediate homophilic cell-cell adhesion in diverse epithelial tissues. We found that EVA1 is frequently downregulated in breast tumors and breast cancer cell lines, especially those of mesenchymal phenotype. Moreover, knockdown of EVA1 in immortalized human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) caused EMT, implying that EVA1 is essential for epithelial differentiation. Both EVA1 and CLCA2 co-localized with E-cadherin at cell-cell junctions. The interacting domains were delimited by deletion analysis, revealing the site of interaction to be the transmembrane segment (TMS). The primary sequence of the CLCA2 TMS was found to be conserved in CLCA2 orthologs throughout mammals, suggesting that its interaction with EVA1 co-evolved with the mammary gland. A screen for other junctional interactors revealed that CLCA2 was involved in two different complexes, one with EVA1 and ZO-1, the other with beta catenin. Overexpression of CLCA2 caused downregulation of beta catenin and beta catenin-activated genes. Thus, CLCA2 links a junctional adhesion molecule to cytosolic signaling proteins that modulate proliferation and differentiation. These results may explain how attenuation of CLCA2 causes EMT and why CLCA2 and EVA1 are frequently downregulated in metastatic breast cancer cell lines.

Okuma Y, Hosomi Y, Miyamoto S, et al.
Correlation between S-1 treatment outcome and expression of biomarkers for refractory thymic carcinoma.
BMC Cancer. 2016; 16:156 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Thymic carcinoma is a rare cancer with minimal evidence of a survival benefit following chemotherapy. An oral fluoropyrimidine of S-1, however, is the recommended active cytotoxic chemotherapy agent for refractory thymic carcinoma based on a case series, whereas sunitinib or everolimus are recommended as molecular-targeted agents based on Phase II trials. We retrospectively investigated the efficacy of S-1 for refractory thymic carcinoma and performed a biomarker analysis.
METHODS: We assessed the clinicopathological variables of 14 consecutive patients who underwent S-1 for refractory thymic carcinoma and correlated the clinical outcomes with potential biomarkers using paraffin-embedded cancer tissues of eight patients in the cohort.
RESULTS: A total of 178 thymic malignancies were identified, of whom 14 patients included 12 cases of squamous cell carcinoma, one lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma, and one undifferentiated carcinoma. Six patients exhibited a partial response (42.9 %: 95 % confidence interval [CI], 21.4-67.4) and the disease control rate was 85.7 % (60.0-96.0 %). After a median follow-up of 24.2 months, the median progression-free survival was 8.1 months (range, 2.6-12.2 months), and median overall survival was 30.0 months (range, 6.2-41.9 months). No significant correlation between biomarker expression and response was noted. However, thymidine synthase (TS)/dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase and TS/orotate phosphoribosyltransferase were observed.
CONCLUSIONS: S-1 for refractory thymic carcinoma offered clinical activity and achieved an 85 % disease control rate. Although the biomarkers did not correlate with clinical outcome, the study results showed efficacy of S-1 as a cytotoxic chemotherapy for refractory thymic carcinoma, which warrants future investigation.

Zhang Z, Li Y, Huang L, et al.
Let-7a suppresses macrophage infiltrations and malignant phenotype of Ewing sarcoma via STAT3/NF-κB positive regulatory circuit.
Cancer Lett. 2016; 374(2):192-201 [PubMed] Related Publications
The interaction between tumors cells, tumor-derived humoral factors and the bone marrow in the bone niches has been shown to be essential for bone tumor initiation and promotion. Among the tumor stromal cells, tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are usually the most abundant immune population. Previously, we reported that let-7a functions as a tumor suppressor in ES. Herein, we found that the suppressive effects are not only limited on the malignant phenotype of tumor cells but also on the regulation of macrophage infiltration. We observed that the let-7a expression is negatively related to macrophage infiltrations in ES. Moreover, overexpression of putative ts-miRNA let-7a significantly suppressed the recruitment of PBMCs in vitro and decreased the macrophage infiltrations in ES-xenografted tumors in vivo. Most importantly, a positive regulatory feedback loop consisting of let-7a, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) (let-7a/STAT3/NF-κB) was involved in let-7a-mediated suppressive effects. These data might provide evidence of a novel intracellular signaling network function in ES pathogenesis, and manipulating this novel feedback loop will have therapeutic potential for ES patients.

Kim MG, Kim D, Suh SK, et al.
Current status and regulatory perspective of chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cell therapeutics.
Arch Pharm Res. 2016; 39(4):437-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells (CAR-T) have emerged as a new modality for cancer immunotherapy due to their potent efficacy against terminal cancers. CAR-Ts are reported to exert higher efficacy than monoclonal antibodies and antibody-drug conjugates, and act via mechanisms distinct from T cell receptor-engineered T cells. These cells are constructed by transducing genes encoding fusion proteins of cancer antigen-recognizing single-chain Fv linked to intracellular signaling domains of T cell receptors. CAR-Ts are classified as first-, second- and third-generation, depending on the intracellular signaling domain number of T cell receptors. This review covers the current status of CAR-T research, including basic proof-of-concept investigations at the cell and animal levels. Currently ongoing clinical trials of CAR-T worldwide are additionally discussed. Owing to the lack of existing approved products, several unresolved concerns remain with regard to safety, efficacy and manufacturing of CAR-T, as well as quality control issues. In particular, the cytokine release syndrome is the major side-effect impeding the successful development of CAR-T in clinical trials. Here, we have addressed the challenges and regulatory perspectives of CAR-T therapy.

Rajitha B, Belalcazar A, Nagaraju GP, et al.
Inhibition of NF-κB translocation by curcumin analogs induces G0/G1 arrest and downregulates thymidylate synthase in colorectal cancer.
Cancer Lett. 2016; 373(2):227-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cell cycle progression and DNA synthesis are essential steps in cancer cell growth and resistance. Thymidylate synthase (TS) is a therapeutic target for 5FU. Curcumin is a potent inhibitor of NF-κB. EF31 and UBS109 are potent synthetic analogues of curcumin. We tested the hypothesis that inhibition of NF-κB translocation by curcumin and its analogs EF31 and UBS109 can inhibit cell cycle progression and downregulate TS levels in colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines. Two CRC cell lines (HCT116 and HT-29) were either untreated (control) or treated with IC50 concentrations of curcumin, EF31 UBS109 led to G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. Treatment with curcumin, EF31 or UBS109 inhibited NF-κB, downregulated survival pathways and inhibited cell cycle progression. Arrest in the G0/G1 phase was associated with downregulation of the transcription factor E2F-1 and its target gene TS. NF-κB over-expression induced E2F-1 and TS protein and mRNA levels in both cell lines. EF31 and UBS109 treatment significantly decreased tumor growth in compared to untreated tumors. EF31 and UBS109 are promising agents for the prevention and treatment of CRC.

Abu Lila AS, Kato C, Fukushima M, et al.
Downregulation of thymidylate synthase by RNAi molecules enhances the antitumor effect of pemetrexed in an orthotopic malignant mesothelioma xenograft mouse model.
Int J Oncol. 2016; 48(4):1399-407 [PubMed] Related Publications
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an incurable cancer with an increasing incidence. Currently, pemetrexed (PMX)-based chemotherapy is the mainstay of chemotherapy for MPM, however, the outcome of PMX-based chemotherapy in patients with MPM is dismal. RNA interference (RNAi) technology has been considered as an effective tool to substantially enhance the therapeutic efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents in many preclinical and clinical settings. In this study, therefore, we investigated whether non-viral anti-thymidylate synthase RNAi embedded liposome (TS shRNA lipoplex) would effectively guide the downregulation of TS in human malignant mesothelioma MSTO-211H cells. Consequently, it enhanced the antitumor effect of PMX both in vitro and in vivo. TS shRNA effectively enhanced the in vitro cell growth inhibition upon treatment with PMX via downregulating TS expression in the MSTO-211H cell line. In in vivo orthotopic tumor model, the combined treatment of PMX and TS shRNA lipoplex efficiently combated the progression of orthotopic thoracic tumors and as a result prolonged mouse survival, compared to each single treatment. Our findings emphasize the pivotal relevance of RNAi as an effective tool for increasing the therapeutic efficacy of PMX, a cornerstone in the treatment regimens of MPM, and thereby, raising the possibility for the development of a novel therapeutic strategy, combination therapy of TS-shRNA and PMX, that can surpass many of the currently applied, but less effective, therapeutic regimens against lethal MPM.

Zhang Q, Sun T, Kang P, et al.
Combined analysis of rearrangement of ALK, ROS1, somatic mutation of EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, and mRNA expression of ERCC1, TYMS, RRM1, TUBB3, EGFR in patients with non-small cell lung cancer and their clinical significance.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2016; 77(3):583-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The assessment of single gene such as ERCC1, TYMS, RRM1, TUBB3, EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, ALK, and ROS1 is now widely applied in therapeutic decisions of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The aim of our study was to concurrently analyze these genes and evaluate their clinical significance in patients with NSCLC.
METHODS: Rearrangement of ALK and ROS1 was analyzed in 120 patients using FISH assays. Somatic mutation of EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA and mRNA expression of ERCC1, TYMS, RRM1, TUBB3, EGFR were examined by liquidchip platform in 350 patients . Data on clinical features were obtained from medical records of 119 patients, and the follow-up was conducted in 106 patients who received platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy.
RESULTS: We identified 5.0% ALK rearrangements, 1.7% ROS1 rearrangements, 36.6% EGFR mutations, 8.9% KRAS mutations, 0% BRAF mutations, and 4.0% PIK3CA mutations. Double or coexisting mutations were identified in 13 patients. Significant correlations were observed among EGFR, KRAS mutation, ERCC1, TYMS, RRM1, TUBB3, EGFR expression, and clinical features, especially histology (P < 0.05). Significant cross-correlations were observed in some pairs of genes (P < 0.05). Patients with low RRM1 expression had a better progression-free survival (PFS) (P < 0.05). Furthermore, EGFR-mutated patients with low RRM1 expression or patients with both ERCC1 and RRM1 low expression had a better PFS (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: Combined analysis of these commonly studied genes may promote the individual treatment in NSCLC. RRM1 may be a prognostic and predictive biomarker for PFS in patients with NSCLC who received platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy, and combining EGFR mutation and RRM1 expression or combining ERCC1 and RRM1 expression can enhance prognostic and predictive power for PFS.

Liu FT, Zhu PQ, Ou YX, et al.
Positive association between IL-16 rs1131445 polymorphism and cancer risk: a meta-analysis.
Minerva Med. 2016; 107(2):84-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The association between IL-16 rs1131445 polymorphism and cancer risk is not consistent or even contradictory, this meta-analysis aims to investigate the role of IL-16 gene rs1131445 polymorphisms in the risk of cancer.
EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A comprehensive online search was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE and CNKI databases to identify eligible studies. The case-control studies related IL-16 rs1131445 C/T polymorphism with the cancer susceptibility were selected according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. After extracting the basic data information and quality of literature evaluation, the meta-analysis was performed by using STATA 12.0 software, with calculating odds ratio and 95% confidence interval, and further subgroup analysis, literature publication bias test and sensitivity analysis.
EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: There are totally 1677 cases and 1989 non-tumor controls finally involved. Meta-analysis showed that there are statistical correlations between the IL-16 rs1131445 C/T polymorphism and the cancer risk in Asian populations (TS vs. C, OR=0.80, 95%CI: 0.73-0.88; TT vs. TC, OR=0.75, 95%CI: 0.65-0.87; TT vs. CC, OR=0.69, 95% CI: 0.56-0.84; CC+TC vs. TT, OR=1.36, 95%CI: 1.19-1.55; CC vs. TC+TT, OR=1.27, 95%CI: 1.05-1.53) (all P<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: IL-16 rs1131445 C/T polymorphism is related to the susceptibility to cancer in Asians, suggesting that the C allelic gene of rs1131445 is significantly associated with an increasing cancer risk.

Park SW, Joo YH, Jung SH, et al.
Chromosomal aberrations and prognosis in patients with concomitant chemoradiotherapy for resected head and neck cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 35(4):2207-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although concomitant chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) has recently become a mainstay of a primary treatment modality in advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), some of the patients experience CCRT failure. If we can predict the CCRT outcomes, we can reduce unnecessary CCRT avoiding risk of CCRT‑related complication. We aimed to identify genetic alteration markers related to treatment failure in HNSCC patients who underwent radical surgery and CCRT. Genome‑wide copy number alterations (CNAs) were analyzed in 18 HNSCC patients with (n=9) or without (n=9) recurrence using oligoarray‑comparative genomic hybridization and candidate CNAs were validated by quantitative RT‑PCR. A total of 15 recurrently altered regions (RARs) were identified in the 18 HNSCC cases. Among them, two RARs were significantly associated with CCRT‑failure: copy number gained RARs of 7p11.2 harboring EGFR (P=0.029) and 18p11.32 harboring TYMS gene (P=0.029). Three RARs (7p11.2, 9p21.3 and 18p11.32) were significantly associated with poor disease‑specific survival in univariate analysis, and 7p11.2 was consistently significant in the multivariate analysis (HR 40.68, P=0.003). In conclusion, we defined novel genomic alterations associated with CCRT‑failure: 7p11.2 (EGFR) and 18p11.32 (TYMS). Our results provide useful clues for the elucidation of the molecular pathogenesis of HNSCC and to predict CCRT‑failure.

Sahnane N, Bernasconi B, Carnevali I, et al.
Disruption of the APC gene by t(5;7) translocation in a Turcot family.
Cancer Genet. 2016; 209(3):107-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
Turcot syndrome (TS) refers to the combination of colorectal polyps and primary tumours of the central nervous system. TS is a heterogeneous genetic condition due to APC and/or mismatch repair germline mutations. When APC is involved the vast majority of mutations are truncating, but in approximately 20%-30% of patients with familial polyposis no germline mutation can be found. A 30-year-old Caucasian woman with a positive pedigree for TS was referred to our Genetic Counselling Service. She was negative for APC and MUTYH but showed a reciprocal balanced translocation t(5;7)(q22;p15) at chromosome analysis. FISH analysis using specific BAC probes demonstrated that 5q22 breakpoint disrupted the APC gene. Transcript analysis by MLPA and digital PCR revealed that the cytogenetic rearrangement involving the 3' end of the APC gene caused a defective expression of a truncated transcript. This result allowed cytogenetic analysis to be offered to all the other family members and segregation analysis clearly demonstrated that all the carriers were affected, whereas non-carriers did not have the polyposis. A cytogenetic approach permitted the identification of the mutation-causing disease in this family, and the segregation analysis together with the transcript study supported the pathogenetic role of this mutation. Karyotype analysis was used as a predictive test in all members of this family. This family suggests that clinically positive TS and FAP cases, which test negative with standard molecular analysis, could be easily and cost-effectively resolved by a classical and molecular cytogenetic approach.

Jiang B, Liu F, Liu Z, et al.
B7-H3 increases thymidylate synthase expression via the PI3k-Akt pathway.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(7):9465-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
B7-H3, a member of the B7 family, has been reported to be highly expressed in colorectal cancer and is associated with poor prognosis and overall survival. In this study, we found that overexpression of B7-H3 protected SW80 and HCT8 cells from 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) using CCK-8 assays by inducing resistance to 5-FU chemotherapy. Further investigation has revealed elevated expression of thymidylate synthase (TS) and upregulation of the PI3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway in B7-H3 overexpressing cells. The effects of B7-H3 on activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway and elevation of TS expression could be blocked by LY294002, a specific inhibitor of the PI3K signaling pathway. These results implied that B7-H3 can induce colorectal cancer cell resistance to 5-FU by increasing TS expression and PI3K/Akt/TS signaling and plays an important role during these processes. This study provides more proof concerning the non-immunology effect of B7 molecules, a reminder that both co-stimulatory or inhibitory effects and non-immunology effects should be devoted equal attention.

Xu M, Jiang D, Shen J, et al.
Distinct characterization of two vinorelbine-resistant breast cancer cell lines developed by different strategies.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 35(4):2355-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
Resistance to chemotherapy is a major obstacle to the successful treatment of breast cancer patients. Recently, we successfully established two vinorelbine-resistant sublines, BC-DS and BC-TS, from the human breast cancer cell line BCap37, with different 'two-stage screening methods'. Interestingly, though BC-DS and BC-TS were developed from the same BCap37 cell line with the same drug, they showed remarkable differences. Compared with the parental BCap37 cells both BC-DS and BC-TS had resistance to vinorelbine, but the resistant characterizations are both unstable. BC-DS showed increased migration capability while BC-TS showed reduced migration capability. When investigating their multidrug resistance, we found BC-DS became more sensitive to methotrexate, which suggested that combination of MTX and vinorelbine could be a new treatment strategy. Moreover, BC-DS and BC-TS overexpressed P-glycoprotein at different levels. Our research also showed that the present clinical usage of vinorelbine is reasonable. These findings suggest that the vinorelbine-induced multiple drug resistance (MDR) sublines may be used as an in vitro model not only to further elucidate possible mechanisms of MDR involved in the human breast cancer, but also to find methods to optimize the curative effect of vinorelbine in clinic.

Garziera M, Catamo E, Crovella S, et al.
Association of the HLA-G 3'UTR polymorphisms with colorectal cancer in Italy: a first insight.
Int J Immunogenet. 2016; 43(1):32-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study aimed to explore functional and regulatory polymorphisms and haplotypes at the HLA-G 3'UTR region in colorectal cancer development. The presence of nonpolymorphic variants was also evaluated. Three-hundred and eight patients with colorectal cancer and 294 healthy controls were analysed at the germinal level. We found an association with increased risk of colorectal cancer for +2960 14-bp INDEL, +3196 C>G SNPs and UTR-2 haplotype, and a 'protective' role for +3003 T>C, +3010 C>G polymorphisms and UTR-4 haplotype. We detected in 3 distinct patients, a novel nucleotide change (+3037 C>A) and 2 already described rare variants, +3032 G/C (EUR MAF = 0.1%) and +3092 G/T (EUR MAF = 0%). This is the first study showing associations between different polymorphisms in the HLA-G 3'UTR and colorectal cancer susceptibility.

Morata-Tarifa C, Jiménez G, García MA, et al.
Low adherent cancer cell subpopulations are enriched in tumorigenic and metastatic epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition-induced cancer stem-like cells.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:18772 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cancer stem cells are responsible for tumor progression, metastasis, therapy resistance and cancer recurrence, doing their identification and isolation of special relevance. Here we show that low adherent breast and colon cancer cells subpopulations have stem-like properties. Our results demonstrate that trypsin-sensitive (TS) breast and colon cancer cells subpopulations show increased ALDH activity, higher ability to exclude Hoechst 33342, enlarged proportion of cells with a cancer stem-like cell phenotype and are enriched in sphere- and colony-forming cells in vitro. Further studies in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells reveal that TS subpopulation expresses higher levels of SLUG, SNAIL, VIMENTIN and N-CADHERIN while show a lack of expression of E-CADHERIN and CLAUDIN, being this profile characteristic of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The TS subpopulation shows CXCL10, BMI-1 and OCT4 upregulation, differing also in the expression of several miRNAs involved in EMT and/or cell self-renewal such as miR-34a-5p, miR-34c-5p, miR-21-5p, miR-93-5p and miR-100-5p. Furthermore, in vivo studies in immunocompromised mice demonstrate that MDA-MB-231 TS cells form more and bigger xenograft tumors with shorter latency and have higher metastatic potential. In conclusion, this work presents a new, non-aggressive, easy, inexpensive and reproducible methodology to isolate prospectively cancer stem-like cells for subsequent biological and preclinical studies.

Zhou H, Dai Y, Zhu L, et al.
Poor response to platinum-based chemotherapy is associated with KRAS mutation and concomitant low expression of BRAC1 and TYMS in NSCLC.
J Int Med Res. 2016; 44(1):89-98 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate treatment response, survival, and the associations between KRAS mutation status and tumour expression levels of BRCA1, TYMS and SRC retrospectively in a cohort of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), treated exclusively with conjunctive platinum-based doublet chemotherapy.
METHODS: KRAS mutation status was determined via amplification refractory mutation and multiple quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Tumour expression levels of BRCA1, TYMS and SRC were determined via real time quantitative PCR.
RESULTS: Patients with KRAS mutations (n = 3) had significantly shorter survival duration than patients with wild type KRAS (n = 42). Tumour expression levels of BRCA1 and TYMS, but not SRC, were significantly lower in patients with, than in those without, KRAS mutations. Tumour expression level of BRCA1 was positively correlated with survival duration.
CONCLUSIONS: KRAS mutation status and BRCA1 tumour expression are potential biomarkers for tailoring chemotherapy and predicting clinical outcome.

Latheef SA, Devanabanda M, Sankati S, Madduri R
Differential expression of alkaline phosphatase gene in proliferating primary lymphocytes and malignant lymphoid cell lines.
Immunol Lett. 2016; 170:37-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
Alkaline Phosphatase (APase) activity has been shown to be enhanced specifically in mitogen stimulated B lymphocytes committed to proliferation, but not in T lymphocytes. APase gene expression was analyzed in proliferating murine and human primary lymphocytes and human malignant cell lines using reverse transcriptase and real time PCR. In mitogen stimulated murine splenic lymphocytes, enhancement of APase activity correlated well with an increase in APase gene expression. However, in mitogen stimulated murine T lymphocytes and human PBL despite a vigorous proliferative response, no increase in APase enzyme activity or gene expression was observed. A constitutive expression of APase activity concomitant with APase gene expression was observed inhuman myeloma cell line, U266 B1. However, neither enzyme activity nor gene expression of APase were observed in human T cell lymphoma, SUPT-1. The results suggest a differential expression of APase activity and its gene in proliferating primary lymphocytes of mice and humans. The specific expression of APase activity and its gene only in human myeloma cells, but not in proliferating primary B cells can be exploited as a sensitive disease marker.

Taddia L, D'Arca D, Ferrari S, et al.
Inside the biochemical pathways of thymidylate synthase perturbed by anticancer drugs: Novel strategies to overcome cancer chemoresistance.
Drug Resist Updat. 2015; 23:20-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
Our current understanding of the mechanisms of action of antitumor agents and the precise mechanisms underlying drug resistance is that these two processes are directly linked. Moreover, it is often possible to delineate chemoresistance mechanisms based on the specific mechanism of action of a given anticancer drug. A more holistic approach to the chemoresistance problem suggests that entire metabolic pathways, rather than single enzyme targets may better explain and educate us about the complexity of the cellular responses upon cytotoxic drug administration. Drugs, which target thymidylate synthase and folate-dependent enzymes, represent an important therapeutic arm in the treatment of various human malignancies. However, prolonged patient treatment often provokes drug resistance phenomena that render the chemotherapeutic treatment highly ineffective. Hence, strategies to overcome drug resistance are primarily designed to achieve either enhanced intracellular drug accumulation, to avoid the upregulation of folate-dependent enzymes, and to circumvent the impairment of DNA repair enzymes which are also responsible for cross-resistance to various anticancer drugs. The current clinical practice based on drug combination therapeutic regimens represents the most effective approach to counteract drug resistance. In the current paper, we review the molecular aspects of the activity of TS-targeting drugs and describe how such mechanisms are related to the emergence of clinical drug resistance. We also discuss the current possibilities to overcome drug resistance by using a molecular mechanistic approach based on medicinal chemistry methods focusing on rational structural modifications of novel antitumor agents. This paper also focuses on the importance of the modulation of metabolic pathways upon drug administration, their analysis and the assessment of their putative roles in the networks involved using a meta-analysis approach. The present review describes the main pathways that are modulated by TS-targeting anticancer drugs starting from the description of the normal functioning of the folate metabolic pathway, through the protein modulation occurring upon drug delivery to cultured tumor cells as well as cancer patients, finally describing how the pathways are modulated by drug resistance development. The data collected are then analyzed using network/netwire connecting methods in order to provide a wider view of the pathways involved and of the importance of such information in identifying additional proteins that could serve as novel druggable targets for efficacious cancer therapy.

Shimamoto Y, Nukatsuka M, Takechi T, Fukushima M
Association between mRNA expression of chemotherapy-related genes and clinicopathological features in colorectal cancer: A large-scale population analysis.
Int J Mol Med. 2016; 37(2):319-28 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
To establish the individualized treatment of patients with colorectal cancer, factors associated with chemotherapeutic effects should be identified. However, to the best of our knowledge, few studies are available on this topic, although it is known that the prognosis of patients and sensitivity to chemotherapy depend on the location of the tumor and that the tumor location is important for individualized treatment. In this study, primary tumors obtained from 1,129 patients with colorectal cancer were used to measure the mRNA expression levels of the following genes associated with the effects of standard chemotherapy for colorectal cancer: 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-related thymidylate synthase (TYMS), dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPYD) and thymidine phosphorylase (TYMP); folate-related dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), folylpolyglutamate synthase (FPGS) and gamma-glutamyl hydrolase (GGH); irinotecan-related topoisomerase I (TOP1); oxaliplatin-related excision repair cross-complementing 1 (ERCC1); biologic agent-related vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Large-scale population analysis was performed to determine the association of gene expression with the clinicopathological features, in particular, the location of the colorectal cancer. From the results of our analysis of the mRNA expression of these 10 genes, we noted the strongest correlation between DPYD and TYMP, followed by TYMS and DHFR. The location of the colorectal cancer was classified into 4 regions (the right‑ and left-sided colon, rectosigmoid and rectum) and was compared with gene expression. A significant difference in all genes, apart from VEGF, was noted. Of the remaining 9 genes, the highest expression of TYMS and DPYD was observed in the right‑sided colon; the highest expression of GGH and EGFR was noted in the left-sided colon; the highest expression of DHFR, FPGS, TOP1 and ERCC1 was noted in the rectosigmoid, whereas TYMP expression was approximately equivalent in the right-sided colon and rectum, and higher than that in other locations. The data generated from this study may prove to be useful for the development of individualized chemotherapeutic treatments for patients with colorectal cancer, and will mean that the tumor location is taken into account.

Grossi F, Dal Bello MG, Salvi S, et al.
Expression of Ribonucleotide Reductase Subunit-2 and Thymidylate Synthase Correlates with Poor Prognosis in Patients with Resected Stages I-III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.
Dis Markers. 2015; 2015:302649 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Biomarkers can help to identify patients with early-stages or locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who have high risk of relapse and poor prognosis. To correlate the expression of seven biomarkers involved in DNA synthesis and repair and in cell division with clinical outcome, we consecutively collected 82 tumour tissues from radically resected NSCLC patients. The following biomarkers were investigated using IHC and q
RT-PCR: excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1), breast cancer 1 (BRCA1), ribonucleotide reductase subunits M1 and M2 (RRM1 and RRM2), subunit p53R2, thymidylate synthase (TS), and class III beta-tubulin (TUBB3). Gene expression levels were also validated in an available NSCLC microarray dataset. Multivariate analysis identified the protein overexpression of RRM2 and TS as independent prognostic factors of shorter overall survival (OS). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a trend in shorter OS for patients with RRM2, TS, and ERCC1, BRCA1 overexpressed tumours. For all of the biomarkers except TUBB3, the OS trends relative to the gene expression levels were in agreement with those relative to the protein expression levels. The NSCLC microarray dataset showed RRM2 and TS as biomarkers significantly associated with OS. This study suggests that high expression levels of RRM2 and TS might be negative prognostic factors for resected NSCLC patients.

Ang C, Miura JT, Gamblin TC, et al.
Comprehensive multiplatform biomarker analysis of 350 hepatocellular carcinomas identifies potential novel therapeutic options.
J Surg Oncol. 2016; 113(1):55-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Effective therapies for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are limited. Molecular profiling of HCC was performed to identify novel therapeutic targets.
METHODS: 350 HCC samples were evaluated using a multiplatform profiling service (Caris Life Sciences, Phoenix, AZ), including gene sequencing, amplification, and protein expression.
RESULTS: EGFR, TOPO1, PD-1, TOP2A, SPARC, and c-Met were overexpressed in 25-83% of samples. Decreased expression of RRM1,TS, PTEN, and MGMT occurred in 31-82% of samples. TP53 was mutated in 30%, CTNNB1 in 20%, and BRCA2 in 18%; other gene mutation rates were <5%. TP53-mutated tumors showed significantly higher TOPO2A (90% vs. 38%, P < 0.0001) and TS (56% vs. 29%, P = 0.0139) expression. CTNNB1-mutated tumors had significantly higher AR (56% vs. 21%, P = 0.0017), SPARC (61% vs. 29%, P = 0.0135), PDL1 (29% vs. 0%, P = 0.0256) expression, and BRCA2 mutations (50% vs. 6%, P = 0.0458). Metastases exhibited significantly higher infiltration by PD-1+ lymphocytes (79% vs. 50%, P = 0.047) and TS (31% vs. 14%, P < 0.0003) than primary HCC.
CONCLUSIONS: Multiplatform profiling reveals molecular heterogeneity in HCC and identifies potential therapies including tyrosine kinase, PI3 kinase, or PARP inhibitors for molecular subtypes. Chemotherapy may benefit some tumors. CTNNB1-mutated tumors may respond to multi-target inhibition. These limited and preliminary data require clinical validation.

Cereda S, Milella M, Cordio S, et al.
Capecitabine with/without mitomycin C: results of a randomized phase II trial of second-line therapy in advanced biliary tract adenocarcinoma.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2016; 77(1):109-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Advanced biliary tract adenocarcinoma (BTA) is a rare tumor with a poor prognosis. Since no standard salvage chemotherapy regimen exists, we explored the activity of capecitabine alone or combined with mitomycin C.
METHODS: Patients aged 18-75 years and with KPS >50, with pathological diagnosis of BTA stratified based on site and stage of disease, were randomized to receive capecitabine 2000 mg/m(2) day 1-14 alone (ARM A) or in combination with mitomycin C 6 mg/m(2) day 1 (ARM B) as second-line therapy. Cycles were repeated in both arms every 3 weeks. Tumor assessment was performed every 2 months. The primary endpoint was the probability of being progression free at 6 months (PFS-6) from treatment start. According to the Fleming design, the study aimed to enroll 26 pts per arm. An exploratory endpoint was to assess thymidylate synthase (TS) and thymidine phosphorylase (TP) expression, as biomarkers predictive for clinical outcomes of capecitabine treatment.
RESULTS: Between October 2011 and 2013, 57 metastatic pts were enrolled: ARM A/B 28/29. Accordingly, 55 (26/29) pts were assessable for the primary endpoint: 2 (8%) ARM A and 3 (10%) ARM B pts were PFS-6. Main G3-4 toxicities were: hand-foot syndrome and transaminitis in 4/0%, and thrombocytopenia, diarrhea and fatigue in 0/3% of pts. No statistically significant correlation was found between TS or TP expression and pts' outcome.
CONCLUSIONS: Since capecitabine yielded a disappointing outcome and the addition of mitomycin C did not improve the results, new therapeutic strategies need to be explored to improve survival in this disease setting.

Cavalcante GC, Freitas Ndo S, Ribeiro-Dos-Santos AM, et al.
Investigation of Potentially Deleterious Alleles for Response to Cancer Treatment with 5-Fluorouracil.
Anticancer Res. 2015; 35(12):6971-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To investigate polymorphisms that are probable indicators of response variability during cancer treatment with 5-fluorouracil (rs16430, rs2279198, rs1801159 and rs17878362).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated 1,038 individuals regarding allele distribution from different populations, out of which we genotyped 127 individuals from a Brazilian admixed population. Similarity analyses with parental populations were performed. Prevalence of potentially deleterious alleles was also evaluated.
RESULTS: Thirty-seven percent of the population had at least three potentially deleterious alleles and 38.6% had at least one potentially deleterious allele in homozygosis.
CONCLUSION: Potentially deleterious alleles are present under diverse frequencies in different populations. Therefore, genotyping prior to 5-fluorouracil administration should be recommended.

Di Francia R, De Lucia L, Di Paolo M, et al.
Rational selection of predictive pharmacogenomics test for the Fluoropyrimidine/Oxaliplatin based therapy.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2015; 19(22):4443-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Both Fluoropyrimidine and Oxaliplatin (FluOx) are the most common anticancer drugs used to treat colorectal, ovarian, and gastrointestinal cancers. Nevertheless, the efficacy of FluOx-based therapy is often compromised by the severe risk of neurotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, and gastrointestinal toxicity. Stratification of patients for their individual response to drugs is a promising approach for cancer treatment and cost-effectiveness. Here we evaluate the most recent findings on the most appropriate gene variants related to the toxicity in patients receiving FluOx chemotherapy.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic literature search of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases was conducted to identify all clinical studies of any association between DPYD and 5-FU correlated to allelic status of 6 validated polymorphisms in five genes Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase (DPYD), Thymidylate Synthase (TYMS), Glutathione S-Transferase (GSTP1), and DNA-repair genes (ERCC2 and XRCC1).
RESULTS: The stratification of the patients into three genotype profiles group, who are most likely responders to FluOx treatments, provide informations about toxicity and/or resistance before starting therapy. Also, early evaluation cost of panel testing proposed is averaged about €100,00 per sample. The evaluation costs of genotyping before starting treatment could be a good cost-effectiveness strategy.
CONCLUSIONS: Based on the individual genomic profile, the oncologists will have new possibilities, based on the individual genetic profile, to make treatment decisions for their patients and to redefine scheduling and dosage of FluOx-based therapy.

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