Gene Summary

Gene:FRS2; fibroblast growth factor receptor substrate 2
Aliases: SNT, SNT1, FRS1A, FRS2A, SNT-1, FRS2alpha
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:fibroblast growth factor receptor substrate 2
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (28)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
  • MDM2
  • Xenograft Models
  • Chromosome 12
  • Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 4
  • FGFR2
  • Wnt Proteins
  • Fibroblast Growth Factors
  • Phosphorylation
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Protein Kinase Inhibitors
  • Signal Transducing Adaptor Proteins
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Gene Dosage
  • AKT1
  • Mutation
  • Apoptosis
  • Liposarcoma
  • FISH
  • Cell Movement
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • FGFR1
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Receptors, Fibroblast Growth Factor
  • Src Homology 2 Domain-Containing, Transforming Protein 1
  • MAP Kinase Signaling System
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Enzyme Activation
  • Transfection
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Gene Amplification
  • Ovarian Cancer
  • Western Blotting
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • Signal Transduction
  • Lung Cancer
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Breast Cancer
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: FRS2 (cancer-related)

Jerez S, Araya H, Hevia D, et al.
Extracellular vesicles from osteosarcoma cell lines contain miRNAs associated with cell adhesion and apoptosis.
Gene. 2019; 710:246-257 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/08/2020 Related Publications
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone tumor during childhood and adolescence. Several reports have presented data on serum biomarkers for osteosarcoma, but few reports have analyzed circulating microRNAs (miRNAs). In this study, we used next generation miRNA sequencing to examine miRNAs isolated from microvesicle-depleted extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from six different human osteosarcoma or osteoblastic cell lines with different degrees of metastatic potential (i.e., SAOS2, MG63, HOS, 143B, U2OS and hFOB1.19). EVs from each cell line contain on average ~300 miRNAs, and ~70 of these miRNAs are present at very high levels (i.e., >1000 reads per million). The most prominent miRNAs are miR-21-5p, miR-143-3p, miR-148a-3p and 181a-5p, which are enriched between 3 and 100 fold and relatively abundant in EVs derived from metastatic SAOS2 cells compared to non-metastatic MG63 cells. Gene ontology analysis of predicted targets reveals that miRNAs present in EVs may regulate the metastatic potential of osteosarcoma cell lines by potentially inhibiting a network of genes (e.g., MAPK1, NRAS, FRS2, PRCKE, BCL2 and QKI) involved in apoptosis and/or cell adhesion. Our data indicate that osteosarcoma cell lines may selectively package miRNAs as molecular cargo of EVs that could function as paracrine agents to modulate the tumor micro-environment.

Wu S, Ou T, Xing N, et al.
Whole-genome sequencing identifies ADGRG6 enhancer mutations and FRS2 duplications as angiogenesis-related drivers in bladder cancer.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):720 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/08/2020 Related Publications
Bladder cancer is one of the most common and highly vascularized cancers. To better understand its genomic structure and underlying etiology, we conduct whole-genome and targeted sequencing in urothelial bladder carcinomas (UBCs, the most common type of bladder cancer). Recurrent mutations in noncoding regions affecting gene regulatory elements and structural variations (SVs) leading to gene disruptions are prevalent. Notably, we find recurrent ADGRG6 enhancer mutations and FRS2 duplications which are associated with higher protein expression in the tumor and poor prognosis. Functional assays demonstrate that depletion of ADGRG6 or FRS2 expression in UBC cells compromise their abilities to recruit endothelial cells and induce tube formation. Moreover, pathway assessment reveals recurrent alterations in multiple angiogenesis-related genes. These results illustrate a multidimensional genomic landscape that highlights noncoding mutations and SVs in UBC tumorigenesis, and suggest ADGRG6 and FRS2 as novel pathological angiogenesis regulators that would facilitate vascular-targeted therapies for UBC.

He X, Pang Z, Zhang X, et al.
Consistent Amplification of FRS2 and MDM2 in Low-grade Osteosarcoma: A Genetic Study of 22 Cases With Clinicopathologic Analysis.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2018; 42(9):1143-1155 [PubMed] Related Publications
Low-grade osteosarcoma (LGOS) encompasses low-grade central osteosarcoma (LGCOS) and parosteal osteosarcoma (POS). LGOSs are characterized by a supernumerary ring and giant rod chromosomes containing the 12q13-15 amplicon. The fibroblast growth factor receptor substrate 2 (FRS2) gene is located close to MDM2 and CDK4. Recent studies identified consistent amplification of FRS2 gene in atypical lipomatous tumor/well-differentiated liposarcoma and dedifferentiated liposarcoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of FRS2 amplification and its relationship with the clinicopathologic features of LGOSs. The amplification of FRS2 and MDM2 genes were analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization using 22 LGOSs (3 LGCOSs, 14 classic POSs, and 5 dedifferentiated POSs) and 85 control samples of bone and soft tissue. The clinicopathologic features of the 22 LGOSs were described. Amplification of FRS2 was detected in 21/22 (95%) of the LGOSs, including 3 (100%) LGCOSs and 18 (95%) POSs. All 22 LGOSs showed MDM2 amplification (100%). The only MDM2/FRS2 LGOS was dedifferentiated POS (the dedifferentiated component was conventional osteosarcoma). In the control group, all of the atypical lipomatous tumor/well-differentiated liposarcoma/dedifferentiated liposarcomas (DDLs) (10/10, 100%) were FRS2-amplified, whereas the remaining 75 control cases were FRS2-nonamplified. These findings indicate that the FRS2 gene is consistently amplified in classic and dedifferentiated LGOSs but not in their histologic mimics. These results offer another avenue for investigating the biology of LGOSs. Whether FRS2-nonamplified tumors exhibit unusual clinicopathologic features needs further investigation. Some so-called "high-grade osteosarcomas harboring 12q13-15 amplification" may be unrecognized dedifferentiated LGOSs.

Xu M, Chen S, Yang W, et al.
FGFR4 Links Glucose Metabolism and Chemotherapy Resistance in Breast Cancer.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 47(1):151-160 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Poor response to chemotherapy leads to the relapse and metastatic progression of tumors. Reprogrammed glucose metabolism is one of the important hallmarks of cancer that facilitates cancer cell survival, proliferation and chemoresistance. However, the precise fate of glucose metabolism and its role in therapy responsiveness in cancers remains largely unexplored.
METHODS: The glycolytic phenotype of doxorubicin (ADR)-resistant breast cancer cells and their parental cells was assessed by measuring glucose uptake, lactate release, and extracellular acidification rate (ECAR). Protein expression was detected by Western blotting analysis and mRNA expression was detected using q-PCR. Cell survival ratio was determined by the cell counting kit 8 assay. The role of fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) in glycolysis, chemoresistance, and the underlying mechanisms were studied by using gene expression microarray and short hairpin RNA-mediated gene knockdown.
RESULTS: We found that glycolytic flux are increased in two doxorubicin (ADR)-resistant breast cancer cell lines compared with their parental wild type cells, as demonstrated by increased glucose uptake, lactate release, and extracellular acidification rate (ECAR). By gene expression microarray, we identified FGFR4 as a critical modulator of ADR resistance and enhanced glucose metabolism. Genetic silencing of FGFR4 increased the chemosensitivity and suppressed the enhanced glycolytic flux in ADR-resistant cells. Mechanistically, activation of FGFR4 signaling in ADR-resistant cells led to the phosphorylation of FGF receptor substrate 2 (FRS2) and further activated the downstream MAPK/ERK signaling. Pharmacological inhibition of FGFR4-FRS2-ERK signaling pathway significantly blocked the chemoresistant and glycolytic phenotypes of ADR-resistant cells.
CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that high levels of FGFR4 can increase glucose metabolism and lead to chemoresistance in breast cancer and reveal the mechanistic basis for targeting FGFR4 as a therapeutic opportunity for chemoresistant tumors.

Zhou J, Zhang C, Sui X, et al.
Histone deacetylase inhibitor chidamide induces growth inhibition and apoptosis in NK/T lymphoma cells through ATM-Chk2-p53-p21 signalling pathway.
Invest New Drugs. 2018; 36(4):571-580 [PubMed] Related Publications
We investigated the anti-tumour effects and the underlying molecular mechanisms of a new oral histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), chidamide, in NK/T cell lymphoma (NKTCL), a rare and highly aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma with poor outcomes. SNT-8 and SNK-10 NKTCL cell lines were exposed to different concentrations of chidamide for the indicated time. The treated cells were analysed for cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, and cell apoptosis. Proteins in the AKT/mTOR and MAPK signalling pathways and the DNA damage response (DDR) cell cycle checkpoint pathway were measured by Western blotting. Chidamide inhibited cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner, arrested cell cycle progression at the G0/G1 phase, and induced apoptosis in the NKTCL cell lines. In addition, we found that chidamide suppressed the phosphorylation levels of proteins in the AKT/mTOR and MAPK signalling pathways and activated the DDR cell cycle checkpoint pathway, that is, the ATM-Chk2-p53-p21 pathway. Expression of EBV genes was also assessed by Real-Time PCR. Chidamide induced EBV lytic-phase gene expression in EBV-positive NKTCL. Our results provide evidence that chidamide shows antitumour effects by inhibiting the AKT/mTOR and MAPK signalling pathways and activating the ATM-Chk2-p53-p21 signalling pathway in vitro.

Kostas M, Haugsten EM, Zhen Y, et al.
Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Receptor Type G (PTPRG) Controls Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor (FGFR) 1 Activity and Influences Sensitivity to FGFR Kinase Inhibitors.
Mol Cell Proteomics. 2018; 17(5):850-870 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/08/2020 Related Publications
Recently, FGFR1 was found to be overexpressed in osteosarcoma and represents an important target for precision medicine. However, because targeted cancer therapy based on FGFR inhibitors has so far been less efficient than expected, a detailed understanding of the target is important. We have here applied proximity-dependent biotin labeling combined with label-free quantitative mass spectrometry to identify determinants of FGFR1 activity in an osteosarcoma cell line. Many known FGFR interactors were identified (

Jing W, Lan T, Chen H, et al.
Amplification of FRS2 in atypical lipomatous tumour/well-differentiated liposarcoma and de-differentiated liposarcoma: a clinicopathological and genetic study of 146 cases.
Histopathology. 2018; 72(7):1145-1155 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of FRS2 amplification and its relationship with the clinicopathological features of atypical lipomatous tumour (ALT)/well-differentiated liposarcoma (WDL)/de-differentiated liposarcoma (DDL).
METHODS AND RESULTS: FRS2 and MDM2 fluorescence in-situ hybridisation (FISH) was performed on 146 tumours (70 ALT/WDLs and 76 DDLs). One hundred and eight control samples were included for FRS2 analysis. FRS2 amplification was detected in 136 of 146 (93.2%) ALT/WDL/DDLs, including 63 ALT/WDLs and 73 DDLs. A higher FRS2/CEP12 ratio was observed in DDLs than in ALT/WDLs (P = 0.0005). The FRS2/CEP12 ratio of peripheral tumours was lower than that of central tumours (P = 0.00004). All the ALT/WDL/DDLs showed MDM2 amplification (100%). The MDM2
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that FRS2 is amplified consistently in ALT/WDL/DDLs and offer another avenue for the investigation of the biology of this tumour group. MDM2

Sui X, Zhang C, Zhou J, et al.
Resveratrol inhibits Extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma through activation of DNA damage response pathway.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2017; 36(1):133 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/08/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma (NKTCL) is a highly aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma with poor prognosis. Resveratrol (RSV, 3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene), a natural nontoxic phenolic compound found in the skin of grapes and some other spermatophytes, performs multiple bioactivities, such as antioxidant activity, anti-aging activity, reduction of cardiovascular disease risk and anticarcinogenic effect. Here we report the anti-tumor effect of RSV in NKTCL cell lines SNT-8, SNK-10 and SNT-16.
RESULTS: RSV inhibited NKTCL cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner and arrested cell cycle at S phase. It induced NKTCL cells apoptosis through mitochondrial pathway, shown as down-regulation of MCl-1 and survivin, up-regulation of Bax and Bad, and activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. In addition, we found that RSV suppressed the phosphorylation level of AKT and Stat3, and activated DNA damage response (DDR) pathway directly or through up-regulation of Zta of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Furthermore, using KU55933 as the inhibitor of pATM, we verified that DDR played an important role in RSV inducing NKTCL apoptosis. RSV also showed synergistic effect on activating DDR pathway in combination with etoposide or ionizing radiation, which resulted in cell proliferation inhibition and apoptosis.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide in vitro evidence that RSV produces anti-tumor effect by activating DDR pathway in an ATM/Chk2/p53 dependent manner. So we suggest that RSV may be worthy for further study as an anti-tumor drug for NKTCL treatment.

Lacson JCA, Ma H, Lee E, et al.
Genome-Wide Testing of Exonic Variants and Breast Cancer Risk in the California Teachers Study.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2017; 26(9):1462-1465 [PubMed] Related Publications

Wang HF, Zhang YY, Zhuang HW, Xu M
MicroRNA-613 attenuates the proliferation, migration and invasion of Wilms' tumor via targeting FRS2.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2017; 21(15):3360-3369 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Wilms' tumor is the most common malignant tumor in children worldwide. Considering the poor therapeutic effect on Wilms' tumor, we determined the effects of microRNA-613 on cell proliferation and metastasis in vitro, providing therapeutic targets for the treatment of Wilms' tumor.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was employed to identify the expression level of miR-613. CCK8 and colony formation assays were incorporated to assess cell viability and proliferation capacity. Cell migration and invasion assays were performed to investigate the metastasis capacity of Wilms' tumor cells. Flow cytometry was used to detect cell cycle distribution and cell apoptosis. Protein levels were assessed by western blotting assay. The target gene was predicted and verified by bioinformatics analysis and luciferase assay.
RESULTS: The expression of miR-613 was downregulated in Wilms' tumor tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues (n=32). Overexpression of miR-613 could attenuate Wilms' tumor cell viability, proliferation, invasion, and migration capacity, as well as induce cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase. FRS2 was chosen as the target of miR-613 by bioinformatics analysis and a luciferase reporter assay. MiR-613 expression was inversely correlated with FRS2 in Wilms' tumor tissues. Moreover, restoration of FRS2 rescued the tumor suppressive role of miR-613 in Wilms' tumor cell growth and metastasis.
CONCLUSIONS: MiR-613 had a tumor-suppressive effect on Wilms' tumor progression and metastasis via targeting FRS2 in vitro, which provided an innovative and candidate target for the diagnosis and treatment of Wilms' tumor.

Siegfried JM, Farooqui M, Rothenberger NJ, et al.
Interaction between the estrogen receptor and fibroblast growth factor receptor pathways in non-small cell lung cancer.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(15):24063-24076 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/08/2020 Related Publications
The estrogen receptor (ER) promotes non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) proliferation. Since fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are known regulators of stem cell markers in ER positive breast cancer, we investigated whether a link between the ER, FGFs, and stem cell markers exists in NSCLC. In lung preneoplasias and adenomas of tobacco carcinogen exposed mice, the anti-estrogen fulvestrant and/or the aromatase inhibitor anastrozole blocked FGF2 and FGF9 secretion, and reduced expression of the stem cell markers SOX2 and nanog. Mice administered β-estradiol during carcinogen exposure showed increased FGF2, FGF9, SOX2, and Nanog expression in airway preneoplasias. In normal FGFR1 copy number NSCLC cell lines, multiple FGFR receptors were expressed and secreted several FGFs. β-estradiol caused enhanced FGF2 release, which was blocked by fulvestrant. Upon co-inhibition of ER and FGFRs using fulvestrant and the pan-FGFR inhibitor AZD4547, phosphorylation of FRS2, the FGFR docking protein, was maximally reduced, and enhanced anti-proliferative effects were observed. Combined AZD4547 and fulvestrant enhanced lung tumor xenograft growth inhibition and decreased Ki67 and stem cell marker expression. To verify a link between ERβ, the predominant ER in NSCLC, and FGFR signaling in patient tumors, mRNA analysis was performed comparing high versus low ERβ expressing tumors. The top differentially expressed genes in high ERβ tumors involved FGF signaling and human embryonic stem cell pluripotency. These results suggest interaction between the ER and FGFR pathways in NSCLC promotes a stem-like state. Combined FGFR and ER inhibition may increase the efficacy of FGFR inhibitors for NSCLC patients lacking FGFR genetic alterations.

Groisberg R, Hong DS, Holla V, et al.
Clinical genomic profiling to identify actionable alterations for investigational therapies in patients with diverse sarcomas.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(24):39254-39267 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/08/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: There are currently no United States Food and Drug Administration approved molecularly matched therapies for sarcomas except gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Complicating this is the extreme diversity, heterogeneity, and rarity of these neoplasms. Few therapeutic options exist for relapsed and refractory sarcomas. In clinical practice many oncologists refer patients for genomic profiling hoping for guidance on treatment options after standard therapy. However, a systematic analysis of actionable mutations has yet to be completed. We analyzed genomic profiling results in patients referred to MD Anderson Cancer Center with advanced sarcomas to elucidate the frequency of potentially actionable genomic alterations in this population.
METHODS: We reviewed charts of patients with advanced sarcoma who were referred to investigational cancer therapeutics department and had CLIA certified comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP) of 236 or 315 cancer genes in at least 50ng of DNA. Actionable alterations were defined as those identifying anti-cancer drugs on the market, in registered clinical trials, or in the Drug-Gene Interaction Database.
RESULTS: Among the 102 patients analyzed median age was 45.5 years (range 8-76), M: F ratio 48:54. The most common subtypes seen in our study were leiomyosarcoma (18.6%), dedifferentiated liposarcoma (11%), osteosarcoma (11%), well-differentiated liposarcoma (7%), carcinosarcoma (6%), and rhabdomyosarcoma (6%). Ninety-five out of 102 patients (93%) had at least one genomic alteration identified with a mean of six mutations per patient. Of the 95 biopsy samples with identifiable genomic alterations, the most commonly affected genes were TP53 (31.4%), CDK4 (23.5%), MDM2 (21.6%), RB1 (18.6%), and CDKN2A/B (13.7%). Notable co-segregating amplifications included MDM2-CDK4 and FRS2-FGF. Sixteen percent of patients received targeted therapy based on CGP of which 50% had at least stable disease.
CONCLUSIONS: Incorporating CGP into sarcoma management may allow for more precise diagnosis and sub-classification of this diverse and rare disease, as well as personalized matching of patients to targeted therapies such as those available in basket clinical trials.

Cousin S, Grellety T, Toulmonde M, et al.
Clinical impact of extensive molecular profiling in advanced cancer patients.
J Hematol Oncol. 2017; 10(1):45 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/08/2020 Related Publications
Previous precision medicine studies have investigated conventional molecular techniques and/or limited sets of gene alterations. The aim of this study was to describe the impact of the next-generation sequencing of the largest panel of genes used to date in tumour tissue and blood in the context of institutional molecular screening programmes. DNA analysis was performed by next-generation sequencing using a panel of 426 cancer-related genes and by comparative genomic hybridization from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded archived tumour samples when available or from fresh tumour samples. Five hundred sixty-eight patients were enrolled. The median number of prior lines of treatment was 2 (range 0-9). The most common primary tumour types were lung (16.9%), colorectal (14.4%), breast (10.6%), ovarian (10.2%) and sarcoma (10.2%). The median patient age was 63 years (range 19-88). A total of 292 patients (51.4%) presented with at least one actionable genetic alteration. The 20 genes most frequently altered were TP53, CDKN2A, KRAS, PTEN, PI3KCA, RB1, APC, ERBB2, MYC, EGFR, CDKN2B, ARID1A, SMAD4, FGFR1, MDM2, BRAF, ATM, CCNE1, FGFR3 and FRS2. One hundred fifty-nine patients (28%) were included in early phase trials. The treatment was matched with a tumour profile in 86 cases (15%). The two main reasons for non-inclusion were non-progressive disease (31.5%) and general status deterioration (25%). Twenty-eight percent of patients presented with a growth modulation index (time to progression under the early phase trial treatment/time to progression of the previous line of treatment) >1.3.Extensive molecular profiling using high-throughput techniques allows for the identification of actionable mutations in the majority of cases and is associated with substantial clinical benefit in up to one in four patients.

Zhang L, Zhao Z, Xu S, et al.
Androgen suppresses protein kinase D1 expression through fibroblast growth factor receptor substrate 2 in prostate cancer cells.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(8):12800-12811 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/08/2020 Related Publications
In prostate cancer, androgen/androgen receptor (AR) and their downstream targets play key roles in all stages of disease progression. The protein kinase D (PKD) family, particularly PKD1, has been implicated in prostate cancer biology. Here, we examined the cross-regulation of PKD1 by androgen signaling in prostate cancer cells. Our data showed that the transcription of PKD1 was repressed by androgen in androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cells. Steroid depletion caused up regulation of PKD1 transcript and protein, an effect that was reversed by the AR agonist R1881 in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, thus identifying PKD1 as a novel androgen-repressed gene. Kinetic analysis indicated that the repression of PKD1 by androgen required the induction of a repressor protein. Furthermore, inhibition or knockdown of AR reversed AR agonist-induced PKD1 repression, indicating that AR was required for the suppression of PKD1 expression by androgen. Downstream of AR, we identified fibroblast growth factor receptor substrate 2 (FRS2) and its downstream MEK/ERK pathway as mediators of androgen-induced PKD1 repression. In summary, PKD1 was identified as a novel androgen-suppressed gene and could be downregulated by androgen through a novel AR/FRS2/MEK/ERK pathway. The upregulation of prosurvival PKD1 by anti-androgens may contribute to therapeutic resistance in prostate cancer treatment.

Zhang G, Scarborough H, Kim J, et al.
Coupling an EML4-ALK-centric interactome with RNA interference identifies sensitizers to ALK inhibitors.
Sci Signal. 2016; 9(450):rs12 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/08/2020 Related Publications
Patients with lung cancers harboring anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene fusions benefit from treatment with ALK inhibitors, but acquired resistance inevitably arises. A better understanding of proximal ALK signaling mechanisms may identify sensitizers to ALK inhibitors that disrupt the balance between prosurvival and proapoptotic effector signals. Using affinity purification coupled with mass spectrometry in an ALK fusion lung cancer cell line (H3122), we generated an ALK signaling network and investigated signaling activity using tyrosine phosphoproteomics. We identified a network of 464 proteins composed of subnetworks with differential response to ALK inhibitors. A small hairpin RNA screen targeting 407 proteins in this network revealed 64 and 9 proteins that when knocked down sensitized cells to crizotinib and alectinib, respectively. Among these, knocking down fibroblast growth factor receptor substrate 2 (FRS2) or coiled-coil and C2 domain-containing protein 1A (CC2D1A), both scaffolding proteins, sensitized multiple ALK fusion cell lines to the ALK inhibitors crizotinib and alectinib. Collectively, our data set provides a resource that enhances our understanding of signaling and drug resistance networks consequent to ALK fusions and identifies potential targets to improve the efficacy of ALK inhibitors in patients.

Zhong X, Xie G, Zhang Z, et al.
MiR-4653-3p and its target gene FRS2 are prognostic biomarkers for hormone receptor positive breast cancer patients receiving tamoxifen as adjuvant endocrine therapy.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(38):61166-61182 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/08/2020 Related Publications
Long-term tamoxifen treatment significantly improves the survival of hormone receptor-positive (HR+) breast cancer (BC) patients. However, tamoxifen resistance remains a challenge. We aimed to identify prognostic biomarkers for tamoxifen resistance and reveal the underlying mechanism. From March 2001 to September 2013, 400 HR+ BC women (stage I~III) were treated with adjuvant tamoxifen for 5 years or until relapse in West China Hospital. We included a discovery set of 6 patients who were refractory to tamoxifen, and a validation cohort of 88 patients including 35 cases with relapse. In the discovery set, microRNA microarray showed that miR-4653-3p decreased in recurrent/metastatic lesions compared to the matched primary lesions. In the validation cohort, real-time RT-PCR demonstrated that, following tamoxifen treatment, miR-4653-3p overexpression in the primary tumors decreased the risk of relapse (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 0.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.05~0.57, P = 0.004). Conversely, high expression of FRS2, the key adaptor protein required by FGFR signaling, predicted poor disease-free survival (DFS) (adjusted HR = 2.70, 95% CI = 1.11~6.56, P = 0.03). MiR-4653-3p down regulated FRS2 by binding to its 3' untranslated region. Either overexpressing miR-4653-3p or attenuating FRS2 expression could restore TAM sensitivity in two tamoxifen-resistant BC cell lines. In conclusion, high miR-4653-3p level was the potential predictor for favorable DFS, while FRS2 overexpression was potential high-risk factor for relapse in HR+ BC patients receiving TAM adjuvant therapy. FGFR/FRS2 signaling might be a promising target for reversing tamoxifen resistance.

Hanes R, Grad I, Lorenz S, et al.
Preclinical evaluation of potential therapeutic targets in dedifferentiated liposarcoma.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(34):54583-54595 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/08/2020 Related Publications
Sarcomas are rare cancers with limited treatment options. Patients are generally treated by chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy in combination with surgery, and would benefit from new personalized approaches. In this study we demonstrate the potential of combining personal genomic characterization of patient tumors to identify targetable mutations with in vitro testing of specific drugs in patient-derived cell lines. We have analyzed three metastases from a patient with high-grade metastatic dedifferentiated liposarcoma (DDLPS) by exome and transcriptome sequencing as well as DNA copy number analysis. Genomic aberrations of several potentially targetable genes, including amplification of KITLG and FRS2, in addition to amplification of CDK4 and MDM2, characteristic of this disease, were identified. We evaluated the efficacy of drugs targeting these aberrations or the corresponding signaling pathways in a cell line derived from the patient. Interestingly, the pan-FGFR inhibitor NVP-BGJ398, which targets FGFR upstream of FRS2, strongly inhibited cell proliferation in vitro and induced an accumulation of cells into the G0 phase of the cell cycle. This study indicates that FGFR inhibitors have therapeutic potential in the treatment of DDLPS with amplified FRS2.

Kitai H, Ebi H
Key roles of EMT for adaptive resistance to MEK inhibitor in KRAS mutant lung cancer.
Small GTPases. 2017; 8(3):172-176 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/08/2020 Related Publications
KRAS is frequently mutated in a variety of cancers including lung cancer. Whereas the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is a well-known effector pathway of KRAS, blocking this pathway with MEK inhibitors is relatively ineffective. One major contributor to limited efficacy is attributed to the reactivation of MAPK signal following MEK inhibition by multiple feedback mechanisms. In a recent study, we have identified that epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition defines feedback activation of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling following MEK inhibition in KRAS mutant lung cancer. In epithelial-like cells, this feedback was mediated by ERBB3. In contrast, in mesenchymal-like cells, the feedback was attributed to the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) pathway. FGFR1 was dominantly expressed in mesenchymal-like cells: suppression of SPRY proteins by MEK inhibition relieved negative feedback control of basal FGFR-FRS2 function, resulting in reactivation of MAPK signaling via FGFR1. Therapeutically, the combination of MEK inhibitor trametinib with an FGFR inhibitor induced tumor regressions in tumor xenografts derived from mesenchymal-like KRAS mutant cancer cell lines as well as a patient derived xenograft model with a representative mesenchymal phenotype. Collectively, feedback activation of MAPK by FGFR1 signaling mitigates the effect of MEK inhibitor in mesenchymal-like KRAS mutant lung tumors, and combinations of clinically available FGFR1 inhibitors and MAPK inhibitors constitute a therapeutic approach to treat these cancers effectively.

Kitai H, Ebi H, Tomida S, et al.
Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition Defines Feedback Activation of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Signaling Induced by MEK Inhibition in KRAS-Mutant Lung Cancer.
Cancer Discov. 2016; 6(7):754-69 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/08/2020 Related Publications
UNLABELLED: KRAS is frequently mutated in lung cancer. Whereas MAPK is a well-known effector pathway of KRAS, blocking this pathway with clinically available MAPK inhibitors is relatively ineffective. Here, we report that epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition rewires the expression of receptor tyrosine kinases, leading to differential feedback activation of the MAPK pathway following MEK inhibition. In epithelial-like KRAS-mutant lung cancers, this feedback was attributed to ERBB3-mediated activation of MEK and AKT. In contrast, in mesenchymal-like KRAS-mutant lung cancers, FGFR1 was dominantly expressed but suppressed by the negative regulator Sprouty proteins; MEK inhibition led to repression of SPRY4 and subsequent FGFR1-mediated reactivation of MEK and AKT. Therapeutically, the combination of a MEK inhibitor (MEKi) and an FGFR inhibitor (FGFRi) induced cell death in vitro and tumor regressions in vivo These data establish the rationale and a therapeutic approach to treat mesenchymal-like KRAS-mutant lung cancers effectively with clinically available FGFR1 and MAPK inhibitors.
SIGNIFICANCE: Adaptive resistance to MEKi is driven by receptor tyrosine kinases specific to the differentiation state of the KRAS-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In mesenchymal-like KRAS-mutant NSCLC, FGFR1 is highly expressed, and MEK inhibition relieves feedback suppression of FGFR1, resulting in reactivation of ERK; suppression of ERK by MEKi/FGFRi combination results in tumor shrinkage. Cancer Discov; 6(7); 754-69. ©2016 AACR.This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 681.

Chen CH, Liu YM, Pan SL, et al.
Trichlorobenzene-substituted azaaryl compounds as novel FGFR inhibitors exhibiting potent antitumor activity in bladder cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(18):26374-87 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/08/2020 Related Publications
In the present study, we examined the antitumor activity of a series of trichlorobenzene-substituted azaaryl compounds and identified MPT0L145 as a novel FGFR inhibitor with better selectivity for FGFR1, 2 and 3. It was preferentially effective in FGFR-activated cancer cells, including bladder cancer cell lines expressing FGFR3-TACC3 fusion proteins (RT-112, RT-4). MPT0L145 decreased the phosphorylation of FGFR1, FGFR3 and their downstream proteins (FRS2, ERK and Akt). Mechanistically, cDNA microarray analysis revealed that MPT0L145 decreased genes associated cell cycle progression, and increased genes associated with autophagy pathway. Accordingly, the data revealed that MPT0L145 induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and decreased protein levels of cyclin E. Moreover, we provided the evidence that autophagy contributes to FGFR inhibitor-related cell death. Finally, MPT0L145 exhibited comparable antitumor activity to cisplatin with better safety in a RT-112 xenograft model. Taken together, these findings support the utility of MPT0L145 as a novel FGFR inhibitor, providing a strong rationale for further evaluation of this compound as a therapeutic agent for bladder cancers.

Al-Hebshi NN, Li S, Nasher AT, et al.
Exome sequencing of oral squamous cell carcinoma in users of Arabian snuff reveals novel candidates for driver genes.
Int J Cancer. 2016; 139(2):363-72 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/08/2020 Related Publications
The study sought to identify genetic aberrations driving oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) development among users of shammah, an Arabian preparation of smokeless tobacco. Twenty archival OSCC samples, 15 of which with a history of shammah exposure, were whole-exome sequenced at an average depth of 127×. Somatic mutations were identified using a novel, matched controls-independent filtration algorithm. CODEX and Exomedepth coupled with a novel, Database of Genomic Variant-based filter were employed to call somatic gene-copy number variations. Significantly mutated genes were identified with Oncodrive FM and the Youn and Simon's method. Candidate driver genes were nominated based on Gene Set Enrichment Analysis. The observed mutational spectrum was similar to that reported by the TCGA project. In addition to confirming known genes of OSCC (TP53, CDKNA2, CASP8, PIK3CA, HRAS, FAT1, TP63, CCND1 and FADD) the analysis identified several candidate novel driver events including mutations of NOTCH3, CSMD3, CRB1, CLTCL1, OSMR and TRPM2, amplification of the proto-oncogenes FOSL1, RELA, TRAF6, MDM2, FRS2 and BAG1, and deletion of the recently described tumor suppressor SMARCC1. Analysis also revealed significantly altered pathways not previously implicated in OSCC including Oncostatin-M signalling pathway, AP-1 and C-MYB transcription networks and endocytosis. There was a trend for higher number of mutations, amplifications and driver events in samples with history of shammah exposure particularly those that tested EBV positive, suggesting an interaction between tobacco exposure and EBV. The work provides further evidence for the genetic heterogeneity of oral cancer and suggests shammah-associated OSCC is characterized by extensive amplification of oncogenes.

Kastrinos F, Ojha RP, Leenen C, et al.
Comparison of Prediction Models for Lynch Syndrome Among Individuals With Colorectal Cancer.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2016; 108(2) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/08/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Recent guidelines recommend the Lynch Syndrome prediction models MMRPredict, MMRPro, and PREMM1,2,6 for the identification of MMR gene mutation carriers. We compared the predictive performance and clinical usefulness of these prediction models to identify mutation carriers.
METHODS: Pedigree data from CRC patients in 11 North American, European, and Australian cohorts (6 clinic- and 5 population-based sites) were used to calculate predicted probabilities of pathogenic MLH1, MSH2, or MSH6 gene mutations by each model and gene-specific predictions by MMRPro and PREMM1,2,6. We examined discrimination with area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), calibration with observed to expected (O/E) ratio, and clinical usefulness using decision curve analysis to select patients for further evaluation. All statistical tests were two-sided.
RESULTS: Mutations were detected in 539 of 2304 (23%) individuals from the clinic-based cohorts (237 MLH1, 251 MSH2, 51 MSH6) and 150 of 3451 (4.4%) individuals from the population-based cohorts (47 MLH1, 71 MSH2, 32 MSH6). Discrimination was similar for clinic- and population-based cohorts: AUCs of 0.76 vs 0.77 for MMRPredict, 0.82 vs 0.85 for MMRPro, and 0.85 vs 0.88 for PREMM1,2,6. For clinic- and population-based cohorts, O/E deviated from 1 for MMRPredict (0.38 and 0.31, respectively) and MMRPro (0.62 and 0.36) but were more satisfactory for PREMM1,2,6 (1.0 and 0.70). MMRPro or PREMM1,2,6 predictions were clinically useful at thresholds of 5% or greater and in particular at greater than 15%.
CONCLUSIONS: MMRPro and PREMM1,2,6 can well be used to select CRC patients from genetics clinics or population-based settings for tumor and/or germline testing at a 5% or higher risk. If no MMR deficiency is detected and risk exceeds 15%, we suggest considering additional genetic etiologies for the cause of cancer in the family.

Luo LY, Hahn WC
Oncogenic Signaling Adaptor Proteins.
J Genet Genomics. 2015; 42(10):521-529 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/08/2020 Related Publications
Signal transduction pathways activated by receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) play a critical role in many aspects of cell function. Adaptor proteins serve an important scaffolding function that facilitates key signaling transduction events downstream of RTKs. Recent work integrating both structural and functional genomic approaches has identified several adaptor proteins as new oncogenes. In this review, we focus on the discovery, structure and function, and therapeutic implication of three of these adaptor oncogenes, CRKL, GAB2, and FRS2. Each of the three genes is recurrently amplified in lung adenocarcinoma or ovarian cancer, and is essential to cancer cell lines that harbor such amplification. Overexpression of each gene is able to transform immortalized human cell lines in in vitro or in vivo models. These observations identify adaptor protein as a distinct class of oncogenes and potential therapeutic targets.

Rodriguez-Vida A, Saggese M, Hughes S, et al.
Complexity of FGFR signalling in metastatic urothelial cancer.
J Hematol Oncol. 2015; 8:119 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/08/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Urothelial cancers (UC) are the fourth most common tumours worldwide after prostate (or breast), lung and colorectal cancer. Despite recent improvements in their management, UC remain an aggressive disease associated with a poor outcome. Following disease progression on first-line platinum-based chemotherapy, very few effective treatment options are available and none of them have shown significant improvement in overall survival. Alterations of the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) pathway including amplification, mutations and overexpression are common in UC. Pre-clinical data suggest that the presence of such dysregulations may confer sensitivity to FGFR inhibitors.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We present here the case of a patient with a metastatic UC of the renal pelvis with lymph node metastases treated with the selective FGFR inhibitor AZD4547.
RESULTS: To date, the patient has been on a study drug for 32 months with acceptable tolerance and maintained radiological partial response as per RECIST 1.1 criteria. Exploratory biomarker analysis showed FGFR3, FGFR1, FGF-ligand and fibroblast growth factor receptor substrate 2 (FRS2) expression in the patient's tumour, together with the presence of a germ-line mutation in the FGFR3 extracellular binding domain. This is not a known hotspot mutation, and the functional significance remains unclear.
CONCLUSIONS: The FGFR inhibitor AZD4547 exhibits antitumour activity in a metastatic urothelial cancer displaying FGFR1, FGFR3, FGF-ligand and FRS2 expression. This lends support to the further exploration of FGFR inhibitors in urothelial cancer. Further studies are required to determinate the most effective way to select those patients most likely to respond.

Ait Ouakrim D, Dashti SG, Chau R, et al.
Aspirin, Ibuprofen, and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Lynch Syndrome.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2015; 107(9) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/08/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Inheritance of a germline mutation in one of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 causes a high risk of colorectal and other cancers (Lynch Syndrome). Use of aspirin has been shown to be associated with a reduced risk of colorectal cancer for the general population as well as for MMR gene mutation carriers. The aim of this study was to determine whether use of aspirin and ibuprofen in a nontrial setting is associated with the risk of colorectal cancer risk for MMR gene mutation carriers.
METHODS: We included 1858 participants in the Colon Cancer Family Registry who had been found to have a pathogenic germline mutation in a MMR gene (carriers). We used weighted Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). All statistical tests were two-sided.
RESULTS: A total of 714 carriers (38%) were diagnosed with colorectal cancer at a mean age of 42.4 (standard deviation 10.6) years. A reduced risk of colorectal cancer was associated with aspirin use (for 1 month to 4.9 years: HR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.27 to 0.90, P = .02; for ≥5 years: HR = 0.25, 95% CI = 0.10 to 0.62, P = .003) and ibuprofen use (for 1 month to 4.9 years: HR = 0.38, 95% CI = 0.18 to 0.79, P = .009; for ≥5 years: HR = 0.26, 95% CI = 0.10 to 0.69, P = .007), compared with less than one month of use.
CONCLUSION: Our results provide additional evidence that, for MMR gene mutation carriers, use of aspirin and ibuprofen might be effective in reducing their high risk of colorectal cancer.

Liu J, You P, Chen G, et al.
Hyperactivated FRS2α-mediated signaling in prostate cancer cells promotes tumor angiogenesis and predicts poor clinical outcome of patients.
Oncogene. 2016; 35(14):1750-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/08/2020 Related Publications
Metastasis of tumors requires angiogenesis, which is comprised of multiple biological processes that are regulated by angiogenic factors. The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) is a potent angiogenic factor and aberrant FGF signaling is a common property of tumors. Yet, how the aberration in cancer cells contributes to angiogenesis in the tumor is not well understood. Most studies of its angiogenic signaling mechanisms have been in endothelial cells. FGF receptor substrate 2α (FRS2α) is an FGF receptor-associated protein required for activation of downstream signaling molecules that include those in the mitogen-activated protein and AKT kinase pathways. Herein, we demonstrated that overactivation and hyperactivity of FRS2α, as well as overexpression of cJUN and HIF1α, were positively correlated with vessel density and progression of human prostate cancer (PCa) toward malignancy. We also demonstrate that FGF upregulated the production of vascular endothelial growth factor A mainly by increasing expression of cJUN and HIF1α. This then promoted recruitment of endothelial cells and vessel formation for the tumor. Tumor angiogenesis in mouse PCa tissues was compromised by tissue-specific ablation of Frs2α in prostate epithelial cells. Depletion of Frs2α expression in human PCa cells and in a preclinical xenograft model, MDA PCa 118b, also significantly suppressed tumor angiogenesis accompanied with decreased tumor growth in the bone. The results underscore the angiogenic role of FRS2α-mediated signaling in tumor epithelial cells in angiogenesis. They provide a rationale for treating PCa with inhibitors of FGF signaling. They also demonstrate the potential of overexpressed FRS2α as a biomarker for PCa diagnosis, prognosis and response to therapies.

Ho TH, Liu XD, Huang Y, et al.
The impact of FGFR1 and FRS2α expression on sorafenib treatment in metastatic renal cell carcinoma.
BMC Cancer. 2015; 15:304 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/08/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Angiogenesis plays a role in tumor growth and is partly mediated by factors in both the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathways. Durable clinical responses with VEGF tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) may be limited by intrinsic tumor resistance. We hypothesized that FGF signaling may impact clinical responses to sorafenib.
METHODS: Nephrectomy material was available from 40 patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) enrolled in a phase II clinical trial of sorafenib ± interferon ( Identifier NCT00126594). Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) and fibroblast growth factor receptor substrate 2 alpha (FRS2α) expression was assessed by in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence, respectively. The relationship between fibroblast growth factor pathway marker levels and progression-free survival (PFS) was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards regression methods.
RESULTS: Univariate analysis indicated that more intense FGFR1 staining was associated with shorter PFS (log-rank P = 0.0452), but FRS2α staining was not significantly associated with PFS (log-rank P = 0.2610). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models were constructed for FGFR1 and FRS2α individually, adjusting for baseline Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, treatment arm and anemia status. When adjusted for each of these variables, the highest intensity level of FGFR1 (level 3 or 4) had increased progression risk relative to the lowest intensity level of FGFR1 (level 1) (P = 0.0115). The highest intensity level of FRS2α (level 3 or 4) had increased progression risk relative to the lowest intensity level of FRS2α (level 1) (P = 0.0126).
CONCLUSIONS: Increased expression of FGFR1 and FRS2α was associated with decreased PFS among patients with metastatic RCC treated with sorafenib. The results suggest that FGF pathway activation may impact intrinsic resistance to VEGF receptor inhibition.

Wu T, Wang S, Wu J, et al.
Icaritin induces lytic cytotoxicity in extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2015; 34:17 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 20/08/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma (ENKL) is an aggressive hematological malignancy associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. It is often resistant to conventional chemotherapy and has a poor prognosis. Icaritin, a compound derived from Chinese herbal medicine, Herba Epimedii, has been reported to exert antitumor effects on a variety of cancer cell lines. In the present study, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of Icaritin on the two EBV-positive ENKL cell lines SNK-10 and SNT-8, along with the underlying molecular mechanisms.
METHODS: ENKL cell lines SNK-10 and SNT-8 were exposed to different concentrations of Icaritin for the indicated time. Treated cells were analyzed for cell proliferation, cell cycle, and cell apoptosis. Phosphorylation of Stat3 and Akt proteins in signaling pathways and the EBV-encoded LMP1 proteins were measured by Western blot. Expression of EBV genes was assessed by Real-Time PCR.
RESULTS: Our results showed that Icaritin dose-dependently inhibits ENKL cell proliferation and induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase. Additionally, Icaritin upregulates Bax, downregulates Bcl-2 and pBad, and activates caspase-3 and caspase-9. The anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of Icaritin are likely mediated by inhibition of Stat3 and Akt pathways through LMP1 downregulation. Importantly, Icaritin induces EBV lytic gene expression in ENKL cells, and the combination of Icaritin and the antiviral drug ganciclovir (GCV) is more effective in inducing ENKL cells apoptosis than Icaritin or GCV alone.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that EBV-targeted approaches may have significant therapeutic potential for ENKL treatment.

Sun L, Zhao Y, Shi H, et al.
LMP-1 induces survivin expression to inhibit cell apoptosis through the NF-κB and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways in nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma.
Oncol Rep. 2015; 33(5):2253-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
The latent membrane protein-1 (LMP-1) is essential for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-induced nasal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (NKTL). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of LMP-1 in NKTL. Two human EBV-positive NKTL cell lines (SNK-6 and SNT-8) were transfected with pcDNA3.1-LMP-1 or LMP-1 siRNA. Compared with the blank control, the cell apoptosis rates were decreased by 10.31 and 12.05% after pcDNA3.1-LMP-1 transfection and increased by 41.48 and 35.63% after lentiviral LMP-1 siRNA infection in the SNK-6 and SNT-8 cells. Survivin expression was induced by LMP-1, and the effect was attenuated by inhibitors of survivin, NF-κB and PI3K/Akt. Reduction in cell apoptosis by LMP-1 was also inhibited by inhibitors of survivin, NF-κB and PI3K/Akt. For the in vivo assay, tumor-bearing mice were established by subcutaneous injection with differentially treated SNT-8 cells into the back of the nude mice, and the tumor growth in the different groups was recorded. The results revealed that tumor formation and growth were also inhibited by treatment with survivin, NF-κB and PI3K/Akt inhibitors. Collectively, LMP-1-induced survivin expression inhibited cell apoptosis through the NF-κB and PI3K/Akt pathways, and survivin may be a new target for the treatment of NKTL induced by EBV.

Xu C, Li W, Qiu P, et al.
The therapeutic potential of a novel non-ATP-competitive fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 inhibitor on gastric cancer.
Anticancer Drugs. 2015; 26(4):379-87 [PubMed] Related Publications
Previous studies showed that fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) is an attractive target in gastric cancer therapy. In the current study, we aimed to investigate whether the compound L6123, a novel non-ATP-competitive FGFR1 inhibitor, could show better antitumor activity than the leading compound, nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), in FGFR1-overexpressing gastric cancer cells. Using an MTT assay, we investigated the inhibitory effect of L6123 on the viability of three gastric cancer cells (MGC-803, SGC-7901, and BGC-823) overexpressing FGFR1, wild-type mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF), and MEF expressing FGFR1, FGFR2, and FRS2α gene knockout (MEF). We studied the antitumor mechanism of L6123 against the gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901 by western blot analysis. The antitumor effects of L6123 on the gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901 were detected by flow cytometry, Hoechst staining, western blot analysis, and Transwell invasion assay. L6123 had lower IC50 in all three gastric cancer cells than NDGA and showed better inhibitory activity against MEF cells than against MEF cells. In the SGC-7901 gastric cell, L6123 inhibited the FGF2-induced phosphorylation of FGFR1/FRS2α/ERK1/2 in a dose-dependent manner, induced the activation of the apoptosis-related proteins, cleaved-PARP and cleaved-caspase-3, decreased the expression of pro-caspase-3 and Bcl-2, and induced tumor cell apoptosis. L6123 also dose-dependently reduced cell invasion ability, and showed better activity than NDGA at the same concentration. A novel non-ATP-competitive inhibitor L6123 showed excellent antigastric cancer activity by inhibiting the FGFR1 signaling pathway. Thus, we discovered a potential agent for the treatment of FGFR1-overexpressing gastric cancer.

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