LYN

Gene Summary

Gene:LYN; LYN proto-oncogene, Src family tyrosine kinase
Aliases: JTK8, p53Lyn, p56Lyn
Location:8q12.1
Summary:This gene encodes a tyrosine protein kinase, which maybe involved in the regulation of mast cell degranulation, and erythroid differentiation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:tyrosine-protein kinase Lyn
Source:NCBIAccessed: 15 March, 2017

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 15 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 15 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: LYN (cancer-related)

Roseweir AK, Qayyum T, Lim Z, et al.
Nuclear expression of Lyn, a Src family kinase member, is associated with poor prognosis in renal cancer patients.
BMC Cancer. 2016; 16:229 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: 8000 cases of renal cancer are diagnosed each year in the UK, with a five-year survival rate of 50%. Treatment options are limited; a potential therapeutic target is the Src family kinases (SFKs). SFKs have roles in multiple oncogenic processes and promote metastases in solid tumours. The aim of this study was to investigate SFKs as potential therapeutic targets for clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC).
METHODS: SFKs expression was assessed in a tissue microarray consisting of 192 ccRCC patients with full clinical follow-up. SFK inhibitors, dasatinib and saracatinib, were assessed in early ccRCC cell lines, 786-O and 769-P and a metastatic ccRCC cell line, ACHN (± Src) for effects on protein expression, apoptosis, proliferation and wound healing.
RESULTS: High nuclear expression of Lyn and the downstream marker of activation, paxillin, were associated with decreased patient survival. Conversely, high cytoplasmic expression of other SFK members and downstream marker of activation, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) were associated with increased patient survival. Treatment of non-metastatic 786-O and 769-P cells with dasatinib, dose dependently reduced SFK activation, shown via SFK (Y(419)) and FAK (Y(861)) phosphorylation, with no effect in metastatic ACHN cells. Dasatinib also increased apoptosis, while decreasing proliferation and migration in 786-O and 769-P cell lines, both in the presence and absence of Src protein.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggests that nuclear Lyn is a potential therapeutic target for ccRCC and dasatinib affects cellular functions associated with cancer progression via a Src kinase independent mechanism.

Ibáñez M, Carbonell-Caballero J, García-Alonso L, et al.
The Mutational Landscape of Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia Reveals an Interacting Network of Co-Occurrences and Recurrent Mutations.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(2):e0148346 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Preliminary Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (APL) whole exome sequencing (WES) studies have identified a huge number of somatic mutations affecting more than a hundred different genes mainly in a non-recurrent manner, suggesting that APL is a heterogeneous disease with secondary relevant changes not yet defined. To extend our knowledge of subtle genetic alterations involved in APL that might cooperate with PML/RARA in the leukemogenic process, we performed a comprehensive analysis of somatic mutations in APL combining WES with sequencing of a custom panel of targeted genes by next-generation sequencing. To select a reduced subset of high confidence candidate driver genes, further in silico analysis were carried out. After prioritization and network analysis we found recurrent deleterious mutations in 8 individual genes (STAG2, U2AF1, SMC1A, USP9X, IKZF1, LYN, MYCBP2 and PTPN11) with a strong potential of being involved in APL pathogenesis. Our network analysis of multiple mutations provides a reliable approach to prioritize genes for additional analysis, improving our knowledge of the leukemogenesis interactome. Additionally, we have defined a functional module in the interactome of APL. The hypothesis is that the number, or the specific combinations, of mutations harbored in each patient might not be as important as the disturbance caused in biological key functions, triggered by several not necessarily recurrent mutations.

He WQ, Gu JW, Li CY, et al.
The PPI network and clusters analysis in glioblastoma.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2015; 19(24):4784-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Glioblastoma is the most aggressive tumor of the brain. To further understand its molecular mechanism, we carried out a systemic bioinformatics study of gene chips downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: LIMMA package in R language was used to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between glioblastoma samples and normal controls.
RESULTS: Further, we constructed protein-protein interaction networks by mapping the DEGs into PPI data and identified network clusters in these networks. The results revealed that expression of 516 genes, which are mainly involved in phosphate metabolic process and signal transduction, were altered in glioblastoma samples. LYN, CD22 and LCP2 form a densely protein complex in the PPI network.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that LYN, CD22 and LCP2 play important roles in the occurrence and progression of glioblastoma.

Moir LM
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis: Current understanding and potential treatments.
Pharmacol Ther. 2016; 158:114-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare neoplastic disease affecting predominantly young women. Clinical symptoms of this progressive disease include dyspnoea, cough, recurrent pneumothorax, hemoptysis and chylothorax. LAM is generally aggressive in nature and ultimately results in respiratory failure. Important hallmark features of this metastatic disease include the formation of lesions of abnormal smooth muscle cells, cystic destruction of the lung tissue and lymphangiogenesis affecting the lungs, abdomen and lymphatics. Research over the last 10-15 years has significantly enhanced our understanding of the molecular and cellular processes associated with LAM. These processes include mutational inactivation of the tuberous sclerosis complex genes, TSC1 and TSC2, activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, enhanced cell proliferation and migration, lymphangiogenesis, metastatic spread through the blood and lymphatic circulations, sex steroid sensitivity and dysregulated autophagy. Despite this increased knowledge there is currently no cure for LAM and treatment options remain limited. Whilst the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin has shown some benefit in patients with LAM, with stabilisation of lung function and improved quality of life, cessation of treatment results in recurrence of the disease progression. This highlights the urgent need to identify novel targets and new treatment regimens. The focus of this review is to summarise our current understanding of the cellular and molecular processes associated with LAM and highlight emerging treatments.

Liu D
LYN, a Key Gene From Bioinformatics Analysis, Contributes to Development and Progression of Esophageal Adenocarcinoma.
Med Sci Monit Basic Res. 2015; 21:253-61 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND Esophageal adenocarcinoma is a lethal malignancy whose incidence is rapidly growing in recent years. Previous reports suggested that Barrett's esophagus (BE), which is represented by metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma transition, is regarded as the premalignant lesion of esophageal neoplasm. However, our knowledge about the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma is still very limited. MATERIAL AND METHODS In order to acquire better understanding about the pathological mechanisms in this field, we obtained gene profiling data on BE, esophageal adenocarcinoma patients, and normal controls from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Bioinformatics analyses, including Gene Ontology (GO) analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis, were conducted. RESULTS Our results revealed that several pathways, such as the wound healing, complement, and coagulation pathways, were closely correlated with cancer development and progression. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway was discovered to be responsible for the predisposition stage of cancer; while response to stress, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, nod-like receptor signaling pathway, and ECM-receptor interaction were chief contributors of cancer progression. More importantly, we discovered in this study that LYN was a critical gene. It was found to be the key nodule of several significant biological networks, which suggests its close correlation with cancer initiation and progression. CONCLUSIONS These results provided more information on the mechanisms of esophageal adenocarcinoma, which enlightened our way to the clinical discovery of novel therapeutic makers for conquering esophageal cancer.

Kim HJ, Lin D, Lee HJ, et al.
Quantitative Profiling of Protein Tyrosine Kinases in Human Cancer Cell Lines by Multiplexed Parallel Reaction Monitoring Assays.
Mol Cell Proteomics. 2016; 15(2):682-91 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) play key roles in cellular signal transduction, cell cycle regulation, cell division, and cell differentiation. Dysregulation of PTK-activated pathways, often by receptor overexpression, gene amplification, or genetic mutation, is a causal factor underlying numerous cancers. In this study, we have developed a parallel reaction monitoring-based assay for quantitative profiling of 83 PTKs. The assay detects 308 proteotypic peptides from 54 receptor tyrosine kinases and 29 nonreceptor tyrosine kinases in a single run. Quantitative comparisons were based on the labeled reference peptide method. We implemented the assay in four cell models: 1) a comparison of proliferating versus epidermal growth factor-stimulated A431 cells, 2) a comparison of SW480Null (mutant APC) and SW480APC (APC restored) colon tumor cell lines, and 3) a comparison of 10 colorectal cancer cell lines with different genomic abnormalities, and 4) lung cancer cell lines with either susceptibility (11-18) or acquired resistance (11-18R) to the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor erlotinib. We observed distinct PTK expression changes that were induced by stimuli, genomic features or drug resistance, which were consistent with previous reports. However, most of the measured expression differences were novel observations. For example, acquired resistance to erlotinib in the 11-18 cell model was associated not only with previously reported up-regulation of MET, but also with up-regulation of FLK2 and down-regulation of LYN and PTK7. Immunoblot analyses and shotgun proteomics data were highly consistent with parallel reaction monitoring data. Multiplexed parallel reaction monitoring assays provide a targeted, systems-level profiling approach to evaluate cancer-related proteotypes and adaptations. Data are available through Proteome eXchange Accession PXD002706.

Chacon-Cortes D, Smith RA, Haupt LM, et al.
Genetic association analysis of miRNA SNPs implicates MIR145 in breast cancer susceptibility.
BMC Med Genet. 2015; 16:107 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important small non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression in cellular processes related to the pathogenesis of cancer. Genetic variation in miRNA genes could impact their synthesis and cellular effects and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are one example of genetic variants studied in relation to breast cancer. Studies aimed at identifying miRNA SNPs (miR-SNPs) associated with breast malignancies could lead towards further understanding of the disease and to develop clinical applications for early diagnosis and treatment.
METHODS: We genotyped a panel of 24 miR-SNPs using multiplex PCR and chip-based matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) analysis in two Caucasian breast cancer case control populations (Primary population: 173 cases and 187 controls and secondary population: 679 cases and 301 controls). Association to breast cancer susceptibility was determined using chi-square (X (2) ) and odds ratio (OR) analysis.
RESULTS: Statistical analysis showed six miR-SNPs to be non-polymorphic and twelve of our selected miR-SNPs to have no association with breast cancer risk. However, we were able to show association between rs353291 (located in MIR145) and the risk of developing breast cancer in two independent case control cohorts (p = 0.041 and p = 0.023).
CONCLUSIONS: Our study is the first to report an association between a miR-SNP in MIR145 and breast cancer risk in individuals of Caucasian background. This finding requires further validation through genotyping of larger cohorts or in individuals of different ethnicities to determine the potential significance of this finding as well as studies aimed to determine functional significance.

Amigo-Jiménez I, Bailón E, Aguilera-Montilla N, et al.
Bone marrow stroma-induced resistance of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells to arsenic trioxide involves Mcl-1 upregulation and is overcome by inhibiting the PI3Kδ or PKCβ signaling pathways.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(42):44832-48 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
CLL remains an incurable disease in spite of the many new compounds being studied. Arsenic trioxide (ATO) induces apoptosis in all CLL cell types and could constitute an efficient therapy. To further explore this, we have studied the influence of stromal cells, key components of the CLL microenvironment, on the response of CLL cells to ATO. Bone marrow stromal cells induced CLL cell resistance to 2 μM ATO and led to activation of Lyn, ERK, PI3K and PKC, as well as NF-κB and STAT3. Mcl-1, Bcl-xL, and Bfl-1 were also upregulated after the co-culture. Inhibition experiments indicated that PI3K and PKC were involved in the resistance to ATO induced by stroma. Moreover, idelalisib and sotrastaurin, specific inhibitors for PI3Kδ and PKCβ, respectively, inhibited Akt phosphorylation, NF-κB/STAT3 activation and Mcl-1 upregulation, and rendered cells sensitive to ATO. Mcl-1 was central to the mechanism of resistance to ATO, since: 1) Mcl-1 levels correlated with the CLL cell response to ATO, and 2) blocking Mcl-1 expression or function with specific siRNAs or inhibitors overcame the protecting effect of stroma. We have therefore identified the mechanism involved in the CLL cell resistance to ATO induced by bone marrow stroma and show that idelalisib or sotrastaurin block this mechanism and restore sensibility to ATO. Combination of ATO with these inhibitors may thus constitute an efficient treatment for CLL.

Upadhyaya A, Smith RA, Chacon-Cortes D, et al.
Association of the microRNA-Single Nucleotide Polymorphism rs2910164 in miR146a with sporadic breast cancer susceptibility: A case control study.
Gene. 2016; 576(1 Pt 2):256-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer (BC) is primarily considered a genetic disorder with a complex interplay of factors including age, gender, ethnicity, family history, personal history and lifestyle with associated hormonal and non-hormonal risk factors. The SNP rs2910164 in miR146a (a G to C polymorphism) was previously associated with increased risk of BC in cases with at least a single copy of the C allele in breast cancer, though results in other cancers and populations have shown significant variation.
METHODS: In this study, we examined this SNP in an Australian sporadic breast cancer population of 160 cases and matched controls, with a replicate population of 403 breast cancer cases using High Resolution Melting.
RESULTS: Our analysis indicated that the rs2910164 polymorphism is associated with breast cancer risk in both primary and replicate populations (p=0.03 and 0.0013, respectively). In contrast to the results of familial breast cancer studies, however, we found that the presence of the G allele of rs2910164 is associated with increased cancer risk, with an OR of 1.77 (95% CI 1.40-2.23).
CONCLUSIONS: The microRNA miR146a has a potential role in the development of breast cancer and the effects of its SNPs require further inquiry to determine the nature of their influence on breast tissue and cancer.

Mello AA, Leal MF, Rey JA, et al.
Deregulated Expression of SRC, LYN and CKB Kinases by DNA Methylation and Its Potential Role in Gastric Cancer Invasiveness and Metastasis.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(10):e0140492 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Kinases are downstream modulators and effectors of several cellular signaling cascades and play key roles in the development of neoplastic disease. In this study, we aimed to evaluate SRC, LYN and CKB protein and mRNA expression, as well as their promoter methylation, in gastric cancer. We found elevated expression of SRC and LYN kinase mRNA and protein but decreased levels of CKB kinase, alterations that may have a role in the invasiveness and metastasis of gastric tumors. Expression of the three studied kinases was also associated with MYC oncogene expression, a possible biomarker for gastric cancer. To understand the mechanisms that regulate the expression of these genes, we evaluated the DNA promoter methylation of the three kinases. We found that reduced SRC and LYN methylation and increased CKB methylation was associated with gastric cancer. The reduced SRC and LYN methylation was associated with increased levels of mRNA and protein expression, suggesting that DNA methylation is involved in regulating the expression of these kinases. Conversely, reduced CKB methylation was observed in samples with reduced mRNA and protein expression, suggesting CKB expression was found to be only partly regulated by DNA methylation. Additionally, we found that alterations in the DNA methylation pattern of the three studied kinases were also associated with the gastric cancer onset, advanced gastric cancer, deeper tumor invasion and the presence of metastasis. Therefore, SRC, LYN and CKB expression or DNA methylation could be useful markers for predicting tumor progression and targeting in anti-cancer strategies.

Yano M, Imamura T, Asai D, et al.
Identification of novel kinase fusion transcripts in paediatric B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia with IKZF1 deletion.
Br J Haematol. 2015; 171(5):813-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Activating tyrosine kinase mutations or cytokine receptor signalling alterations have attracted attention as therapeutic targets for high-risk paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). We identified two novel kinase fusions, OFD1-JAK2 and NCOR1-LYN, in paediatric ALL patients with IKZF1 deletion, by mRNA sequencing. The patient with CSF2RA-CRLF2 also harboured IGH-EPOR. All these patients had high-risk features, such as high initial white blood cell counts and initial poor response to prednisolone. The functional analysis of these novel fusions is on-going to determine whether these genetic alterations can be targeted by drugs.

Almamun M, Levinson BT, van Swaay AC, et al.
Integrated methylome and transcriptome analysis reveals novel regulatory elements in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Epigenetics. 2015; 10(9):882-90 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common cancer diagnosed in children under the age of 15. In addition to genetic aberrations, epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation are altered in cancer and impact gene expression. To identify epigenetic alterations in ALL, genome-wide methylation profiles were generated using the methylated CpG island recovery assay followed by next-generation sequencing. More than 25,000 differentially methylated regions (DMR) were observed in ALL patients with ∼ 90% present within intronic or intergenic regions. To determine the regulatory potential of the DMR, whole-transcriptome analysis was performed and integrated with methylation data. Aberrant promoter methylation was associated with the altered expression of genes involved in transcriptional regulation, apoptosis, and proliferation. Novel enhancer-like sequences were identified within intronic and intergenic DMR. Aberrant methylation in these regions was associated with the altered expression of neighboring genes involved in cell cycle processes, lymphocyte activation and apoptosis. These genes include potential epi-driver genes, such as SYNE1, PTPRS, PAWR, HDAC9, RGCC, MCOLN2, LYN, TRAF3, FLT1, and MELK, which may provide a selective advantage to leukemic cells. In addition, the differential expression of epigenetic modifier genes, pseudogenes, and non-coding RNAs was also observed accentuating the role of erroneous epigenetic gene regulation in ALL.

Bunaciu RP, Jensen HA, MacDonald RJ, et al.
6-Formylindolo(3,2-b)Carbazole (FICZ) Modulates the Signalsome Responsible for RA-Induced Differentiation of HL-60 Myeloblastic Leukemia Cells.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(8):e0135668 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
6-Formylindolo(3,2-b)carbazole (FICZ) is a photoproduct of tryptophan and an endogenous high affinity ligand for aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). It was previously reported that, in patient-derived HL-60 myeloblastic leukemia cells, retinoic acid (RA)-induced differentiation is driven by a signalsome containing c-Cbl and AhR. FICZ enhances RA-induced differentiation, assessed by expression of the membrane differentiation markers CD38 and CD11b, cell cycle arrest and the functional differentiation marker, inducible oxidative metabolism. Moreover, FICZ augments the expression of a number of the members of the RA-induced signalsome, such as c-Cbl, Vav1, Slp76, PI3K, and the Src family kinases Fgr and Lyn. Pursuing the molecular signaling responsible for RA-induced differentiation, we characterized, using FRET and clustering analysis, associations of key molecules thought to drive differentiation. Here we report that, assayed by FRET, AhR interacts with c-Cbl upon FICZ plus RA-induced differentiation, whereas AhR constitutively interacts with Cbl-b. Moreover, correlation analysis based on the flow cytometric assessment of differentiation markers and western blot detection of signaling factors reveal that Cbl-b, p-p38α and pT390-GSK3β, are not correlated with other known RA-induced signaling components or with a phenotypic outcome. We note that FICZ plus RA elicited signaling responses that were not typical of RA alone, but may represent alternative differentiation-driving pathways. In clusters of signaling molecules seminal to cell differentiation, FICZ co-administered with RA augments type and intensity of the dynamic changes induced by RA. Our data suggest relevance for FICZ in differentiation-induction therapy. The mechanism of action includes modulation of a SFK and MAPK centered signalsome and c-Cbl-AhR association.

Arnold A, Bahra M, Lenze D, et al.
Genome wide DNA copy number analysis in cholangiocarcinoma using high resolution molecular inversion probe single nucleotide polymorphism assay.
Exp Mol Pathol. 2015; 99(2):344-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
In order to study molecular similarities and differences of intrahepatic (IH-CCA) and extrahepatic (EH-CCA) cholangiocarcinoma, 24 FFPE tumor samples (13 IH-CCA, 11 EH-CCA) were analyzed for whole genome copy number variations (CNVs) using a new high-density Molecular Inversion Probe Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (MIP SNP) assay. Common in both tumor subtypes the most frequent losses were detected on chromosome 1p, 3p, 6q and 9 while gains were mostly seen in 1q, 8q as well as complete chromosome 17 and 20. Applying the statistical GISTIC (Genomic Identification of Significant Targets in Cancer) tool we identified potential novel candidate tumor suppressor- (DBC1, FHIT, PPP2R2A) and oncogenes (LYN, FGF19, GRB7, PTPN1) within these regions of chromosomal instability. Next to common aberrations in IH-CCA and EH-CCA, we additionally found significant differences in copy number variations on chromosome 3 and 14. Moreover, due to the fact that mutations in the Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH-1 and IDH-2) genes are more frequent in our IH-CCA than in our EH-CCA samples, we suggest that the tumor subtypes have a different molecular profile. In conclusion, new possible target genes within regions of high significant copy number aberrations were detected using a high-density Molecular Inversion Probe Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (MIP SNP) assay, which opens a future perspective of fast routine copy number and marker gene identification for gene targeted therapy.

Agathangelidis A, Scarfò L, Barbaglio F, et al.
Establishment and Characterization of PCL12, a Novel CD5+ Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia Cell Line.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(6):e0130195 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Immortalized cell lines representative of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) can assist in understanding disease pathogenesis and testing new therapeutic agents. At present, very few representative cell lines are available. We here describe the characterization of a new cell line (PCL12) that grew spontaneously from the peripheral blood (PB) of a CLL patient with progressive disease and EBV infection. The CLL cell origin of PCL12 was confirmed after the alignment of its IGH sequence against the "original" clonotypic sequence. The IGH gene rearrangement was truly unmutated and no CLL-related cytogenetic or genetic lesions were detected. PCL12 cells express CD19, CD20, CD5, CD23, low levels of IgM and IgD and the poor-outcome-associated prognostic markers CD38, ZAP70 and TCL1. In accordance with its aggressive phenotype the cell line is inactive in terms of LYN and HS1 phosphorylation. BcR signalling pathway is constitutively active and anergic in terms of p-ERK and Calcium flux response to α-IgM stimulation. PCL12 cells strongly migrate in vitro in response to SDF-1 and form clusters. Finally, they grow rapidly and localize in all lymphoid organs when xenotrasplanted in Rag2-/-γc-/- mice. PCL12 represents a suitable preclinical model for testing pharmacological agents.

Lewis-Tuffin LJ, Feathers R, Hari P, et al.
Src family kinases differentially influence glioma growth and motility.
Mol Oncol. 2015; 9(9):1783-98 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Src-family kinase (SFK) signaling impacts multiple tumor-related properties, particularly in the context of the brain tumor glioblastoma. Consequently, the pan-SFK inhibitor dasatinib has emerged as a therapeutic strategy, despite physiologic limitations to its effectiveness in the brain. We investigated the importance of individual SFKs (Src, Fyn, Yes, and Lyn) to glioma tumor biology by knocking down individual SFK expression both in culture (LN229, SF767, GBM8) and orthotopic xenograft (GBM8) contexts. We evaluated the effects of these knockdowns on tumor cell proliferation, migration, and motility-related signaling in culture, as well as overall survival in the orthotopic xenograft model. The four SFKs differed significantly in their importance to these properties. In culture, Src, Fyn, and Yes knockdown generally reduced growth and migration and altered motility-related phosphorylation patterns while Lyn knockdown did so to a lesser extent. However the details of these effects varied significantly depending on the cell line: in no case were conclusions about the role of a particular SFK applicable to all of the measures or all of the cell types examined. In the orthotopic xenograft model, mice implanted with non-target or Src or Fyn knockdown cells showed no differences in survival. In contrast, mice implanted with Yes knockdown cells had longer survival, associated with reduced tumor cell proliferation. Those implanted with Lyn knockdown cells had shorter survival, associated with higher overall tumor burden. Together, our results suggest that Yes signaling directly affects tumor cell biology in a pro-tumorigenic manner, while Lyn signaling affects interactions between tumor cells and the microenvironment in an anti-tumor manner. In the context of therapeutic targeting of SFKs, these results suggest that pan-SFK inhibitors may not produce the intended therapeutic benefit when Lyn is present.

Gioia R, Trégoat C, Dumas PY, et al.
CBL controls a tyrosine kinase network involving AXL, SYK and LYN in nilotinib-resistant chronic myeloid leukaemia.
J Pathol. 2015; 237(1):14-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
A tyrosine kinase network composed of the TAM receptor AXL and the cytoplasmic kinases LYN and SYK is involved in nilotinib-resistance of chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) cells. Here, we show that the E3-ubiquitin ligase CBL down-regulation occurring during prolonged drug treatment plays a critical role in this process. Depletion of CBL in K562 cells increases AXL and LYN protein levels, promoting cell resistance to nilotinib. Conversely, forced expression of CBL in nilotinib-resistant K562 cells (K562-rn) dramatically reduces AXL and LYN expression and resensitizes K562-rn cells to nilotinib. A similar mechanism was found to operate in primary CML CD34(+) cells. Mechanistically, the E3-ligase CBL counteracts AXL/SYK signalling, promoting LYN transcription by controlling AXL protein stability. Surprisingly, the role of AXL in resistance was independent of its ligand GAS6 binding and its TK activity, in accordance with a scaffold activity for this receptor being involved in this cellular process. Collectively, our results demonstrate a pivotal role for CBL in the control of a tyrosine kinase network mediating resistance to nilotinib treatment in CML cells.

Wang HC, Chang FR, Huang TJ, et al.
(-)-Liriopein B Suppresses Breast Cancer Progression via Inhibition of Multiple Kinases.
Chem Res Toxicol. 2015; 28(5):897-906 [PubMed] Related Publications
Numerous breast cancer patients who achieve an initial response to HER-targeted therapy rapidly develop resistance within one year, leading to treatment failure. Observations from clinical samples indicate that such resistance correlates with an increase in Src, EGFR, and PI3K/Akt activities and a decrease in PTEN activity. Furthermore, Akt survival signaling activation is also found in tumors treated by toxic chemotherapeutic agents. Because cotreatment with a PI3K inhibitor is a promising strategy to delay acquired resistance by preventing secondary gene activation, we therefore investigated the effects of a newly identified compound, (-)-Liriopein B (LB), on PI3K/Akt signaling activity in breast cancer cells. Our results showed that nontoxic doses of LB are able to inhibit AKT activation in both luminal-like MCF-7 and basal-like MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Low doses of LB also inhibited cell migration, invasion, and cancer-stem cell sphere formation. Suppression of EGF-induced EGFR and ERK1/2 activation by LB might contribute in part to retardation of cancer progression. Furthermore, LB increases sensitivity of MDA-MB-231 cells to gefitinib in vitro, suggesting that EGFR may not be the only target of LB. Finally, a small scale in vitro kinase assay screen demonstrated that LB has a potent inhibitory effect on multiple kinases, including PI3K, Src, EGFR, Tie2, lck, lyn, RTK5, FGFR1, Abl, and Flt. In conclusion, this study demonstrates for the first time that the compound LB improves tumor therapeutic efficacy and suggests LB as a promising candidate for studying new leads in the development of kinase inhibitors.

Kummalue T, Inoue T, Miura Y, et al.
Ribosomal protein L11- and retinol dehydrogenase 11-induced erythroid proliferation without erythropoietin in UT-7/Epo erythroleukemic cells.
Exp Hematol. 2015; 43(5):414-423.e1 [PubMed] Related Publications
Erythropoiesis is the process of proliferation, differentiation, and maturation of erythroid cells. Understanding these steps will help to elucidate the basis of specific diseases associated with abnormal production of red blood cells. In this study, we continued our efforts to identify genes involved in erythroid proliferation. Lentivirally transduced UT-7/Epo erythroleukemic cells expressing ribosomal protein L11 (RPL11) or retinol dehydrogenase 11 (RDH11) could proliferate in the absence of erythropoietin, and their cell-cycle profiles revealed G0/G1 prolongation and low percentages of apoptosis. RPL11-expressing cells proliferated more rapidly than the RDH11-expressing cells. The antiapoptotic proteins BCL-XL and BCL-2 were expressed in both cell lines. Unlike the parental UT-7/Epo cells, the expression of hemoglobins (Hbs) in the transduced cells had switched from adult to fetal type. Several signal transduction pathways, including STAT5, were highly activated in transduced cells; furthermore, expression of the downstream target genes of STAT5, such as CCND1, was upregulated in the transduced cells. Taken together, the data indicate that RPL11 and RDH11 accelerate erythroid cell proliferation by upregulating the STAT5 signaling pathway with phosphorylation of Lyn and cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB).

Tabariès S, Annis MG, Hsu BE, et al.
Lyn modulates Claudin-2 expression and is a therapeutic target for breast cancer liver metastasis.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(11):9476-87 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Claudin-2 enhances breast cancer liver metastasis and promotes the development of colorectal cancers. The objective of our current study is to define the regulatory mechanisms controlling Claudin-2 expression in breast cancer cells. We evaluated the effect of several Src Family Kinase (SFK) inhibitors or knockdown of individual SFK members on Claudin-2 expression in breast cancer cells. We also assessed the potential effects of pan-SFK and SFK-selective inhibitors on the formation of breast cancer liver metastases. This study reveals that pan inhibition of SFK signaling pathways significantly elevated Claudin-2 expression levels in breast cancer cells. In addition, our data demonstrate that pan-SFK inhibitors can enhance breast cancer metastasis to the liver. Knockdown of individual SFK members reveals that loss of Yes or Fyn induces Claudin-2 expression; whereas, diminished Lyn levels impairs Claudin-2 expression in breast cancer cells. The Lyn-selective kinase inhibitor, Bafetinib (INNO-406), acts to reduce Claudin-2 expression and suppress breast cancer liver metastasis. Our findings may have major clinical implications and advise against the treatment of breast cancer patients with broad-acting SFK inhibitors and support the use of Lyn-specific inhibitors.

Grzywnowicz M, Karabon L, Karczmarczyk A, et al.
The function of a novel immunophenotype candidate molecule PD-1 in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Leuk Lymphoma. 2015; 56(10):2908-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
Programmed death-1 (PD-1) is a negative receptor expressed on lymphocytes including malignant B cells in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). In this work, we found that patients with CLL had a higher expression of PD-1 transcript (PDCD1) than healthy volunteers (p < 0.0001). PDCD1 expression was comparable between CLL cells from accumulation (peripheral blood) and proliferation (bone marrow) disease compartments. In blood samples of patients with mutated IGHV genes PDCD1 expression was higher than with unmutated IGHV (p = 0.0299). We demonstrated that phosphorylation of SYK and LYN, key B-cell receptor signaling kinases, was independent of PD-1 expression in patients with CLL, while ZAP-70 phosphorylation in negative tyrosine residue 292 showed strong inverse correlation (r = - 0.8, p = 0.0019). No associations between five single nucleotide polymorphisms of PDCD1, their expressions and susceptibility to CLL were found. In conclusion, PD-1 might be an independent, universal marker of CLL cells and a part of their activated phenotype, and subsequently might modulate the function of ZAP-70.

Wang X, Wen J, Li R, et al.
Gene expression profiling analysis of castration-resistant prostate cancer.
Med Sci Monit. 2015; 21:205-12 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is a global health issue. Usually, men with metastatic disease will progress to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). We aimed to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in tumor samples from non-castrated and castrated men from LNCaP Orthotopic xenograft models of prostate cancer and to study the mechanisms of CRPC.
MATERIAL/METHODS: In this work, GSE46218 containing 4 samples from non-castrated men and 4 samples from castrated men was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus. We identified DEGs using limma Geoquery in R, the Robust Multi-array Average (RMA) method in Bioconductor, and Bias methods, followed by constructing an integrated regulatory network involving DEGs, miRNAs, and TFs using Cytoscape. Then, we analyzed network motifs of the integrated gene regulatory network using FANMOD. We selected regulatory modules corresponding to network motifs from the integrated regulatory network by Perl script. We preformed gene ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analysis of DEGs in the regulatory modules using DAVID.
RESULTS: We identified total 443 DEGs. We built an integrated regulatory network, found three motifs (motif 1, motif 2 and motif 3), and got two function modules (module 1 corresponded to motif 1, and module 2 corresponded to motif 2). Several GO terms (such as regulation of cell proliferation, positive regulation of macromolecule metabolic process, phosphorylation, and phosphorus metabolic process) and two pathways (pathway in cancer and Melanoma) were enriched. Furthermore, some significant DEGs (such as CAV1, LYN, FGFR3 and FGFR3) were related to CPRC development.
CONCLUSIONS: These genes might play important roles in the development and progression of CRPC.

Martins MM, Zhou AY, Corella A, et al.
Linking tumor mutations to drug responses via a quantitative chemical-genetic interaction map.
Cancer Discov. 2015; 5(2):154-67 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
UNLABELLED: There is an urgent need in oncology to link molecular aberrations in tumors with therapeutics that can be administered in a personalized fashion. One approach identifies synthetic-lethal genetic interactions or dependencies that cancer cells acquire in the presence of specific mutations. Using engineered isogenic cells, we generated a systematic and quantitative chemical-genetic interaction map that charts the influence of 51 aberrant cancer genes on 90 drug responses. The dataset strongly predicts drug responses found in cancer cell line collections, indicating that isogenic cells can model complex cellular contexts. Applying this dataset to triple-negative breast cancer, we report clinically actionable interactions with the MYC oncogene, including resistance to AKT-PI3K pathway inhibitors and an unexpected sensitivity to dasatinib through LYN inhibition in a synthetic lethal manner, providing new drug and biomarker pairs for clinical investigation. This scalable approach enables the prediction of drug responses from patient data and can accelerate the development of new genotype-directed therapies.
SIGNIFICANCE: Determining how the plethora of genomic abnormalities that exist within a given tumor cell affects drug responses remains a major challenge in oncology. Here, we develop a new mapping approach to connect cancer genotypes to drug responses using engineered isogenic cell lines and demonstrate how the resulting dataset can guide clinical interrogation.

Pénzes K, Baumann C, Szabadkai I, et al.
Combined inhibition of AXL, Lyn and p130Cas kinases block migration of triple negative breast cancer cells.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2014; 15(11):1571-82 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Blocking the migration of metastatic cancer cells is a major goal in the therapy of cancer. The receptor tyrosine kinase AXL is one of the main triggers for cancer cell migration in neoplasia of breast, colon, skin, thyroid and prostate. In our study we analyzed the effect of AXL inhibition on cell motility and viability in triple negative breast cancer cell lines overexpressing AXL. Thereby we reveal that the compound BMS777607, exhibiting the lowest IC50 values for inhibition of AXL kinase activity in the studied cell lines, attenuates cell motility to a lower extent than the kinase inhibitors MPCD84111 and SKI606. By analyzing the target kinases of MPCD84111 and SKI606 with kinase profiling assays we identified Lyn, a Src family kinase, as a target of both compounds. Knockdown of Lyn and the migration-related CRK-associated substrate (p130Cas), had a significant inhibitory effect on cell migration. Taken together, our findings highlight the importance of combinatorial or multikinase inhibition of non-receptor tyrosine kinases and AXL receptor tyrosine kinase in the therapy of triple negative breast cancer.

Schwarz LJ, Fox EM, Balko JM, et al.
LYN-activating mutations mediate antiestrogen resistance in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer.
J Clin Invest. 2014; 124(12):5490-502 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Estrogen receptor-positive (ER(+)) breast cancers adapt to hormone deprivation and become resistant to antiestrogen therapy. Here, we performed deep sequencing on ER(+) tumors that remained highly proliferative after treatment with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole and identified a D189Y mutation in the inhibitory SH2 domain of the SRC family kinase (SFK) LYN. Evaluation of 463 breast tumors in The Cancer Genome Atlas revealed four LYN mutations, two of which affected the SH2 domain. In addition, LYN was upregulated in multiple ER(+) breast cancer lines resistant to long-term estrogen deprivation (LTED). An RNAi-based kinome screen revealed that LYN is required for growth of ER(+) LTED breast cancer cells. Kinase assays and immunoblot analyses of SRC substrates in transfected cells indicated that LYN(D189Y) has higher catalytic activity than WT protein. Further, LYN(D189Y) exhibited reduced phosphorylation at the inhibitory Y507 site compared with LYN(WT). Other SH2 domain LYN mutants, E159K and K209N, also exhibited higher catalytic activity and reduced inhibitory site phosphorylation. LYN(D189Y) overexpression abrogated growth inhibition by fulvestrant and/or the PI3K inhibitor BKM120 in 3 ER(+) breast cancer cell lines. The SFK inhibitor dasatinib enhanced the antitumor effect of BKM120 and fulvestrant against estrogen-deprived ER(+) xenografts but not LYN(D189Y)-expressing xenografts. These results suggest that LYN mutations mediate escape from antiestrogens in a subset of ER(+) breast cancers.

Akhter A, Masir N, Elyamany G, et al.
Differential expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) and B cell receptor (BCR) signaling molecules in primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the central nervous system.
J Neurooncol. 2015; 121(2):289-96 [PubMed] Related Publications
Primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the central nervous system (CNS DLBCL) is a distinct and aggressive lymphoma that is confined to CNS. Since, central nervous system is barrier-protected and immunologically silent; role of TLR/BCR signaling in pathogenesis and biology of CNS DLBCL is intriguing. Genomic mutations in key regulators of TLR/BCR signaling pathway (MYD88/CD79B/CARD11) have recently been reported in this disease. These observations raised possible implications in novel targeted therapies; however, expression pattern of molecules related to TLR/BCR pathways in this lymphoma remains unknown. We have analyzed the expression of 19 genes encoding TLR/BCR pathways and targets in CNS DLBCLs (n = 20) by Nanostring nCounter™ analysis and compared it with expression patterns in purified reactive B-lymphocytes and systemic diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) (n = 20). Relative expression of TLR4, TLR5, TLR9, CD79B and BLNK was higher in CNS DLBCLs than in control B-lymphocytes; where as TLR7, MALT1, BCL10, CD79A and LYN was lower in CNS DLBCLs (P < 0.0001). When compared with systemic DLBCL samples, higher expression of TLR9, CD79B, CARD11, LYN and BLNK was noted in CNS DLBCL (>1.5 fold change; P < 0.01). The B cell receptor molecules like BLNK and CD79B were also associated with higher expression of MYD88 dependent TLRs (TLR4/5/9). In conclusion, we have shown over expression of TLR/BCR related genes or their targets, where genomic mutations have commonly been identified in CNS DLBCL. We have also demonstrated that TLR over expression closely relate with up regulation of genes associated with BCR pathway like CD79B/BLNK and CARD11, which play an important role in NF-kB pathway activation. Our results provide an important insight into the possibility of TLR and/or B-cell receptor signaling molecules as possible therapeutic targets in CNS DLBCL.

Park GB, Kim DJ, Kim YS, et al.
Silencing of galectin-3 represses osteosarcoma cell migration and invasion through inhibition of FAK/Src/Lyn activation and β-catenin expression and increases susceptibility to chemotherapeutic agents.
Int J Oncol. 2015; 46(1):185-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
Galectin-3 is involved in tumor cell proliferation, adhesion, angiogenesis and metastasis. Galectin-3 promotes β-catenin/Wnt signaling, and β-catenin-related oncogenesis has been frequently reported in osteosarcoma. However, the correlation between galectin-3 and β‑catenin signaling in osteosarcoma is poorly defined. We hypothesized that galectin-3 may control the migration and invasion of cancer cells and that silencing of galectin-3 would therefore, suppress motility in osteosarcoma cells. In the present study, we show that galectin-3 silencing in cultured human osteosarcoma cells had decreased cell migration and invasion capabilities; reduced the expression and activation of FAK, Src, Lyn, PI3K/Akt, ERK1/2 and β-catenin, which are key mediators of invasion; inhibited the expression and secretion of VEGF, MCP-1, IL-8, IL-6, MMP2/9 and phospho-Stat3; and potentiated sensitivity to cisplatin. Our results suggest that galectin-3 may be a feasible therapeutic target for osteosarcoma.

de Miranda NF, Georgiou K, Chen L, et al.
Exome sequencing reveals novel mutation targets in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas derived from Chinese patients.
Blood. 2014; 124(16):2544-53 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Next-generation sequencing studies on diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) have revealed novel targets of genetic aberrations but also high intercohort heterogeneity. Previous studies have suggested that the prevalence of disease subgroups and cytogenetic profiles differ between Western and Asian patients. To characterize the coding genome of Chinese DLBCL, we performed whole-exome sequencing of DNA derived from 31 tumors and respective peripheral blood samples. The mutation prevalence of B2M, CD70, DTX1, LYN, TMSB4X, and UBE2A was investigated in an additional 105 tumor samples. We discovered 11 novel targets of recurrent mutations in DLBCL that included functionally relevant genes such as LYN and TMSB4X. Additional genes were found mutated at high frequency (≥10%) in the Chinese cohort including DTX1, which was the most prevalent mutation target in the Notch pathway. We furthermore demonstrated that mutations in DTX1 impair its function as a negative regulator of Notch. Novel and previous unappreciated targets of somatic mutations in DLBCL identified in this study support the existence of additional/alternative tumorigenic pathways in these tumors. The observed differences with previous reports might be explained by the genetic heterogeneity of DLBCL, the germline genetic makeup of Chinese individuals, and/or exposure to distinct etiological agents.

Seda V, Mraz M
B-cell receptor signalling and its crosstalk with other pathways in normal and malignant cells.
Eur J Haematol. 2015; 94(3):193-205 [PubMed] Related Publications
The physiology of B cells is intimately connected with the function of their B-cell receptor (BCR). B-cell lymphomas frequently (dys)regulate BCR signalling and thus take advantage of this pre-existing pathway for B-cell proliferation and survival. This has recently been underscored by clinical trials demonstrating that small molecules (fosfamatinib, ibrutinib, idelalisib) inhibiting BCR-associated kinases (SYK, BTK, PI3K) have an encouraging clinical effect. Here we describe the current knowledge of the specific aspects of BCR signalling in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), follicular lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) and normal B cells. Multiple factors can contribute to BCR pathway (dys)regulation in these malignancies and the activation of 'chronic' or 'tonic' BCR signalling. In lymphoma B cells, the balance of initiation, amplitude and duration of BCR activation can be influenced by a specific immunoglobulin structure, the expression and mutations of adaptor molecules (like GAB1, BLNK, GRB2, CARD11), the activity of kinases (like LYN, SYK, PI3K) or phosphatases (like SHIP-1, SHP-1 and PTEN) and levels of microRNAs. We also discuss the crosstalk of BCR with other signalling pathways (NF-κB, adhesion through integrins, migration and chemokine signalling) to emphasise that the 'BCR inhibitors' target multiple pathways interconnected with BCR, which might explain some of their clinical activity.

Bundela S, Sharma A, Bisen PS
Potential therapeutic targets for oral cancer: ADM, TP53, EGFR, LYN, CTLA4, SKIL, CTGF, CD70.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(7):e102610 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In India, oral cancer has consistently ranked among top three causes of cancer-related deaths, and it has emerged as a top cause for the cancer-related deaths among men. Lack of effective therapeutic options is one of the main challenges in clinical management of oral cancer patients. We interrogated large pool of samples from oral cancer gene expression studies to identify potential therapeutic targets that are involved in multiple cancer hallmark events. Therapeutic strategies directed towards such targets can be expected to effectively control cancer cells. Datasets from different gene expression studies were integrated by removing batch-effects and was used for downstream analyses, including differential expression analysis. Dependency network analysis was done to identify genes that undergo marked topological changes in oral cancer samples when compared with control samples. Causal reasoning analysis was carried out to identify significant hypotheses, which can explain gene expression profiles observed in oral cancer samples. Text-mining based approach was used to detect cancer hallmarks associated with genes significantly expressed in oral cancer. In all, 2365 genes were detected to be differentially expressed genes, which includes some of the highly differentially expressed genes like matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-1/3/10/13), chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligands (IL8, CXCL-10/-11), PTHLH, SERPINE1, NELL2, S100A7A, MAL, CRNN, TGM3, CLCA4, keratins (KRT-3/4/13/76/78), SERPINB11 and serine peptidase inhibitors (SPINK-5/7). XIST, TCEAL2, NRAS and FGFR2 are some of the important genes detected by dependency and causal network analysis. Literature mining analysis annotated 1014 genes, out of which 841 genes were statistically significantly annotated. The integration of output of various analyses, resulted in the list of potential therapeutic targets for oral cancer, which included targets such as ADM, TP53, EGFR, LYN, CTLA4, SKIL, CTGF and CD70.

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