Gene Summary

Gene:SERPINA1; serpin family A member 1
Aliases: PI, A1A, AAT, PI1, A1AT, nNIF, PRO2275, alpha1AT
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is secreted and is a serine protease inhibitor whose targets include elastase, plasmin, thrombin, trypsin, chymotrypsin, and plasminogen activator. Defects in this gene can cause emphysema or liver disease. Several transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Latest Publications: SERPINA1 (cancer-related)

Loriot Y, Necchi A, Park SH, et al.
Erdafitinib in Locally Advanced or Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma.
N Engl J Med. 2019; 381(4):338-348 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Alterations in the gene encoding fibroblast growth factor receptor (
METHODS: In this open-label, phase 2 study, we enrolled patients who had locally advanced and unresectable or metastatic urothelial carcinoma with prespecified
RESULTS: A total of 99 patients in the selected-regimen group received a median of five cycles of erdafitinib. Of these patients, 43% had received at least two previous courses of treatment, 79% had visceral metastases, and 53% had a creatinine clearance of less than 60 ml per minute. The rate of confirmed response to erdafitinib therapy was 40% (3% with a complete response and 37% with a partial response). Among the 22 patients who had undergone previous immunotherapy, the confirmed response rate was 59%. The median duration of progression-free survival was 5.5 months, and the median duration of overall survival was 13.8 months. Treatment-related adverse events of grade 3 or higher, which were managed mainly by dose adjustments, were reported in 46% of the patients; 13% of the patients discontinued treatment because of adverse events. There were no treatment-related deaths.
CONCLUSIONS: The use of erdafitinib was associated with an objective tumor response in 40% of previously treated patients who had locally advanced and unresectable or metastatic urothelial carcinoma with

Zhou X, Jiao D, Dou M, et al.
Association of glutathione-S-transferase p1 gene promoter methylation and the incidence of prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2019; 145(8):1939-1948 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Some studies have shown that the methylation status of the GSTP1 gene promoter is related to the incidence of prostate cancer, but this finding is still controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between glutathione-S-transferase p1 (GSTP1) promoter methylation and the incidence of prostate cancer.
METHODS: The Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases were searched from their inception to February 22, 2019. According to the inclusion criteria, studies of the association between the methylation status of the GSTP1 gene promoter and prostate cancer were included. The difference in the incidence of GSTP1 promoter methylation in tissues, blood, or urine between patients with prostate cancer and those without prostate cancer were compared, and the results were expressed as the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). The pooled OR of each study was estimated using a fixed-effects model or a random-effects model to generate forest plots.
RESULTS: Ultimately, 15 studies (1540 samples) were included. The estimated effect from our meta-analysis showed that the incidence of GSTP1 promoter methylation was higher in patients with prostate cancer than in those without prostate cancer (OR 18.58, 95% CI 9.60-35.95, P = 0.000). GSTP1 promoter methylation was highly correlated with the incidence of prostate cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: Methylation of the GSTP1 promoter may increase the risk of prostate cancer. This study may provide a strategic direction for prostate cancer research. Pending validation of these findings, the methylation of the GSTP1 promoter may be a potential biomarker to diagnose prostate cancer.

Rahimi Babasheikhali S, Rahgozar S, Mohammadi M
Ginger extract has anti-leukemia and anti-drug resistant effects on malignant cells.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2019; 145(8):1987-1998 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Based on the poor prognosis of drug resistance in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and adverse effects of chemotherapy, this study was aimed to evaluate the effect of several herbal extracts on leukemic cells.
METHODS: Two subtypes of T- and B-ALL cell lines, followed by ALL primary cells were treated with cinnamon, ginger, and green tea extracts, alone or in combination with methotrexate (MTX). Possible apoptosis was investigated using Annexin-V/PI double staining. Real-time PCR was applied to evaluate the expression levels of related ABC transporters upon combination therapy.
CONCLUSION: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that reveals the antileukemic effect of ginger extract on both, pediatric ALL cell lines and primary cells.

Deng S, Xiang JJ, Ge HP, et al.
The role of MIR-186 and ZNF545 in inhibiting the proliferation of multiple myeloma cells.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2019 May-Jun,; 33(3):721-729 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study aimed to investigate the mechanism underlying the inhibitory effect of tumor suppressor gene miR-186 and zinc finger protein 545 (ZNF545) on the proliferation of multiple myeloma (MM) cells. CD138 magnetic beads were used to isolate different types of myeloma cell lines (KM3, U266, RPMI-8226, and H929), which were then infected by lentivirus carrying the miR-186 gene. Using uninfected myeloma cells as the control, MTT [3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide, Thiazolyl Blue Tetrazolium Bromide] assay was performed to calculate the rate of cell proliferation at different time points. In addition, the correlation between the expression of Jagged 1 and miR-186 was analyzed by real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Furthermore, the effect of 5-Aza-2-deoxycytidine and acetylase inhibitor Trichomycin A (TSA) on the expression of ZNF545 and proliferation/apoptosis of MM cells was investigated using Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR), Western blotting (WB), MTS [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium] cell proliferation assay, and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining. Compared with the control group, the proliferation of miR-186-overexpressing U266 and RPMI-8226 cells was significantly decreased. In cell cloning experiments, miR-186 decreased the number of U266 and RPMI-8226 clones while reducing the protein expression of Jagged 1. The expression level of ZNF545 in myeloma patients was also reduced to some extent. ZNF545 protein also promoted the apoptosis of myeloma cells. By inhibiting the proliferation of myeloma cells, miR-186 gene and ZNF protein may be used as tumor suppressors in the treatment of myeloma.

Chi G, Xu D, Zhang B, Yang F
Matrine induces apoptosis and autophagy of glioma cell line U251 by regulation of circRNA-104075/BCL-9.
Chem Biol Interact. 2019; 308:198-205 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Matrine, a traditional Chinese medicine, has been reported to exert anti-tumor effects in several types of cancers. Here, we explored the anti-tumor effects of matrine on the glioma cells.
METHODS: Glioma cell line U251 cells were treated with matrine to assess viability and proliferation using CCK8 and EdU assays. PI/FITC staining was performed for apoptosis assay. Transfections were performed for circRNA-104075 or Bcl-9 overexpression. Western blot analysis was performed to evaluate changes of protein levels and changes of gene level were detected by qRT-PCR in U251 cells.
RESULTS: Matrine suppressed cell viability while induced apoptosis and autophagy in U251 cells. Matrine also decreased circRNA-104075 expression significantly. Overexpression of circRNA-104075 was found to counteract the inhibitory effects of matrine on cell proliferation and promoting effects on apoptosis and autophagy in U251 cells. Moreover, the suppressed Wnt/β-catenin and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways by matrine were activated by circRNA-104075 overexpression. Furthermore, Bcl-9 expression was also down-regulated by matrine treatment. Bcl-9 overexpression elevated the decreased cell proliferation while suppressed the increased apoptosis and autophagy induced by matrine in U251 cells.
CONCLUSION: Taken together, the present findings suggested that matrine induced apoptosis and autophagy through down-regulating circ-104075 and Bcl-9 expression via inhibition of PI3K/AKT and Wnt-β-catenin pathways in glioma cells. The present study provides a foundation for further preclinical and clinical evaluations of matrine as a glioma therapy.

Khodadadi Kohlan A, Saidijam M, Amini R, et al.
Induction of let-7e gene expression attenuates oncogenic phenotype in HCT-116 colorectal cancer cells through targeting of DCLK1 regulation.
Life Sci. 2019; 228:221-227 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that negatively control gene expression at the translational level. There are compelling evidences indicating that the expression of let-7e is downregulated in various cancers, however, the role of let-7e in colorectal cancer (CRC) and its mechanism has been remained unknown. Here, we investigated the potential role of let-7e in regulating CRC cells phenotypes.
MAIN METHODS: Let-7e and DCLK1 siRNA were transfected in HCT-116 cells. Colony formation assay, scratch test, Annexin V/PI flow cytometry, and sphere formation assay were performed to examine the cell proliferation, migration, apoptosis, and stemness, respectively. The expression of let-7e, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related genes, Doublecortin like kinase protein 1 (DCLK1), and cancer stem cells (CSCs) were assessed using RT-qPCR while the protein level of DCLK1 was determined by western blotting.
KEY FINDINGS: Overexpression of let-7e effectively inhibited cell proliferation, suppressed migration, reduced sphere formation, and precluded EMT process as well as stemness factors. Furthermore, let-7e suppressed DCLK1 expression. Additionally, we found that the expression of let-7e was negatively correlated with DCLK1 expression in CRC cells.
SIGNIFICANCE: Let-7e plays an important role as tumor suppressor miRNA in CRC probably through inhibition of DCLK1 expression.

Xie Y, Zhao J, Liang Y, et al.
MicroRNA-10b controls the metastasis and proliferation of colorectal cancer cells by regulating Krüppel-like factor 4.
Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol. 2019; 47(1):1722-1729 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mir-10b has been reported as a key regulator of metastasis in many human tumours. Moreover, it has also been regarded as a prognostic marker and therapeutic target of colorectal cancer (CRC). Whether miR-10b could affect the metastasis and proliferation of CRC is unclear. MiR-10b expression was detected by qPCR in human CRC tissues and cell line, Luciferase activity was employed for miR-10b binding to the 3`UTR of KLF4, Genes expression were examined by western blot, and mRNA by qPCR. PI and Annexin V staining were used to evaluate the cell cycle and apoptosis. Cell proliferation was detected with MTT, and cell migration and invasion were performed with Transwell assay. We found that miR-10b expression was up-regulated in metastatic CRC tissues and cell lines. Inhibition of miR-10b prevented cancer cell metastasis and growth by inducing cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in vitro. Moreover, we found that KLF4 was a direct target of miR-10b. MiR-10b inhibitor led to the up-regulation of E-cadherin expression and the down-regulation of cyclin D1, which were partly abrogated after silencing KLF4.

Hou Z, Yang J, Wang H, et al.
A Potential Prognostic Gene Signature for Predicting Survival for Glioblastoma Patients.
Biomed Res Int. 2019; 2019:9506461 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Objective: This study aimed to screen prognostic gene signature of glioblastoma (GBM) to construct prognostic model.
Methods: Based on the GBM information in the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA, training set), prognostic genes (Set X) were screened by Cox regression. Then, the optimized prognostic gene signature (Set Y) was further screened by the Cox-Proportional Hazards (Cox-PH). Next, two prognostic models were constructed: model A was based on the Set Y; model B was based on part of the Set X. The samples were divided into low- and high-risk groups according to the median prognosis index (PI). GBM datasets in Gene Expression Ominous (GEO, GSE13041) and Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas (CGGA) were used as the testing datasets to confirm the prognostic models constructed based on TCGA.
Results: We identified that the prognostic 14-gene signature was significantly associated with the overall survival (OS) in the TCGA. In model A, patients in high- and low-risk groups showed the significantly different OS (P = 7.47 × 10
Conclusion: The prognostic model which was constructed based on the prognostic 14-gene signature presented a high predictive ability for GBM. The 14-gene signature may have clinical implications in the subclassification of GBM.

Moncho-Amor V, Pintado-Berninches L, Ibañez de Cáceres I, et al.
Role of Dusp6 Phosphatase as a Tumor Suppressor in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(8) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
DUSP6/MKP3 is a dual-specific phosphatase that regulates extracellular regulated kinase ERK1/2 and ERK5 activity, with an increasingly recognized role as tumor suppressor. In silico studies from Gene expression Omnibus (GEO) and Cancer Genome atlas (TCGA) databases reveal poor prognosis in those Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with low expression levels of

Zuo J, Jiang Y, Zhang E, et al.
Synergistic effects of 7-O-geranylquercetin and siRNAs on the treatment of human breast cancer.
Life Sci. 2019; 227:145-152 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: To investigate the antitumor effect of 7-O-geranylquercetin (GQ) combining with survivin siRNA (siSuvi) or IL-10 siRNA (siIL-10) to breast cancer.
MAIN METHODS: Xenograft tumor model was established by subcutaneously inoculating human breast cancer MCF-7 cells in BALB/c nude mice. Transfection efficiency of siRNA mediated by cationic liposome CDO14 in MCF-7 cells and tumor bearing mice was measured by flow cytometer and living imaging sysytem, respectively. Cell viability was detected using CCK-8 assay. Cell apoptosis was determined by Hoechst33342 staining and AV-PI staining. Tumors bearing mice were administered with GQ by gavage, and/or with liposome CDO14 mediated siRNAs via tail intravenous injection. Expression levels of proteins and cytokines were detected by western blot and ELISA, respectively.
KEY FINDINGS: Liposome CDO14 could deliver siRNA to tumor effectively. Combination of GQ and siSuvi promoted the antiproliferation and pro-apoptosis effects of GQ or siSuvi to MCF-7 cells, and reduced the level of survivin and raised the level of caspase-7 in cells. GQ combining with siSuvi inhibited the growth of tumor, down-regulated the expression of survivin and up-regulated the expression of caspase-7 in tumor tissue. Similarly, GQ combining with siIL-10 inhibited the growth of tumor, decreased the level of IL-10 and increased the level of TNF-α. These results revealed that GQ enhanced the pro-apoptosis effect of siSuvi on tumor cells and the modulating effect of siIL-10 on tumor microenvironment.
SIGNIFICANCES: Synergistic anti-tumor effect of GQ and siRNAs against breast cancer proved that chemical drugs combining with siRNAs is a promising antitumor strategy.

Li Y, Pan J, Gou M
The Anti-Proliferation, Cycle Arrest and Apoptotic Inducing Activity of Peperomin E on Prostate Cancer PC-3 Cell Line.
Molecules. 2019; 24(8) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Peperomin E is a natural secolignan existing distributed in the plants of the genus

Mele L, la Noce M, Paino F, et al.
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase blockade potentiates tyrosine kinase inhibitor effect on breast cancer cells through autophagy perturbation.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):160 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Glucose-6-phospate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is the limiting enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) correlated to cancer progression and drug resistance. We previously showed that G6PD inhibition leads to Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) stress often associated to autophagy deregulation. The latter can be induced by target-based agents such as Lapatinib, an anti-HER2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) largely used in breast cancer treatment.
METHODS: Here we investigate whether G6PD inhibition causes autophagy alteration, which can potentiate Lapatinib effect on cancer cells. Immunofluorescence and flow cytometry for LC3B and lysosomes tracker were used to study autophagy in cells treated with lapatinib and/or G6PD inhibitors (polydatin). Immunoblots for LC3B and p62 were performed to confirm autophagy flux analyses together with puncta and colocalization studies. We generated a cell line overexpressing G6PD and performed synergism studies on cell growth inhibition induced by Lapatinib and Polydatin using the median effect by Chou-Talay. Synergism studies were additionally validated with apoptosis analysis by annexin V/PI staining in the presence or absence of autophagy blockers.
RESULTS: We found that the inhibition of G6PD induced endoplasmic reticulum stress, which was responsible for the deregulation of autophagy flux. Indeed, G6PD blockade caused a consistent increase of autophagosomes formation independently from mTOR status. Cells engineered to overexpress G6PD became resilient to autophagy and resistant to lapatinib. On the other hand, G6PD inhibition synergistically increased lapatinib-induced cytotoxic effect on cancer cells, while autophagy blockade abolished this effect. Finally, in silico studies showed a significant correlation between G6PD expression and tumour relapse/resistance in patients.
CONCLUSIONS: These results point out that autophagy and PPP are crucial players in TKI resistance, and highlight a peculiar vulnerability of breast cancer cells, where impairment of metabolic pathways and autophagy could be used to reinforce TKI efficacy in cancer treatment.

Kubatka P, Uramova S, Kello M, et al.
Anticancer Activities of
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(7) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Naturally-occurring mixtures of phytochemicals present in plant foods are proposed to possess tumor-suppressive activities. In this work, we aimed to evaluate the antitumor effects of

Hectors SJ, Cherny M, Yadav KK, et al.
Radiomics Features Measured with Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging Predict Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness.
J Urol. 2019; 202(3):498-505 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: We sought to 1) assess the association of radiomics features based on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging with histopathological Gleason score, gene signatures and gene expression levels in prostate cancer and 2) build machine learning models based on radiomics features to predict adverse histopathological scores and the Decipher® genomics metastasis risk score.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the records of 64 patients with prostate cancer with a mean age of 64 years (range 41 to 76) who underwent magnetic resonance imaging between January 2016 and January 2017 before radical prostatectomy. A total of 226 magnetic resonance imaging radiomics features, including histogram and texture features in addition to lesion size and the PI-RADS™ (Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System) score, were extracted from T2-weighted, apparent diffusion coefficient and diffusion kurtosis imaging maps. Radiomics features were correlated with the pathological Gleason score, 40 gene expression signatures, including Decipher, and 698 prostate cancer related gene expression levels. Cross-validated, lasso regularized, logistic regression machine learning models based on radiomics features were built and evaluated for the prediction of Gleason score 8 or greater and Decipher score 0.6 or greater.
RESULTS: A total of 14 radiomics features significantly correlated with the Gleason score (highest correlation r = 0.39, p = 0.001). A total of 31 texture and histogram features significantly correlated with 19 gene signatures, particularly with the PORTOS (Post-Operative Radiation Therapy Outcomes Score) signature (strongest correlation r = -0.481, p = 0.002). A total of 40 diffusion-weighted imaging features correlated significantly with 132 gene expression levels. Machine learning prediction models showed fair performance to predict a Gleason score of 8 or greater (AUC 0.72) and excellent performance to predict a Decipher score of 0.6 or greater (AUC 0.84).
CONCLUSIONS: Magnetic resonance imaging radiomics features are promising markers of prostate cancer aggressiveness on the histopathological and genomics levels.

Tjiong R, Stavrinou P, Röhn G, et al.
Heterogeneity of Human Gliomas: Glutathione-S-Transferase Expression Profile During Disease Progression and Under Systemic Therapy.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(4):1795-1805 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: The glutathione S-transferase pi gene (GSTP1) is a polymorphic gene encoding functionally different Gstp1 isoenzyme proteins. These seem to contribute to xenobiotic metabolism and might also play a role in susceptibility to cancer. The aim of this study was to elucidate the potential role of GSTP1 as a biomarker for disease progression and predictor of chemotherapeutic effect in glioma.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using quantitative real time PCR and western blotting analysis, a total of 61 astrocytic tumor samples from WHO grade II-IV were investigated.
RESULTS: There were no differences in GSTP1 mRNA expression between diffuse astrocytomas, anaplastic astrocytomas, or GBM. No difference was seen between secondary GBM before and after radio-/chemotherapy.
CONCLUSION: The expression of GSTP was highly heterogeneous within the surgical specimens. No significant differences in gene and protein expression were detected between the different types of gliomas, suggesting that glioma chemoresistance is probably multifactorial and GSTP1-independent.

Djuzenova CS, Fiedler V, Memmel S, et al.
Differential effects of the Akt inhibitor MK-2206 on migration and radiation sensitivity of glioblastoma cells.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):299 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Most tumor cells show aberrantly activated Akt which leads to increased cell survival and resistance to cancer radiotherapy. Therefore, targeting Akt can be a promising strategy for radiosensitization. Here, we explore the impact of the Akt inhibitor MK-2206 alone and in combination with the dual PI3K and mTOR inhibitor PI-103 on the radiation sensitivity of glioblastoma cells. In addition, we examine migration of drug-treated cells.
METHODS: Using single-cell tracking and wound healing migration tests, colony-forming assay, Western blotting, flow cytometry and electrorotation we examined the effects of MK-2206 and PI-103 and/or irradiation on the migration, radiation sensitivity, expression of several marker proteins, DNA damage, cell cycle progression and the plasma membrane properties in two glioblastoma (DK-MG and SNB19) cell lines, previously shown to differ markedly in their migratory behavior and response to PI3K/mTOR inhibition.
RESULTS: We found that MK-2206 strongly reduces the migration of DK-MG but only moderately reduces the migration of SNB19 cells. Surprisingly, MK-2206 did not cause radiosensitization, but even increased colony-forming ability after irradiation. Moreover, MK-2206 did not enhance the radiosensitizing effect of PI-103. The results appear to contradict the strong depletion of p-Akt in MK-2206-treated cells. Possible reasons for the radioresistance of MK-2206-treated cells could be unaltered or in case of SNB19 cells even increased levels of p-mTOR and p-S6, as compared to the reduced expression of these proteins in PI-103-treated samples. We also found that MK-2206 did not enhance IR-induced DNA damage, neither did it cause cell cycle distortion, nor apoptosis nor excessive autophagy.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides proof that MK-2206 can effectively inhibit the expression of Akt in two glioblastoma cell lines. However, due to an aberrant activation of mTOR in response to Akt inhibition in PTEN mutated cells, the therapeutic window needs to be carefully defined, or a combination of Akt and mTOR inhibitors should be considered.

Zhang Y, Zhao Z, Li S, et al.
Inhibition of miR‑214 attenuates the migration and invasion of triple‑negative breast cancer cells.
Mol Med Rep. 2019; 19(5):4035-4042 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Triple‑negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a subtype of breast cancer. MicroRNA (miR)‑214 is closely associated with controlling the development of tumor cells; therefore, in the present study, the target gene and effects of miR‑214 on TNBC cells were explored. Luciferase activity was examined by luciferase reporter assay. The viability, invasion and migration of MDA‑MB‑231 TNBC cells were measured using Cell Counting kit‑8, Transwell and wound‑healing assays, respectively. The expression levels of various factors were determined using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. The results demonstrated that the expression levels of miR‑214 were higher and the levels of α1‑antitrypsin (α1‑AT) were lower in TNBC tissues compared with in normal tissues. Subsequently, α1‑AT was revealed to be a target of miR‑214. Furthermore, inhibition of miR‑214 decreased cell viability, invasion and migration, enhanced the expression of E‑cadherin and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases‑2, and reduced the expression of metastatic tumour antigen 1 and matrix metalloproteinase‑2. Inhibition of miR‑214 also significantly downregulated the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and markedly downregulated that of phosphoinositide 3‑kinase (PI3K); however, the expression levels of total PI3K, Akt and mTOR remained stable in all groups. Taken together, these findings indicated that α1‑AT may be a target of miR‑214. Downregulation of miR‑214 markedly suppressed the viability, migration and invasion of MDA‑MB‑231 cells, and inhibited the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. These findings suggested that miR‑214 targeting α1‑AT may be a potential mechanism underlying TNBC development.

Noroozi MK, Mahmoodi M, Jafarzadeh A, et al.
Indole itself and its novel derivative affect PML cells proliferation via controlling the expression of cell cycle genes.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2019; 65(3):41-47 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recently the role of indole and pyran rings in carcinogenesis has been well studied. Here we studied the effects and the possible mechanisms of the action of basal indole (I3A) and its novel indole derivative (C19H15F3N2O) on inhibition of proliferation cells in acute promyelocytic leukemia NB4 cell line by examining the expression of cell cycle genes. We treated NB4 cells with concentration of C19H15F3N2O for 24-72 h. The MTT and PI/Annexin V examinations were employed for assessment of the proliferation and apoptosis of NB4 cells. Both of Cyclin D and P21 were detected by the Real-time PCR. The western blotting analysis was also performed to show the protein levels for P21. A difference was regarded significant if p-value was less than 0.05. MTT assay showed that 15.12-1000 µg/mL C19H15F3N2O caused a time and concentration-dependent inhibition of NB4 cell proliferation. Exposure to higher concentrations of C19H15F3N2O resulted in significantly increased apoptosis rate in NB4 cells. RT PCR showed that C19H15F3N2O has up-regulated the expression of P21 and down-regulated the expression of Cyclin D. Western blotting experiments also demonstrated that the P21 expression in C19H15F3N2O treated cells has significantly increased, where compared with either untreated control cells or I3A treated cells. This newly (C19H15F3N2O) was able to inhibit NB4 cells proliferation and causes apoptosis of these cells more than I3A, and these effects are probably facilitated via cell cycle arrest. C19H15F3N2O might probably be introduced as a promising organic therapeutic reagent against APL.

Moghimi M, Sobhan MR, Jarahzadeh MH, et al.
Association of GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTM3, and GSTP1 Genes Polymorphisms with Susceptibility to Osteosarcoma: a Case- Control Study and Meta-Analysis
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2019; 20(3):675-682 [PubMed] Related Publications
Background: Some studies have investigated the association of GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTM3, and GSTP1 polymorphisms with susceptibility to osteosarcoma; however, these studies results are inconsistent and inconclusive. In order to drive a more precise estimation, the present case-control study and meta-analysis was performed to investigate association of GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTM3, and GSTP1 polymorphisms with osteosarcoma. Methods: Eligible articles were identified by a search of several electronic databases for the period up to May 5, 2018. Odds ratios were pooled using either fixed-effects or random effects models. Results: Finally, a total of 24 case-control studies with 2,405 osteosarcoma cases and 3,293 controls were included in the present meta-analysis. Overall, significantly increased osteosarcoma risk was found when all studies were pooled into the meta-analysis of GSTT1 (Null vs. Present: OR= 1.247 95% CI 1.020-1.524, P= 0.031) and GSTP1 polymorphism (B vs. A: OR= 8.899 95% CI 2.722-29.094, P≤0.001). In the stratified, significantly increased osteosarcoma risk was observed for GSTT1 polymorphism among Asians (Null vs. Present: OR= 1.300 95% CI 1.034-1.635, P= 0.025), but not among Caucasians. Conclusions: This meta-analysis demonstrated that GSTP1 and GSTT1 null genotype are associated with the risk of osteosarcoma. Future large welldesigned epidemiological studies are warranted to validate our results.

Li XF, Zhao GQ, Li LY
Ginsenoside impedes proliferation and induces apoptosis of human osteosarcoma cells by down-regulating β-catenin.
Cancer Biomark. 2019; 24(4):395-404 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most commonly occurred primary bone malignancy with high incident rates among children and adolescents. In pharmacologic treatment, the drug ginsenoside has been shown to exert anticancer effects on several malignant diseases. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of ginsenoside on the apoptosis and proliferation of human OS MG-63 and Saos-2 cells by regulating the expression of β-catenin.
METHODS: Human OS MG-63 and Saos-2 cells were assigned into control group, and four groups with treatment by varying concentrations (12.5 μg/mL, 25 μg/mL, 50 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL) of ginsenoside, respectively. Cell growth after treatment was observed through cell slides. The proliferation rate of MG-63 and Saos-2 cells in each group was detected by CCK-8. After cell transfection at 48 h, cell cycle and cell apoptosis were detected by FITC-Annexin V staining and flow cytometry. The protein and mRNA expressions of β-catenin, Cyclin D1, Bcl-2, Bax and cleaved caspase-3 were detected by RT-qPCR and western blot analysis.
RESULTS: With increased exposure and concentration of ginsenoside, the cell density, total cell numbers and the absorbance of MG-63 and Saos-2 cells gradually decreased. FITC-Annexin V and FITC-Annexin V/PI staining demonstrated that the cell proportion at S phase decreased, whereas the total apoptotic rate of MG-63 and Saos-2 cells was increased. Furthermore, RT-qPCR and western blot analysis highlighted a gradual decrease in protein and mRNA expressions of β-catenin, Bcl-2 and Cyclin D1, while an elevation in those of Bax and cleaved caspase-3.
CONCLUSION: The results of this study demonstrate that ginsenoside inhibits proliferation and promotes apoptosis of human OS MG-63 and Saos-2 cells by reducing the expressions of β-catenin, Bcl-2 and Cyclin D1 and increasing the expression of Bax and cleaved caspase-3.

Xie T, Pi G, Yang B, et al.
Long non-coding RNA 520 is a negative prognostic biomarker and exhibits pro-oncogenic function in nasopharyngeal carcinoma carcinogenesis through regulation of miR-26b-3p/USP39 axis.
Gene. 2019; 707:44-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been wildly verified to modulate multiple tumorigenesis, especially nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). In present study, we aims to investigate the role and mechanism of LINC00520 in the NPC carcinogenesis. Results indicated that LINC00520 was significantly increasing in NPC tissues and cells in comparison to their corresponding controls. Moreover, the aberrant overexpression of LINC00520 indicated the poor prognosis of NPC patients. Silence of LINC00520 was able to repress NPC cell growth in vitro while overexpression of LINC00520 inversed this process. Moreover, in vivo tumor xenografts were establishing using CNE-1/SUNE-1 cells to investigate the function of LINC00520 in NPC tumorigenesis. Rescue assay was conducting to further confirm that LINC00520 contributed to NPC progression by regulating miR-26b-3p/ubiquitin-specific protease 39 (USP39) signal pathway. Taken together, our study discovered the oncogenic role of LINC00520 in clinical specimens and cellular experiments, showing the potential LINC00520/miR-26b-3p/USP39 pathway. This results and findings provide a novel insight for NPC tumorigenesis.

Wang F, Cheng Y, Zhang C, et al.
A novel antisense oligonucleotide anchored on the intronic splicing enhancer of hTERT pre-mRNA inhibits telomerase activity and induces apoptosis in glioma cells.
J Neurooncol. 2019; 143(1):57-68 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Alternative splicing of hTERT pre-mRNA is an important step in the regulation of telomerase activity, but the regulation mechanisms and functions remain unclear.
METHODS: RT-PCR analysis was used to detect hTERT splicing in glioma cell lines and brain tissues. TRAP assay was used to detect the telomerase activity. Then, we designed and synthesized 2'-O-methyl-RNA phosphorothioate AONs and transfected them into glioma cells to detect the changes in telomerase activity. MTT assay, plate colony formation assay, western blotting and Annexin V/PI assay were used to detect cell proliferation and apoptosis. At last, bioinformatics analyses were used to predict the expression and function of splicing protein SRSF2 in gliomas.
RESULTS: hTERT splicing occurs both in glioma cell lines and glioma patients' tissues. The telomerase activity was related to the expression level of the full-length hTERT, rather than the total hTERT transcript level. AON-Ex726 was complementary to the sequence of the intronic splicing enhancer (ISE) in intron six, and significantly altered the splicing pattern of hTERT pre-mRNA, reducing the expression level of the full-length hTERT mRNA and increasing the expression level of the -β hTERT mRNA. After transfection with AON-Ex726, the level of apoptosis was increased, while telomerase activity and cell proliferation were significantly decreased. By bioinformatic predictions, we found the AON-Ex726 anchoring sequence in ISE overlaps the binding site of SRSF2 protein, which is up-regulated during the development of gliomas.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provided new targets and important clues for the gene therapy of gliomas by regulating the alternative splicing pattern of hTERT pre-mRNA.

Wang H, Wang F, Wang X, et al.
Friend or Foe: A Cancer Suppressor MicroRNA-34 Potentially Plays an Adverse Role in Vascular Diseases by Regulating Cell Apoptosis and Extracellular Matrix Degradation.
Med Sci Monit. 2019; 25:1952-1959 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as central regulators of many processes. MiRNA-34 (miR-34) functions as a well-known tumor suppressor. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms underlying how miR-34 participates in vascular disorders. MATERIAL AND METHODS Three miR-34 family members (miR-34a, miR-34b, and miR-34c) were overexpressed or silenced in human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and umbilical vein endothelial cells (UVECs), respectively, before the proliferation and apoptosis of cells were detected by using Cell Counting Kit-8 assay and Annexin V- fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide flow cytometry. The protein expression of apoptosis biomarkers was detected by western blot. Dual-luciferase reporter assay was performed to determine the candidate target of miR-34, and enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay was used to evaluate the effect of miR-34 on the expression of the target gene. RESULTS Overexpression of miR-34 family members repressed proliferation and promoted apoptosis of VSMCs and UVECs, whereas miR-34 knockdown led to the opposite results. In addition, miR-34a inhibited the expression of alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT), a serine protease inhibitor that suppresses the degradation of extracellular matrix, through a miR-34-binding site within the 3'-UTR of AAT. CONCLUSIONS MiR-34 promoted apoptosis of VSMC and UVEC cells by inhibiting AAT expression. This finding provides an update on the understanding of the clinical value of miR-34, which might assist to uncover novel and effective therapeutic strategies for the treatment of vascular diseases.

Park YL, Ha SY, Park SY, et al.
Reversine induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via upregulation of the Fas and DR5 signaling pathways in human colorectal cancer cells.
Int J Oncol. 2019; 54(5):1875-1883 [PubMed] Related Publications
Reversine, a 2,6‑diamino‑substituted purine analogue, has been reported to be effective in tumor suppression via induction of cell growth arrest and apoptosis of cancer cells. However, it remains unclear whether reversine exerts anticancer effects on human colorectal cancer cells. In the present study, in vitro experiments were conducted to investigate the anticancer properties of reversine in human colorectal cancer cells. The effect of reversine on human colorectal cancer cell lines, SW480 and HCT‑116, was examined using a WST‑1 cell viability assay, fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, DNA fragmentation, small interfering RNA (siRNA) and western blotting. Reversine treatment demonstrated cytotoxic activity in human colorectal cancer cells. It also induced apoptosis by activating poly(ADP‑ribose) polymerase, caspase‑3, ‑7 and ‑8, and increasing the levels of the pro‑apoptotic protein second mitochondria‑derived activator of caspase/direct inhibitor of apoptosis‑binding protein with low pI. The pan‑caspase inhibitor Z‑VAD‑FMK attenuated these reversine‑induced apoptotic effects on human colorectal cancer cells. Additionally, reversine treatment induced cell cycle arrest in the subG1 and G2/M phases via increase in levels of p21, p27 and p57, and decrease in cyclin D1 levels. The expression of Fas and death receptor 5 (DR5) signaling proteins in SW480 and HCT116 cells was upregulated by reversine treatment. Reversine‑induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest were suppressed by inhibition of Fas and DR5 expression via siRNA. In conclusion, Reversine treatment suppressed tumor progression by the inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis via upregulation of the Fas and DR5 signaling pathways in human colorectal cancer cells. The present study indicated that reversine may be used as a novel anticancer agent in human colorectal cancer.

Zhao X, Fan J, Wu P, et al.
Chronic chemotherapy with paclitaxel nanoparticles induced apoptosis in lung cancer in vitro and in vivo.
Int J Nanomedicine. 2019; 14:1299-1309 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Aim: Paclitaxel (PTX) is an effective antitumor drug. Previous research demonstrated that paclitaxel nanoparticles (PTX-NPs) exhibited the greatest antitumor effect at 15 hours after light onset (15 HALO), but the mechanism in chronic chemotherapy is still unknown. In our study, we investigated whether PTX-NPs regulated Period2 (Per2) during chronic chemotherapy to induce apoptosis in vivo and in vitro.
Methods: To improve the antitumor effect and reduce organ damage induced by PTX treatment, PTX-NPs were prepared using a film dispersion method. Then, A549 cells were treated with PTX-NPs at 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 HALO. An annexin/PI V-FITC apoptosis kit was measured for apoptosis, and PI was analyzed for cell cycle. The relative mechanism was detected by RT-PCR and Western blotting. Tumor volume and weight were measured to evaluate the antitumor effect of the PTX-NPs, and H&E staining was performed to assess organ damage.
Results: Cell cycle analysis demonstrated that PTX-NPs blocked cell cycle in G2 phase and that the ratio of cell death was significantly increased in A549 cells, while the ratios of cells in G2 phase and of apoptotic cells were highest at 15 HALO. Evaluation of in vivo antitumor activity revealed that PTX-NPs inhibited tumor growth and decreased tumor weight at 15 HALO. RT-PCR and Western blotting demonstrated that PTX-NPs upregulated Per2 mRNA and protein expression, and the highest Per2 expression was observed at 15 HALO in vivo and in vitro. Meanwhile, Bax mRNA and protein expression was upregulated, while Bcl-2 mRNA and protein expression was downregulated after PTX-NPs treatment in vivo. Moreover, H&E staining revealed that PTX-NPs reduced liver damage at 15 HALO.
Conclusion: PTX-NPs exhibited the most effective antitumor activity and reduced liver damage at 15 HALO through upregulation of Per2 expression to induce apoptosis in vivo and in vitro.

Zhang Y, He Y, Lu LL, et al.
miRNA-192-5p impacts the sensitivity of breast cancer cells to doxorubicin via targeting peptidylprolyl isomerase A.
Kaohsiung J Med Sci. 2019; 35(1):17-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
The administration of doxorubicin (DOX) is one of the first-line treatments of breast cancer. However, acquisition of resistance remains the major obstacle restricting the clinical application of DOX. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding RNAs which play crucial role in epigenetic regulation. Recent studies have shown that miRNAs are associated with tumor chemoresistance. Here we aim to explore the role of miRNA-192-5p in resistance to DOX in breast cancer cells. Normal human breast epithelial cell line MCF-10A, breast cancer cell line Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (MCF-7), and DOX-resistant breast cancer cell line MCF-7/ADR were used here. The expression of miR-192-5p was examined by qPCR, and the expression of peptidylprolyl isomerase A (PPIA) was examined by qPCR and Western blot. The effects of miR-192-5p overexpression on the sensitivity to DOX were confirmed by Methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and Annexin-V/PI assay. Downstream molecular mechanisms, including PPIA, BAD, CASP9, Bcl-2, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation, were detected by Western blot and qPCR. Luciferase reporter assay was used to validate the association between miR-192-5p and PPIA. miR-192-5p was downregulated while PPIA was upregulated in MCF-7/ADR cells. Functionally, miR-192-5p overexpression increased sensitivity to DOX by promoting cell apoptosis. Mechanistically, miR-192-5p overexpression performed its function by activating JNK, augmenting BAD and caspase9 expression, and suppressing Bcl-2 and PPIA expression. Luciferase assay validated that PPIA was a direct target of miR-192-5p. miR-192-5p sensitizes breast cancer cells to DOX by targeting PPIA, suggesting that miR-192-5p might serve as a novel target for reversing DOX resistance and controlling breast tumor growth.

Wen SY, Chen YY, Deng CM, et al.
Nerigoside suppresses colorectal cancer cell growth and metastatic potential through inhibition of ERK/GSK3β/β-catenin signaling pathway.
Phytomedicine. 2019; 57:352-363 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Nerigoside (NG), a cardenolide isolated from a commonfolk medicine, Nerium oleander Linn. (Apocynaceae), has not been explored for its biological effects. To date, cardenolides have received considerable attention in pharmacology studies due to their direct effects of apoptosis-induction or growth-inhibitory against tumor in vitro and in vivo. Whether and how NG exerts anticancer effects against colorectal cancer remains to be elucidated.
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the anticancer effect of NG in human colorectal cancer cells.
METHODS: To test anticancer effect, we compared potency of NG in two colorectal cancer cell lines, HT29 and SW620 by WST-1 and colony proliferation assays. And we investigated mechanism of anticancer activities by analyzing players in apoptotic and ERK/GSK3β/β-catenin signaling pathways in HT29 and SW620 cells treated with NG.
RESULTS: In this study, we showed that NG markedly suppressed the cell viability and colony formation of colorectal cancer cells HT29 and SW620, with no significant toxic effect on non-cancer cells NCM460. Annexin V-FITC/PI and CFSE labeling results revealed that NG suppressed cell proliferation in low concentration, along with reducing expression of PCNA, while NG induced apoptosis in high concentration,. Meanwhile, NG significantly arrested cell migration by reversal of EMT and cell cycle on G2/M. Then, we found that the ERK and GSK3β/β-catenin signaling pathway were noticeably blocked in CRC cells after treatment with NG. According to western blot, NG upregulated the expression of p-GSK3β/GSK3β and decreased especially the expression of β-catenin in nuclear. In addition, Wnt signaling and its target genes were suppressed in response to NG. Then, the Ser9 phosphorylation of GSK3β can be reduced / raised by GÖ 6983 / LiCl, respectively. Thus, we further confirmed that the GSK3β/β-catenin axis is involved in NG-prevented cell proliferation.
CONCLUSION: NG inhibited the growth of colorectal cancer cells by suppressing ERK/GSK3β/β-catenin signaling pathway. And the GSK3β/β-catenin axis is involved in preventing cell proliferation and migration by NG-treatment. These results suggest that NG may be used to treat colorectal cancer, with better outcome by combining with GSK3β inhibitor to block Wnt pathway.

Jin Q, Dai Y, Wang Y, et al.
High kinesin family member 11 expression predicts poor prognosis in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
J Clin Pathol. 2019; 72(5):354-362 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIMS: Kinesin family member 11 (Kif11) is a member of the kinesin family motor proteins, which is associated with spindle formation and tumour genesis. In this study, we investigated the relationship between Kif11 expression and clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) development.
METHODS: The relationship between Kif11 expression and CCRCC development was analysed by quantitative real-time (qRT)-PCR analyses, and tissue immunohistochemistry. The prognostic significance of Kif11 expression was explored by univariable and multivariable survival analyses of 143 included patients. Furthermore, SB743921 was used as a specific Kif11 inhibitor to treat 786-O cells with the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) process analysed by qRT-PCR, and cell survival rates analysed with Annexin V-FITC/PI staining followed by flow cytometric analyses. Disease-free survival curves of Kif11 with different cancers and the relationships between Kif11 and the von Hippel-Lindau disease tumour suppressor gene (
RESULTS: The levels of
CONCLUSIONS: These results combined with bioinformation analyses suggest that high Kif11 expression was associated with unfavourable prognosis in CCRCC and could be used as a potential prognostic marker in the clinical diagnosis of CCRCC.

Kopantzev EP, Kopantseva MR, Grankina EV, et al.
Activation of IGF/IGF-IR signaling pathway fails to induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition in pancreatic cancer cells.
Pancreatology. 2019; 19(2):390-396 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer stromal cells produce various protein factors, which presumably provide cancer cells with drug resistance and may influence their ability to form metastasis via induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (ЕМТ). The goal of our project was to study the effects of IGF-I on expression of protein markers of epithelial and mesenchymal differentiation, and on expression of transcriptional regulators of EMT in pancreatic cancer cell lines.
METHODS: We used Western blot analysis to study the expression patterns of epithelial and mesenchymal protein markers in pancreatic cancer cell lines, which have been stimulated with IGF-I for various periods of time. The ELISA technique was employed to determine the concentration of IGF-I in conditioned media. Additionally, the effect of IGF-I on proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells was measured via MTS technique.
RESULTS: We investigated the effect of IGF/IGF-IR signaling pathway activation on expression levels of cell differentiation markers in five pancreatic cancer cell lines (AsPC-1, BxPC-3, Capan-2, MiaPaCa-2 and Panc1). The IGF-I stimulation led to phosphorylation of IGF-IR and activation of PI-3K/Akt signaling cascade. At the same time our results reveal that the activation of IGF/IGF-IR signaling pathway in pancreatic cancer cells does not induce a significant shift in cell phenotype towards mesenchymal differentiation and does not induce a decrease in expression levels of epithelial protein markers.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that IGF-I does not function as an effective inductor of EMT in pancreatic cancer cell lines and that stimulation of IGF-I/IGF-IR signaling pathway does not lead to EMT associated changes in cell differentiation.

Zhang F, Ma C
Kaempferol suppresses human gastric cancer SNU-216 cell proliferation, promotes cell autophagy, but has no influence on cell apoptosis.
Braz J Med Biol Res. 2019; 52(2):e7843 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Gastric cancer remains a serious threat to human health worldwide. Kaempferol is a plant-derived flavonoid compound with a wide range of pharmacological activities. This study aimed to investigate the effects of kaempferol on gastric cancer SNU-216 cell proliferation, apoptosis, and autophagy, as well as underlying potential mechanisms. Viability, proliferation, and apoptosis of SNU-216 cells after kaempferol treatment were evaluated using cell counting kit-8 assay, 5-btomo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation assay, and annexin V-FITC/PI staining, respectively. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR was performed to measure the mRNA expressions of cyclin D1 and microRNA-181a (miR-181a) in SNU-216 cells. Cell transfection was used to down-regulate the expression of miR-181a. The protein expression levels of cyclin D1, bcl-2, bax, caspase 3, caspase 9, autophagy-related gene 7, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-I (LC3-I), LC3-II, Beclin 1, p62, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK), and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) in SNU-216 cells were detected using western blotting. Results showed that kaempferol significantly suppressed SNU-216 cell viability and proliferation but had no influence on cell apoptosis. Further results suggested that kaempferol significantly induced SNU-216 cell autophagy. The expression of miR-181a in SNU-216 cells after kaempferol treatment was enhanced. Kaempferol significantly inactivated MAPK/ERK and PI3K pathways in SNU-216 cells. Suppression of miR-181a significantly reversed the kaempferol-induced MAPK/ERK and PI3K pathways inactivation in SNU-216 cells. This research demonstrated that kaempferol suppressed proliferation and promoted autophagy of human gastric cancer SNU-216 cells by up-regulating miR-181a and inactivating MAPK/ERK and PI3K pathways.

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