TDGF1

Gene Summary

Gene:TDGF1; teratocarcinoma-derived growth factor 1
Aliases: CR, CRGF, CRIPTO
Location:3p21.31
Summary:This gene encodes an epidermal growth factor-related protein that contains a cripto, FRL-1, and cryptic domain. The encoded protein is an extracellular, membrane-bound signaling protein that plays an essential role in embryonic development and tumor growth. Mutations in this gene are associated with forebrain defects. Pseudogenes of this gene are found on chromosomes 2, 3, 6, 8, 19 and X. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2010]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:teratocarcinoma-derived growth factor 1
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 25 June, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
Show (45)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 25 June 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Chromosome 3
  • Cell Movement
  • Base Sequence
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Zinc Fingers
  • Cell Division
  • Mice, Transgenic
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Glycoproteins
  • Western Blotting
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Neoplastic Processes
  • Liver Cancer
  • Signal Transduction
  • Colonic Neoplasms
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Recombinant Proteins
  • Transcription
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Carcinoma
  • RTPCR
  • EGF Family of Proteins
  • Messenger RNA
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Tumor Markers
  • Wnt1 Protein
  • TGFB1
  • Gene Expression
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Uterus
  • Growth Substances
  • Membrane Glycoproteins
  • Epidermal Growth Factor
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Amphiregulin
  • TGFA
  • GPI-Linked Proteins
  • Breast Cancer
  • Gene Expression Profiling
Tag cloud generated 25 June, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: TDGF1 (cancer-related)

Shan Y, Li S
Expression of Cripto-1 gene protein and Activin-A in human lung adenocarcinoma tissue.
Pak J Pharm Sci. 2015; 28(2 Suppl):739-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
To research the expression in human lung adenocarcinoma tissue of Cripto-1 (teratocarcinoma derived growth factor-1) gene protein and Activin-A gene protein, and explore the relationship and clinical significance between the two gene protein and clinical pathological characteristic of lung adenocarcinoma. This study had applied the immunohistochemical method to detect the 188 cases of lung adenocarcinoma and expression of Cripto-1 protein and Activin-A protein in 100 cases of normal lung tissue. Then, analysis the relationship between these two-gene protein and clinical lung adenocarcinoma histopathological features, and inherent correlation between these two genes. The positive expression rate of Cripto-1 protein in lung adenocarcinoma tissue was significantly higher in normal lung tissue, while, the positive expression rate of Activin-A protein in lung adenocarcinoma tissue was significantly lower than in normal lung tissue. The high expression of Cripto-1 and low expression of Activin-A was closely related (each P<0.05) to the TNM staging of lung adenocarcinoma, lymph node metastasis and the main pathological tissue staging of lung adenocarcinoma. And the correlation analysis showed that it was negative correlation for the expression of Activin-A protein and Cripto-1 protein in lung adenocarcinoma. The over expression of Cripto-1 and the expression lack of Activin-A were correlated with the occurrence, development, metastasis and malignant degree of lung adenocarcinoma.

Fu D, Ren C, Tan H, et al.
Sox17 promoter methylation in plasma DNA is associated with poor survival and can be used as a prognostic factor in breast cancer.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2015; 94(11):e637 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aberrant DNA methylation that leads to the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes is known to play an important role in the development and progression of breast cancer. Methylation status of cancer-related genes is considered to be a promising biomarker for the early diagnosis and prognosis of tumors. This study investigated the methylation status of the Sox17 gene in breast cancer tissue and its corresponding plasma DNA to evaluate the association of methylation levels with clinicopathological parameters and prognosis.The methylation status of the Sox17 gene promoter was evaluated with methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP) in 155 paired breast cancer tissue and plasma samples and in 60 paired normal breast tissue and plasma samples. Association of Sox17 methylation status with clinicopathological parameters was analyzed by χ tests. Overall and disease-free survival (DFS) curves were calculated using Kaplan-Meier analysis, and the differences between curves were analyzed by log-rank tests.The frequency of Sox17 gene methylation was 72.9% (113/155) in breast cancer tissues and 58.1% (90/155) in plasma DNA. Sox17 gene methylation was not found in normal breast tissues or in their paired plasma DNA. There was a significant correlation of Sox17 methylation between corresponding tumor tissues and paired plasma DNA (r = 0.688, P < 0.001). Aberrant Sox17 methylation in cancer tissues and in plasma DNA was significantly associated with the tumor node metastasis stage (P = 0.035 and P = 0.001, respectively) and with lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001 and P = 0.001, respectively). Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed that aberrant Sox17 promoter methylation in cancer tissues and plasma DNA was associated with poor DFS (P < 0.005) and overall survival (OS) (P < 0.005). Multivariate analysis showed that Sox17 methylation in plasma DNA was an independent prognostic factor in breast cancer for both DFS (P = 0.020; hazard ratio [HR] = 2.142; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.128-4.067) and for OS (P = 0.001; HR = 4.737; 95% CI: 2.088-10.747).Sox17 gene promoter methylation may play an important role in breast cancer progression and could be used as a prognostic biomarker to identify patients at risk of developing metastasis or recurrence after mastectomy.

Líbalová H, Krčková S, Uhlířová K, et al.
Analysis of gene expression changes in A549 cells induced by organic compounds from respirable air particles.
Mutat Res. 2014; 770:94-105 [PubMed] Related Publications
A number of toxic effects of respirable ambient air particles (genotoxic effects, inflammation, oxidative damage) have been attributed to organic compounds bound onto the particle surface. In this study, we analyzed global gene expression changes caused by the extractable organic matters (EOMs) from respirable airborne particles <2.5μm (PM2.5), collected at 3 localities from heavily polluted areas of the Czech Republic and a control locality with low pollution levels, in human lung epithelial A549 cells. Although the sampled localities differed in both extent and sources of air pollution, EOMs did not induce substantially different gene expression profiles. The number of transcripts deregulated in A549 cells treated with the lowest EOM concentration (10μg/ml) ranged from 65 to 85 in 4 sampling localities compared to the number of transcripts deregulated after 30μg/ml and 60μg/ml of EOMs, which ranged from 90 to 109, and from 149 to 452, respectively. We found numerous commonly deregulated genes and pathways related to activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and metabolism of xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. We further identified deregulation of expression of the genes involved in pro-inflammatory processes, oxidative stress response and in cancer and developmental pathways, such as TGF-β and Wnt signaling pathways. No cell cycle arrest, DNA repair or pro-apoptotic responses were identified at the transcriptional level after the treatment of A549 cells with EOMs. In conclusion, numerous processes and pathways deregulated in response to EOMs suggest a significant role of activated AhR. Interestingly, we did not observe substantial gene expression changes related to DNA damage response, possibly due to the antagonistic effect of non-genotoxic EOM components. Moreover, a comparison of EOM effects with other available data on modulation of global gene expression suggests possible overlap among the effects of PM2.5, EOMs and various types of AhR agonists.

Sofan MA, Elmasry S, Salem DA, Bazid MM
NPM1 gene mutation in Egyptian patients with cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia.
Clin Lab. 2014; 60(11):1813-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Nucleophosmin1 (NPM1) protein encoded from the NPM1 gene is a ubiquitously expressed nucleolar phoshoprotein which shuttles continuously between the nucleus and cytoplasm. NPM1 protein plays an important role in cell proliferation and apoptosis. NPM1 gene mutations at exon 12 represent the hallmark of a large sub-group of cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML) patients worldwide.
METHODS: Genomic DNA from 53 CN-AML patients were amplified by PCR and followed by fragment analysis of post-PCR products using GeneMapper software for detection of NPM1 mutations.
RESULTS: NPM1 exon 12 mutations were found are 15/53 CN-AML patients (28.3%) including 3 of M1, 3 of M2, 5 of M4, 3 of M5, and 1 of M6 FAB subtypes. The NPM1 mutation was significantly associated with lower relapse rate (p < 0.05). The complete remission (CR) rate was significantly higher in the patients with high NPM1 mutation load (> 50%) than low NPM1 mutation load (< 50%) (87.5% vs. 28.6%; p = 0.02).
CONCLUSIONS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the NPM1 gene exon 12 mutation in Egyptian patients with CN-AML and its relation to clinical characteristics and patient outcome and survival.

Slomovitz BM, Jiang Y, Yates MS, et al.
Phase II study of everolimus and letrozole in patients with recurrent endometrial carcinoma.
J Clin Oncol. 2015; 33(8):930-6 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/03/2016 Related Publications
PURPOSE: The phosphoinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) pathway is frequently dysregulated in endometrial cancer (EC). Hormonal manipulation leads to response in some patients with EC, but resistance derived from PI3K pathway activation has been documented. Targeting mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) may overcome endocrine resistance. We conducted a two-institution phase II trial of everolimus and letrozole in women with recurrent EC.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were considered incurable, had measurable disease, and were treated with up to two prior cytotoxic regimens. Everolimus was administered orally at 10 mg daily and letrozole was administered orally at 2.5 mg daily. Each cycle consisted of 4 weeks of therapy. Patients were treated until progression, toxicity, or complete response (CR). The primary end point was the clinical benefit rate (CBR), which was defined as CR, partial response, or stable disease (≥ 16 weeks) by RECIST 1.0 criteria. Translational studies were performed to correlate biomarkers with response.
RESULTS: Thirty-eight patients were enrolled (median age, 62 years; range, 24 to 82 years). Thirty-five patients were evaluable for response. The CBR was 40% (14 of 35 patients); the median number of cycles among responders was 15 (range, seven to 29 cycles). The confirmed objective response rate (RR) was 32% (11 of 35 patients; nine CRs and two partial responses; median, 15 cycles; range, eight to 29 cycles). Twenty percent of patients (seven of 35 patients) were taken off treatment after a prolonged CR and at the discretion of the treating clinician. None of the patients discontinued treatment as a result of toxicity. Serous histology was the best predictor of lack of response. Patients with endometrioid histology and CTNNB1 mutations responded well to everolimus and letrozole.
CONCLUSION: Everolimus plus letrozole results in a high CBR and RR in patients with recurrent EC. Further development of this combination in recurrent endometrioid EC is under way.

Rybka J, Butrym A, Wróbel T, et al.
The expression of Toll-like receptors in patients with acute myeloid leukemia treated with induction chemotherapy.
Leuk Res. 2015; 39(3):318-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
Toll-like receptors play an important role in the host defense against microorganisms. TLRs are mainly expressed in human immune-related cells, such as monocytes, neutrophils, macrophages, dendritic cells, T cells, B cells and NK cells. The expression or up-regulation of TLRs has been demonstrated in some tumors and tumor cell lines but the role of TLRs in pathogenesis and development of acute leukemias remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 and their significance as prognostic factors in patients with acute leukemias treated with induction chemotherapy. 103 patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) were evaluated (47 females and 56 males). The median age of patients was 51 years. Using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR, the mRNA expression of genes TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 was measured. The mRNA expression of TLR2 and TLR4 was significantly higher in patients with NR than in patients with CR and CRi. We especially observed that mRNA expression of TLR2 and TLR4 was significantly higher in patients with myelomonocytic and monoblastic acute leukemia than in patients with other types of AML. The mRNA expression of TLR2 and TLR4 was higher in AML patients than in healthy individuals, although there was no statistically significant difference. Patients with higher mRNA expression of TLR2 and TLR4 had significantly shorter OS than patients with lower mRNA expression of TLR2 and TLR4. Multivariate analysis showed that mRNA expression of TLR2 and the age of patients were independent factors associated with treatment response. Our results suggest that TLRs could be an independent prognostic factor for response rate after induction therapy in patients with acute myeloid leukemias.

Cui L, Gao C, Zhang RD, et al.
Low expressions of ARS2 and CASP8AP2 predict relapse and poor prognosis in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients treated on China CCLG-ALL 2008 protocol.
Leuk Res. 2015; 39(2):115-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
ARS2 protein is important to early development and cell proliferation, in which ARS2-CASP8AP2 interaction is implicated. However, the predictive significance of ARS2 in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is unknown. Here we evaluate the predictive values of ARS2 expression and combined ARS2 and CASP8AP2 expression in relapse. We showed that ARS2 expression in ALL bone marrow samples at initial diagnosis was markedly lower than that in complete remission (CR). Likewise, the levels of ARS2 expression in the patients suffering from relapse were significantly lower than that of patients in continuous CR. Furthermore, low expression of ARS2 was closely correlated to poor treatment response including poor prednisone response and high minimal residual disease (MRD), and the patients with high MRD (≥10(-4)) and low ARS2 were more subject to relapse. The multivariate analyses for relapse free survival and event free survival revealed that ARS2 expression remained an independent prognostic factor after adjusting other risk factors. In addition, combined assessment of ARS2 and CASP8AP2 expression was more accurate to predict relapse, based on which an algorithm composed of ARS2 and CASP8AP2 expression, prednisone response and MRD (day 78) was proposed. Together, ARS2 and CASP8AP2 expressions can precisely predict high-risk of relapse and ALL prognosis.

Garzon R, Volinia S, Papaioannou D, et al.
Expression and prognostic impact of lncRNAs in acute myeloid leukemia.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014; 111(52):18679-84 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 30/06/2015 Related Publications
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are transcripts longer than 200 nucleotides, located within the intergenic stretches or overlapping antisense transcripts of protein coding genes. LncRNAs are involved in numerous biological roles including imprinting, epigenetic regulation, apoptosis, and cell cycle. To determine whether lncRNAs are associated with clinical features and recurrent mutations in older patients (aged ≥60 y) with cytogenetically normal (CN) acute myeloid leukemia (AML), we evaluated lncRNA expression in 148 untreated older CN-AML cases using a custom microarray platform. An independent set of 71 untreated older patients with CN-AML was used to validate the outcome scores using RNA sequencing. Distinctive lncRNA profiles were found associated with selected mutations, such as internal tandem duplications in the FLT3 gene (FLT3-ITD) and mutations in the NPM1, CEBPA, IDH2, ASXL1, and RUNX1 genes. Using the lncRNAs most associated with event-free survival in a training cohort of 148 older patients with CN-AML, we derived a lncRNA score composed of 48 lncRNAs. Patients with an unfavorable compared with favorable lncRNA score had a lower complete response (CR) rate [P < 0.001, odds ratio = 0.14, 54% vs. 89%], shorter disease-free survival (DFS) [P < 0.001, hazard ratio (HR) = 2.88] and overall survival (OS) (P < 0.001, HR = 2.95). The validation set analyses confirmed these results (CR, P = 0.03; DFS, P = 0.009; OS, P = 0.009). Multivariable analyses for CR, DFS, and OS identified the lncRNA score as an independent marker for outcome. In conclusion, lncRNA expression in AML is closely associated with recurrent mutations. A small subset of lncRNAs is correlated strongly with treatment response and survival.

ten Broeke SW, Brohet RM, Tops CM, et al.
Lynch syndrome caused by germline PMS2 mutations: delineating the cancer risk.
J Clin Oncol. 2015; 33(4):319-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The clinical consequences of PMS2 germline mutations are poorly understood compared with other Lynch-associated mismatch repair gene (MMR) mutations. The aim of this European cohort study was to define the cancer risk faced by PMS2 mutation carriers.
METHODS: Data were collected from 98 PMS2 families ascertained from family cancer clinics that included a total of 2,548 family members and 377 proven mutation carriers. To adjust for potential ascertainment bias, a modified segregation analysis model was used to calculate colorectal cancer (CRC) and endometrial cancer (EC) risks. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated to estimate risks for other Lynch syndrome-associated cancers.
RESULTS: The cumulative risk (CR) of CRC for male mutation carriers by age 70 years was 19%. The CR among female carriers was 11% for CRC and 12% for EC. The mean age of CRC development was 52 years, and there was a significant difference in mean age of CRC between the probands (mean, 47 years; range, 26 to 68 years) and other family members with a PMS2 mutation (mean, 58 years; range, 31 to 86 years; P < .001). Significant SIRs were observed for cancers of the small bowel, ovaries, breast, and renal pelvis.
CONCLUSION: CRC and EC risks were found to be markedly lower than those previously reported for the other MMR. However, these risks embody the isolated risk of carrying a PMS2 mutation, and it should be noted that we observed a substantial variation in cancer phenotype within and between families, suggesting the influence of genetic modifiers and lifestyle factors on cancer risks.

Arcaini L, Morello L, Tucci A, et al.
Autologous stem cell transplantation with in vivo purged progenitor cells shows long-term efficacy in relapsed/refractory follicular lymphoma.
Am J Hematol. 2015; 90(3):230-4 [PubMed] Related Publications
High-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) has been shown effective in the control of relapsed/refractory follicular lymphoma. We evaluate the long-term outcome of patients with relapsed or refractory follicular lymphoma treated with ASCT with in vivo purged progenitors cells. We report the long-term results of a prospective multicenter phase 2 trial on 124 relapsed/refractory follicular lymphoma patients treated with a program of anthracycline-based debulking chemotherapy, immunochemotherapy, mobilization of in vivo purged PBSC followed by ASCT. Median age was 52 years; 14% of patients had grade 3A histology. Debulking chemotherapy produced CR in 16% and PR in 71%, while 13% of patients progressed. After rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone (R-COP), CR was obtained in 60% and PR in 35%; 118 patients successfully mobilized PBSC and 117 proceeded to ASCT. The harvest in all the 32 molecularly informative patients was bcl-2 negative. TRM was 0%. The 5-year PFS was 54% and the 5-year OS was 83%. After a median f-up of 6.7 years (range 1.5-13.6), 54% are still in CR. These data show that prolonged PFS is achievable in relapsed/refractory patients with high dose autologous transplantation of in vivo purged progenitor cells.

Pratheeshkumar P, Son YO, Divya SP, et al.
Luteolin inhibits Cr(VI)-induced malignant cell transformation of human lung epithelial cells by targeting ROS mediated multiple cell signaling pathways.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2014; 281(2):230-41 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a well-known human carcinogen associated with the incidence of lung cancer. Inhibition of metal induced carcinogenesis by a dietary antioxidant is a novel approach. Luteolin, a natural dietary flavonoid found in fruits and vegetables, possesses potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. We found that short term exposure of human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) to Cr(VI) (5μM) showed a drastic increase in ROS generation, NADPH oxidase (NOX) activation, lipid peroxidation, and glutathione depletion, which were significantly inhibited by the treatment with luteolin in a dose dependent manner. Treatment with luteolin decreased AP-1, HIF-1α, COX-2, and iNOS promoter activity induced by Cr(VI) in BEAS-2B cells. In addition, luteolin protected BEAS-2B cells from malignant transformation induced by chronic Cr(VI) exposure. Moreover, luteolin also inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α) and VEGF in chronic Cr(VI) exposed BEAS-2B cells. Western blot analysis showed that luteolin inhibited multiple gene products linked to survival (Akt, Fak, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL), inflammation (MAPK, NF-κB, COX-2, STAT-3, iNOS, TNF-α) and angiogenesis (HIF-1α, VEGF, MMP-9) in chronic Cr(VI) exposed BEAS-2B cells. Nude mice injected with BEAS-2B cells chronically exposed to Cr(VI) in the presence of luteolin showed reduced tumor incidence compared to Cr(VI) alone treated group. Overexpression of catalase (CAT) or SOD2, eliminated Cr(VI)-induced malignant transformation. Overall, our results indicate that luteolin protects BEAS-2B cells from Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis by scavenging ROS and modulating multiple cell signaling mechanisms that are linked to ROS. Luteolin, therefore, serves as a potential chemopreventive agent against Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis.

Wei B, Jin W, Ruan J, et al.
Cripto-1 expression and its prognostic value in human bladder cancer patients.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(2):1105-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cripto-1 is an important embryonic gene that involved in self-renewal and maintenance of pluripotency of stem cells. Overexpression of Cripto-1 has been found to be correlated with tumorigenesis and may affect tumor recurrence and metastasis. The previous studies indicate that Cripto-1 might be a potential prognostic biomarker for several malignancies. The aim of this study is to examine Cripto-1 expression pattern and clinicopathological significance in human bladder cancer patients. We investigated Cripto-1 expression in 30 paired bladder cancer tissues and corresponding noncancerous bladder tissues using real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Moreover, Cripto-1 expression in 130 bladder cancer specimens and bladder cancer T24 and 5637 cells were analyzed using immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence assays. The recurrence/metastasis-free survival was assessed by Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. Cox regression was also used for univariate and multivariate analyses of prognostic factors. The results showed that Cripto-1 expression is increased in bladder cancer tissues and is significantly associated with tumor size (P = 0.005) and tumor grade (P = 0.035). In addition, the expression level of Cripto-1 in bladder cancer was also found to be significantly associated with SRY-related HMG-box gene 2 expression (P = 0.003) and Ki-67 (P = 0.001). Compared with the patients with low Cripto-1 expression, the patients with high Cripto-1 expression had significantly poorer recurrence/metastasis-free survival (P = 0.011). Cox regression showed that Cripto-1 might be an independent prognostic factor for recurrence/metastasis-free survival (P = 0.036). Our findings suggest that high Cripto-1 expression might be involved in the development of bladder cancer and a potentially effective prognostic marker in bladder cancer patients.

Barlogie B, Mitchell A, van Rhee F, et al.
Curing myeloma at last: defining criteria and providing the evidence.
Blood. 2014; 124(20):3043-51 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
Does the dogma that multiple myeloma is incurable still hold?. The genomic chaos and resulting resistance to apoptosis of myeloma, long considered an obstacle to cure, formed the basis of Total Therapy (TT) program. The TT approach uses all myeloma-active drugs upfront to target drug-resistant subclones during initial treatment to prevent later relapse. Long-term follow-up of 1202 patients (TT1: n = 231, median follow-up: 21 years; TT2: 668, median follow-up: 12 years; TT3a: n = 303, median follow-up: 9 years) permitted investigation of whether progression-free survival (PFS) and complete response (CR) duration were consistent with curability, ie observation of plateaus in Kaplan-Meier plots for PFS and CR duration. In the subset of 627 patients with plasma cell gene expression profiling data, cure plateaus were apparent at 5 years in the 14% with high-risk myeloma compared with 10 years in the remainder with low-risk disease. A parametric model based on PFS and CR duration supported an increase in curability: 10-year PFS and CR estimates increased from 8.8%/17.9% in TT1 to 15.5%/28.2% in TT2's control arm to 25.1%/35.6% in TT2's thalidomide arm and to 32.9%/48.8% in TT3a. Toward developing novel therapies, we recommend a concerted focus on patients with high-risk myeloma whose outcome has not been advanced.

Lam HM, Ouyang B, Chen J, et al.
Targeting GPR30 with G-1: a new therapeutic target for castration-resistant prostate cancer.
Endocr Relat Cancer. 2014; 21(6):903-14 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is an advanced-stage prostate cancer (PC) associated with high mortality. We reported that G-1, a selective agonist of G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30), inhibited PC cell growth by inducing G2 cell cycle arrest and arrested PC-3 xenograft growth. However, the therapeutic actions of G-1 and their relationships with androgen in vivo are unclear. Using the LNCaP xenograft to model PC growth during the androgen-sensitive (AS) versus the castration-resistant (CR) phase, we found that G-1 inhibited growth of CR but not AS tumors with no observable toxicity to the host. Substantial necrosis (approximately 65%) accompanied by marked intratumoral infiltration of neutrophils was observed only in CR tumors. Global transcriptome profiling of human genes identified 99 differentially expressed genes with 'interplay between innate and adaptive immune responses' as the top pathway. Quantitative PCR confirmed upregulation of neutrophil-related chemokines and inflammation-mediated cytokines only in the G-1-treated CR tumors. Expression of murine neutrophil-related cytokines also was elevated in these tumors. GPR30 (GPER1) expression was significantly higher in CR tumors than in AS tumors. In cell-based experiments, androgen repressed GPR30 expression, a response reversible by anti-androgen or siRNA-induced androgen receptor silencing. Finally, in clinical specimens, 80% of CRPC metastases (n=123) expressed a high level of GPR30, whereas only 54% of the primary PCs (n=232) showed high GPR30 expression. Together, these results provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, that GPR30 is an androgen-repressed target and G-1 mediates the anti-tumor effect via neutrophil-infiltration-associated necrosis in CRPC. Additional studies are warranted to firmly establish GPR30 as a therapeutic target in CRPC.

Schlenk RF, Kayser S, Bullinger L, et al.
Differential impact of allelic ratio and insertion site in FLT3-ITD-positive AML with respect to allogeneic transplantation.
Blood. 2014; 124(23):3441-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The objective was to evaluate the prognostic and predictive impact of allelic ratio and insertion site (IS) of internal tandem duplications (ITDs), as well as concurrent gene mutations, with regard to postremission therapy in 323 patients with FLT3-ITD-positive acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Increasing FLT3-ITD allelic ratio (P = .004) and IS in the tyrosine kinase domain 1 (TKD1, P = .06) were associated with low complete remission (CR) rates. After postremission therapy including intensive chemotherapy (n = 121) or autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT, n = 17), an allelic ratio ≥ 0.51 was associated with an unfavorable relapse-free (RFS, P = .0008) and overall survival (OS, P = .004); after allogeneic HSCT (n = 93), outcome was significantly improved in patients with a high allelic ratio (RFS, P = .02; OS, P = .03), whereas no benefit was seen in patients with a low allelic ratio (RFS, P = .38; OS, P = .64). Multivariable analyses revealed a high allelic ratio as a predictive factor for the beneficial effect of allogeneic HSCT; ITD IS in TKD1 remained an unfavorable factor, whereas no prognostic impact of concurrent gene mutations was observed. The clinical trials described herein were previously published or are registered as follows: AMLHD93 and AMLHD98A, previously published; AML SG 07-04, ClinicalTrials.gov identifier #NCT00151242.

Garufi A, D'Orazi G
High glucose dephosphorylates serine 46 and inhibits p53 apoptotic activity.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2014; 33:79 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/12/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In response to diverse genotoxic stimuli p53 is activated as transcription factor to exert its tumor-suppressor function. P53 activation requires protein stabilization, nuclear localization and posttranslational modifications in key residues that may influence p53 selection of target genes. Among them, serine 46 (Ser46) phosphorylation is considered specific for apoptotic activation. Hyperglicaemia, the high blood glucose condition, may negatively affect tumor response to therapies through several mechanisms, conferring resistance to drug-induced cell death. However, whether high glucose might modify p53Ser46 phosphorylation has never been addressed.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Here, we performed biochemical and molecular analyses in different cancer cell lines treated with chemotherapy in the presence or absence of high glucose condition. Analyses of p53 posttranslational modifications showed that drug-induced p53Ser46 phosphorylation was reduced by high glucose. Such reduction depended by high glucose-induced calyculin A-sensitive phosphatase(s), able to specifically target p53Ser46 phosphorylation. The specific effect on Ser46 phosphorylation was addressed by analysing Ser15 phosphorylation that instead was not modified by high glucose. In agreement, a constitutively phosphorylated Ser46D p53 mutant was resistant to high glucose. As a consequence of phosphoSer46 impairment, high glucose reduced the tumor cell response to drugs, correlating with reduced p53 apoptotic transactivation. The drug-induced apoptotic cell death, reduced by high glucose, was finally restored by the phosphatase inhibitor calyculin A.
CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that high glucose specifically inhibited Ser46 phosphorylation thus reducing p53 apoptotic activity. These results uncover a new mechanism of p53 inactivation providing an interesting novel molecular link between metabolic diseases such as diabetes or obesity and tumor progression and resistance to therapies.

Niederwieser C, Kohlschmidt J, Volinia S, et al.
Prognostic and biologic significance of DNMT3B expression in older patients with cytogenetically normal primary acute myeloid leukemia.
Leukemia. 2015; 29(3):567-75 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
DNMT3B encodes a DNA methyltransferase implicated in aberrant epigenetic changes contributing to leukemogenesis. We tested whether DNMT3B expression, measured by NanoString nCounter assay, associates with outcome, gene and microRNA expression and DNA methylation profiles in 210 older (⩾60 years) adults with primary, cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML). Patients were dichotomized into high versus low expressers using median cut. Outcomes were assessed in the context of known CN-AML prognosticators. Gene and microRNA expression, and DNA methylation profiles were analyzed using microarrays and MethylCap-sequencing, respectively. High DNMT3B expressers had fewer complete remissions (CR; P=0.002) and shorter disease-free (DFS; P=0.02) and overall (OS; P<0.001) survival. In multivariable analyses, high DNMT3B expression remained an independent predictor of lower CR rates (P=0.04) and shorter DFS (P=0.04) and OS (P=0.001). High DNMT3B expression associated with a gene expression profile comprising 363 genes involved in differentiation, proliferation and survival pathways, but with only four differentially expressed microRNAs (miR-133b, miR-148a, miR-122, miR-409-3p) and no differential DNA methylation regions. We conclude that high DNMT3B expression independently associates with adverse outcome in older CN-AML patients. Gene expression analyses suggest that DNMT3B is involved in the modulation of several genes, although the regulatory mechanisms remain to be investigated to devise therapeutic approaches specific for these patients.

Dunna NR, Vuree S, Anuradha C, et al.
NRAS mutations in de novo acute leukemia: prevalence and clinical significance.
Indian J Biochem Biophys. 2014; 51(3):207-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
The activating mutations of the Ras gene or other abnormalities in Ras signaling pathway lead to uncontrolled growth factor-independent proliferation of hematopoietic progenitors. Oncogenic mutations in NRAS gene have been observed with variable prevalence in hematopoietic malignancies. In the present study, NRAS mutations were detected using bidirectional sequencing in 264 acute leukemia cases--129 acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and 135 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and 245 age- and gender-matched controls. Missense mutation was observed only in the 12th codon of NRAS gene in 4.7% of AML and 3.16% of ALL cases. The presence of NRAS mutation did not significantly influence blast % and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels in AML patients. When the data were analyzed with respect to clinical variables, the total leukocyte count was elevated for mutation positive group, compared to negative group. In AML patients with NRAS mutations, 60% failed to achieve complete remission (CR), as compared to 34.8% in mutation negative group. These results indicated that NRAS mutations might confer poor drug response. In AML, disease free survival (DFS) in NRAS mutation positive group was lesser, compared to mutation negative group (9.5 months vs. 11.68 months). In ALL patients, DFS of NRAS mutation positive group was lesser than mutation negative group (9.2 months vs. 27.5 months). The CR rate was also lower for mutation-positive patients group, compared to mutation-negative group. In conclusion, these results suggested that presence of NRAS mutation at 12th codon was associated with poor response and poorer DFS in both ALL and AML.

Vento-Tormo R, Rodríguez-Ubreva J, Lisio LD, et al.
NF-κB directly mediates epigenetic deregulation of common microRNAs in Epstein-Barr virus-mediated transformation of B-cells and in lymphomas.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2014; 42(17):11025-39 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have negative effects on gene expression and are major players in cell function in normal and pathological conditions. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection of resting B lymphocytes results in their growth transformation and associates with different B cell lymphomas. EBV-mediated B cell transformation involves large changes in gene expression, including cellular miRNAs. We performed miRNA expression analysis in growth transformation of EBV-infected B cells. We observed predominant downregulation of miRNAs and upregulation of a few miRNAs. We observed similar profiles of miRNA expression in B cells stimulated with CD40L/IL-4, and those infected with EBNA-2- and LMP-1-deficient EBV particles, suggesting the implication of the NF-kB pathway, common to all four situations. In fact, the NF-kB subunit p65 associates with the transcription start site (TSS) of both upregulated and downregulated miRNAs following EBV infection This occurs together with changes at histone H3K27me3 and histone H3K4me3. Inhibition of the NF-kB pathway impairs changes in miRNA expression, NF-kB binding and changes at the above histone modifications near the TSS of these miRNA genes. Changes in expression of these miRNAs also occurred in diffuse large B cell lymphomas (DLBCL), which are strongly NF-kB dependent. Our results highlight the relevance of the NF-kB pathway in epigenetically mediated miRNA control in B cell transformation and DLBCL.

Guo H, Lin J, Wen XM, et al.
Decreased SFRP2 expression is associated with intermediate and poor karyotypes in de novo acute myeloid leukemia.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2014; 7(8):4695-703 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
Dysregulation of secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (SFRP2) has been found in various cancers. However, it is little known about the pattern of SFRP2 expression in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). This study was aimed to analyze the expression status of SFRP2 gene in AML patients and explore its clinical significance using real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR). The level of SFRP2 expression significantly decreased in AML compared to controls (P<0.001). Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis revealed that an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.871 (P<0.001) or 0.902 (P<0.001) in discriminating all patients or cytogenetically normal (CN) patients from controls, respectively. Low level of SFRP2 expression was found more frequently in cytogenetically intermediate and poor groups (72% and 62%, respectively) than in favorable group (42%) (P<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in the rate of complete remission (CR) and overall survival between the groups with low SFRP2 and high expression (P>0.05). SFRP2 expression significantly increased after CR compared to initial diagnosis (P<0.05). These findings suggest that decreased SFRP2 expression is associated with intermediate/poor karyotypes in AML patients and detection of SFRP2 expression may be helpful to the diagnosis and disease monitoring in CN-AML.

Proctor DM, Suh M, Campleman SL, Thompson CM
Assessment of the mode of action for hexavalent chromium-induced lung cancer following inhalation exposures.
Toxicology. 2014; 325:160-79 [PubMed] Related Publications
Inhalation of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is associated with increased lung cancer risk among workers in several industries, most notably chromate production workers exposed to high concentrations of Cr(VI) (≥100 μg/m(3)), for which clear exposure-response relationships and respiratory irritation and tissue damage have been reported. Data from this industry are used to assess lung cancer risk associated with environmental and current occupational exposures, occurring at concentrations that are significantly lower. There is considerable uncertainty in the low dose extrapolation of historical occupational epidemiology data to assess risk at current exposures because no published or well recognized mode of action (MOA) for Cr(VI)-induced lung tumors exists. We conducted a MOA analysis for Cr(VI)-induced lung cancer evaluating toxicokinetic and toxicological data in humans and rodents and mechanistic data to assess plausibility, dose-response, and temporal concordance for potential MOAs. Toxicokinetic data support that extracellular reduction of Cr(VI), which limits intracellular absorption of Cr(VI) and Cr(VI)-induced toxicity, can be overwhelmed at high exposure levels. In vivo genotoxicity and mutagenicity data are mostly negative and do not support a mutagenic MOA. Further, both chronic bioassays and the epidemiologic literature support that lung cancer occurs at exposures that cause tissue damage. Based on this MOA analysis, the overall weight of evidence supports a MOA involving deposition and accumulation of particulate chromium in the bifurcations of the lung resulting in exceedance of clearance mechanisms and cellular absorption of Cr(VI). Once inside the cell, reduction of Cr(VI) results in oxidative stress and the formation of Cr ligands. Subsequent protein and DNA damage lead to tissue irritation, inflammation, and cytotoxicity. These effects, concomitant with increased cell proliferation, result in changes to DNA sequences and/or methylation status that can lead to tumorigenesis. This MOA supports the use of non-linear approaches when extrapolating lung cancer risk occurring at high concentration occupational exposures to environmentally-relevant exposures.

Gao S, Bajrami I, Verrill C, et al.
Dsh homolog DVL3 mediates resistance to IGFIR inhibition by regulating IGF-RAS signaling.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(20):5866-77 [PubMed] Related Publications
Drugs that inhibit insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGFI) receptor IGFIR were encouraging in early trials, but predictive biomarkers were lacking and the drugs provided insufficient benefit in unselected patients. In this study, we used genetic screening and downstream validation to identify the WNT pathway element DVL3 as a mediator of resistance to IGFIR inhibition. Sensitivity to IGFIR inhibition was enhanced specifically in vitro and in vivo by genetic or pharmacologic blockade of DVL3. In breast and prostate cancer cells, sensitization tracked with enhanced MEK-ERK activation and relied upon MEK activity and DVL3 expression. Mechanistic investigations showed that DVL3 is present in an adaptor complex that links IGFIR to RAS, which includes Shc, growth factor receptor-bound-2 (Grb2), son-of-sevenless (SOS), and the tumor suppressor DAB2. Dual DVL and DAB2 blockade synergized in activating ERKs and sensitizing cells to IGFIR inhibition, suggesting a nonredundant role for DVL3 in the Shc-Grb2-SOS complex. Clinically, tumors that responded to IGFIR inhibition contained relatively lower levels of DVL3 protein than resistant tumors, and DVL3 levels in tumors correlated inversely with progression-free survival in patients treated with IGFIR antibodies. Because IGFIR does not contain activating mutations analogous to EGFR variants associated with response to EGFR inhibitors, we suggest that IGF signaling achieves an equivalent integration at the postreceptor level through adaptor protein complexes, influencing cellular dependence on the IGF axis and identifying a patient population with potential to benefit from IGFIR inhibition.

Brandwein JM, Kassis J, Leber B, et al.
Phase II study of targeted therapy with temozolomide in acute myeloid leukaemia and high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome patients pre-screened for low O(6) -methylguanine DNA methyltransferase expression.
Br J Haematol. 2014; 167(5):664-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
Resistance to temozolomide is largely mediated by the DNA repair enzyme O(6) -methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT). We conducted a prospective multicentre study of patients with previously untreated acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) who were not candidates for intensive therapy. Patient selection was based on MGMT expression by Western blot. Patients with MGMT:ACTB (β-actin) ratio <0·2 were eligible to receive temozolomide 200 mg/m(2) /d ×7 d. Patients achieving a complete response (CR) could receive up to 12 monthly cycles of temozolomide ×5/28 d. Of 166 patients screened, 81 (49%) demonstrated low MGMT expression; 45 of these were treated with temozolomide. The overall response rate was 53%; 36% achieved complete clearance of blasts, with 27% achieving a CR/CR with incomplete platelet recovery (CRp). Factors associated with a trend toward a higher response rate included MDS, methylated MGMT promoter and standard cytogenetic risk group. Induction and post-remission cycles were well-tolerated and most patients were treated on an outpatient basis. Patient who achieved CR/CRp had a superior overall survival compared to partial or non-responders. In conclusion, targeted therapy based on pre-selection for low MGMT expression was associated with a higher response rate to temozolomide compared to previous reports of unselected patients.

Rengucci C, De Maio G, Casadei Gardini A, et al.
Promoter methylation of tumor suppressor genes in pre-neoplastic lesions; potential marker of disease recurrence.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2014; 33:65 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Epigenetic alterations of specific genes have been reported to be related to colorectal cancer (CRC) transformation and would also appear to be involved in the early stages of colorectal carcinogenesis. Little data are available on the role of these alterations in determining a different risk of colorectal lesion recurrence. The aim of the present study was to verify whether epigenetic alterations present in pre-neoplastic colorectal lesions detected by colonoscopy can predict disease recurrence.
METHODS: A retrospective series of 78 adenomas were collected and classified as low (35) or high-risk (43) for recurrence according to National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines. Methylation alterations were analyzed by the methylation-specific multiplex ligation probe assay (MS-MLPA) which is capable of quantifying methylation levels simultaneously in 24 different gene promoters. MS-MLPA results were confirmed by pyrosequencing and immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: Higher levels of methylation were associated with disease recurrence. In particular, MLH1, ATM and FHIT gene promoters were found to be significantly hypermethylated in recurring adenomas. Unconditional logistic regression analysis used to evaluate the relative risk (RR) of recurrence showed that FHIT and MLH1 were independent variables with an RR of 35.30 (95% CI 4.15-300.06, P = 0.001) and 17.68 (95% CI 1.91-163.54, P = 0.011), respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Histopathological classification does not permit an accurate evaluation of the risk of recurrence of colorectal lesions. Conversely, results from our methylation analysis suggest that a classification based on molecular parameters could help to define the mechanisms involved in carcinogenesis and prove an effective method for identifying patients at high risk of recurrence.

Kaufhold S, Bonavida B
Central role of Snail1 in the regulation of EMT and resistance in cancer: a target for therapeutic intervention.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2014; 33:62 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
Snail1 is the founding member of the Snail superfamily of zinc-finger transcription factors, which also includes Snail2 (Slug) and Snail3 (Smuc). The superfamily is involved in cell differentiation and survival, two processes central in cancer research. Encoded by the SNAI1 gene located on human chromosome 20q13.2, Snail1 is composed of 264 amino acids and usually acts as a transcriptional repressor. Phosphorylation and nuclear localization of Snail1, governed by PI3K and Wnt signaling pathways crosstalk, are critical in Snail1's regulation. Snail1 has a pivotal role in the regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), the process by which epithelial cells acquire a migratory, mesenchymal phenotype, as a result of its repression of E-cadherin. Snail1-induced EMT involves the loss of E-cadherin and claudins with concomitant upregulation of vimentin and fibronectin, among other biomarkers. While essential to normal developmental processes such as gastrulation, EMT is associated with metastasis, the cancer stem cell phenotype, and the regulation of chemo and immune resistance in cancer. Snail1 expression is a common sign of poor prognosis in metastatic cancer, and tumors with elevated Snail1 expression are disproportionately difficult to eradicate by current therapeutic treatments. The significance of Snail1 as a prognostic indicator, its involvement in the regulation of EMT and metastasis, and its roles in both drug and immune resistance point out that Snail1 is an attractive target for tumor growth inhibition and a target for sensitization to cytotoxic drugs.

Hu ZY, Yuan SX, Yang Y, et al.
Pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 mediates the role of karyopherin alpha 2 and has prognostic significance in hepatocellular carcinoma.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2014; 33:61 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Karyopherin alpha 2 (KPNA2) promotes tumor growth in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We aimed to determine the content and clinical significance of mechanism underlying.
METHODS: The association of transcriptional factor pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1) with KPNA2 was explored by co-immunoprecipitation. In vitro gain- and loss-of-function models were established to explore the functional interaction. Clinical samples from 314 HCC patients were applied to explore the clinical significance.
RESULTS: We found that PLAG1 could associate with KPNA2 and be promoted into nucleus by KPNA2. The increment of proliferative and metastatic abilities by KPNA2 over-expression can be significantly retarded by PLAG1 inhibition. The co-enrichment of KPNA2 and PLAG1 in nucleus is observed in clinical samples and can distinguish patients with the worst prognosis. The positive PLAG1 expression is an independent risk factor of recurrence free survival (HR: 1.766, 1.315-2.371; P = 0.000) and overall survival (HR: 1.589, 1.138-2.220; P = 0.007). Especially for patients with positive KPNA2 staining (N = 152), the positive PLAG1 expression is the sole risk factor for both recurrence free survival (HR: 1.749, 1.146-2.670; P = 0.010) and overall survival (HR: 1.662, 1.007-2.744; P = 0.047).
CONCLUSIONS: The nuclear import of PLAG1 by KPNA2 is essential for the role of KPNA2 in HCC cells and is significant to predict poor survival of HCC patients after hepatectomy.

Singh TD, Lee HW, Lee SW, et al.
Noninvasive imaging of apoptosis induced by adenovirus-mediated cancer gene therapy using a caspase-3 biosensor in living subjects.
Mol Imaging. 2014; 13 [PubMed] Related Publications
We attempted to visualize the serial induction of caspase-3-dependent apoptosis mediated by Fas ligand/tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (FasL/TRAIL) adenoviral gene therapy in mice bearing human glioma xenografts using a caspase-3 biosensor and monitored its therapeutic effects. Human D54 glioma cells expressing both the caspase-3 sensor and the Renilla luciferase (Rluc) gene were established (referred to as D54-CR cells). The bioluminescence imaging (BLI) signals of the caspase-3 sensor in the D54-CR cells were increased in a time- and virus dose-dependent manner by Ad-TRAIL or Ad-FasL transduction. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis revealed an increase in both cleaved caspase-3 or poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and annexin V- and propidium iodide-positive cells depending on the dosage of administered virus. Ad-FasL treatment resulted in a significant increase in the BLI activity of the caspase-3 sensor in the D54-CR tumors, which were ≈ 8.2, ≈ 12.9, and ≈ 46.6 times higher than those of control at 12 hours, 24 hours, and 96 hours posttreatment, respectively. In contrast, a significant reduction in Rluc activity, as a surrogate marker of cell viability, was detected in the tumors treated with Ad-FasL but not in those treated with Ad-null. Overall, the activation of caspase-3-dependent apoptosis induced by Ad-FasL/Ad-TRAIL gene therapy was successfully monitored by a sensitive imaging platform for caspase-3 activation.

Lehmann M, Hoffmann MJ, Koch A, et al.
Histone deacetylase 8 is deregulated in urothelial cancer but not a target for efficient treatment.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2014; 33:59 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that class-I histone deacetylase (HDAC) 8 mRNA is upregulated in urothelial cancer tissues and urothelial cancer cell lines compared to benign controls. Using urothelial cancer cell lines we evaluated whether specific targeting of HDAC8 might be a therapeutic option in bladder cancer treatment.
METHODS: We conducted siRNA-mediated knockdown and specific pharmacological inhibition of HDAC8 with the three different inhibitors compound 2, compound 5, and compound 6 in several urothelial carcinoma cell lines with distinct HDAC8 expression profiles. Levels of HDAC and marker proteins were determined by western blot analysis and mRNA levels were measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Cellular effects of HDAC8 suppression were analyzed by ATP assay, flow cytometry, colony forming assay and migration assay.
RESULTS: Efficient siRNA-mediated knockdown of HDAC8 reduced proliferation up to 45%. The HDAC8 specific inhibitors compound 5 and compound 6 significantly reduced viability of all urothelial cancer cell lines (IC₅₀ 9 - 21 μM). Flow cytometry revealed only a slight increase in the sub-G1 fraction indicating a limited induction of apoptosis. Expression of thymidylate synthase was partly reduced; PARP-cleavage was not detected. The influence of the pharmacological inhibition on clonogenic growth and migration show a cell line- and inhibitor-dependent reduction with the strongest effects after treatment with compound 5 and compound 6.
CONCLUSIONS: Deregulation of HDAC8 is frequent in urothelial cancer, but neither specific pharmacological inhibition nor siRNA-mediated knockdown of HDAC8 impaired viability of urothelial cancer cell lines in a therapeutic useful manner. Accordingly, HDAC8 on its own is not a promising drug target in bladder cancer.

Nakayama H, Tabuchi K, Tawa A, et al.
Outcome of children with relapsed acute myeloid leukemia following initial therapy under the AML99 protocol.
Int J Hematol. 2014; 100(2):171-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The outcomes of children with relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are known to be poor, but remain obscure. We retrospectively analyzed 71 patients who had relapsed following first-line treatment under the AML99 protocol. We investigated the time and site of recurrence, response to re-induction therapy, and performance of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in relapsed cases, and performed a multivariate analysis to identify prognostic factors. The 5-year overall-survival (OS) rate after relapse was 37 %. Of 71 patients, three died without any anti-leukemic therapy and two underwent allogeneic HSCT. The remaining 66 patients received re-induction chemotherapy, and 33 (50 %) achieved second CR (CR2). Twenty-two of 25 (88 %) late relapse patients and 11 of 41 (27 %) early relapse patients achieved CR2 (P < 0.001). Twenty-nine CR2 cases and 35 non-CR2 cases underwent allogeneic HSCT. The 5-year OS rate was significantly higher in patients who underwent HSCT in CR2 than those in non-CR2 (66 vs. 17 %, P < 0.000001). Multivariate analysis indicated that early relapse (P < 0.05) and the positivity of the FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3--internal tandem duplication (P < 0.05) were adverse prognostic factors for survival. In conclusion, the etiology of relapsed pediatric AML needs to be elucidated and effective chemotherapy should be administered to obtain CR2.

Ma C, Nong K, Wu B, et al.
miR-212 promotes pancreatic cancer cell growth and invasion by targeting the hedgehog signaling pathway receptor patched-1.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2014; 33:54 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/09/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs that play important roles in carcinogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of miR-212 on pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and its target protein.
METHODS: Quantitative real-time PCR(qRT-PCR) was performed to detect the expression of miR-212 in PDAC tissues and pancreatic cancer cell lines. miR-212 mimic, miR-212 inhibitor and negative control were transfected into pancreatic cancer cells and the effect of miR-212 up-regulation and down-regulation on the proliferation, migration and invasion of cells were investigated. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein levels of Patched-1(PTCH1) were measured. Meanwhile, luciferase assays were performed to validate PTCH1 as miR-212 target in PDAC.
RESULTS: miR-212 was up-regulated in PDAC tissues and cells.Using both gain-of function and loss-of function experiments, a pro-oncogenic function of miR-212 was demonstrated in PDAC. Moreover, up-regulated of PTCH1 could attenuate the effect induced by miR-212.
CONCLUSION: These data suggest that miR-212 could facilitate PDAC progression and metastasis through targeting PTCH1, implicating a novel mechanism for the progression of PDAC.

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