Gene Summary

Gene:TNFRSF10C; TNF receptor superfamily member 10c
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the TNF-receptor superfamily. This receptor contains an extracellular TRAIL-binding domain and a transmembrane domain, but no cytoplasmic death domain. This receptor is not capable of inducing apoptosis, and is thought to function as an antagonistic receptor that protects cells from TRAIL-induced apoptosis. This gene was found to be a p53-regulated DNA damage-inducible gene. The expression of this gene was detected in many normal tissues but not in most cancer cell lines, which may explain the specific sensitivity of cancer cells to the apoptosis-inducing activity of TRAIL. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 10C
Source:NCBIAccessed: 15 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (6)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 15 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor
  • Chromosome 8
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor Decoy Receptors
  • Transfection
  • Liver Cancer
  • Skin Cancer
  • Caspases
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Member 10c
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Receptors, TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand
  • GPI-Linked Proteins
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Colonic Neoplasms
  • TNF
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Breast Cancer
  • DNA Methylation
  • Up-Regulation
  • Neuroblastoma
  • p53 Protein
  • Promoter Regions
  • Tumor Suppressor Gene
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Pancreatic Cancer
  • Tumor Suppressor Protein p14ARF
  • Drug Resistance
  • Staging
  • Caspase 8
  • Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins
  • Gene Expression
  • Epigenetics
  • Messenger RNA
  • Apoptosis
  • CpG Islands
Tag cloud generated 15 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: TNFRSF10C (cancer-related)

Ouyang W, Zhang S, Yang B, et al.
β-catenin is regulated by USP9x and mediates resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis in breast cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 35(2):717-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
To investigate the regulatory mechanisms of decoy receptor expression in TRAIL-resistant breast cancer MCF-7 cells, cytotoxicity and apoptosis assays were applied to examine sensitivity to TRAIL in breast cancer cells. Immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation were used to detect the co-localization and interaction of USP9x and β-catenin. Luciferase assay was used to examine activity of the DcR1/DcR2/OPG reporter. Overexpression/silencing of β-catenin was performed to confirm β-catenin mediated transcription of the decoy receptors. Additionally, silencing of USP9x was performed to prove that USP9X stabilizes β-catenin and mediates TRAIL-resistance. It was found that USP9x interacted with β-catenin and inhibited the degradation of β-catenin through the deubiquitination of β-catenin. Luciferase reporter assays showed induction of DcR1/DcR2/OPG reporter activity observed upon co-transfection of β-catenin and Tcf-4. The overexpression/silencing of β-catenin further confirmed the role of β-catenin in the regulation of transcription of the decoy receptors. Silencing of USP9x directly evidenced that USP9x affected the protein expression level of β-catenin, the transcription level of the decoy receptors, and reversed TRAIL-resistance of MCF-7 cells. In conclusion, USP9x interacted with and stabilized β-catenin through deubiquitination to mediate transcription of the decoy receptors in breast cancer cells. Our results offer new insights into the mechanisms of resistance to TRAIL, and USP9x could potentially be a therapeutic target for TRAIL-resistant breast cancers.

Narayan G, Xie D, Ishdorj G, et al.
Epigenetic inactivation of TRAIL decoy receptors at 8p12-21.3 commonly deleted region confers sensitivity to Apo2L/trail-Cisplatin combination therapy in cervical cancer.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2016; 55(2):177-89 [PubMed] Related Publications
Multiple chromosomal regions are affected by deletions in cervical cancer (CC) genomes, but their consequence and target gene involvement remains unknown. Our single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array identified 8p copy number losses localized to an 8.4 Mb minimal deleted region (MDR) in 36% of CC. The 8p MDR was associated with tumor size, treatment outcome, and with multiple HPV infections. Genetic, epigenetic, and expression analyses of candidate genes at MDR identified promoter hypermethylation and/or inactivation of decoy receptors TNFRSF10C and TNFRSF10D in the majority of CC patients. TNFRSF10C methylation was also detected in precancerous lesions suggesting that this change is an early event in cervical tumorigenesis. We further demonstrate here that CC cell lines exhibiting downregulated expression of TNFRSF10C and/or TNFRSF10D effectively respond to TRAIL-induced apoptosis and this affect was synergistic in combination with DNA damaging chemotherapeutic drugs. We show that the CC cell lines harboring epigenetic inactivation of TRAIL decoy receptors effectively activate downstream caspases suggesting a critical role of inactivation of these genes in efficient execution of extrinsic apoptotic pathway and therapy response. Therefore, these findings shed new light on the role of genetic/epigenetic defects in TRAIL decoy receptor genes in the pathogenesis of CC and provide an opportunity to explore strategies to test decoy receptor gene inactivation as a biomarker of response to Apo2L/TRAIL-combination therapy.

Sriraksa R, Limpaiboon T
TRAIL in Combination with Subtoxic 5-FU Effectively Inhibit Cell Proliferation and Induce Apoptosis in Cholangiocarcinoma Cells.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015; 16(16):6991-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
In the past decade, the incidence and mortality rates of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) have been increasing worldwide. The relatively low responsiveness of CCA to conventional chemotherapy leads to poor overall survival. Recently, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL or Apo2L) has emerged as the most promising anti-cancer therapeutic agent since it is able to selectively induce apoptosis of tumor cells but not normal cells. In this study, we aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect of TRAIL in CCA cell lines (M213, M214 and KKU100) compared with the immortal biliary cell line, MMNK1, either alone or in combination with a subtoxic dose of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). We found that recombinant human TRAIL (rhTRAIL) was a potential agent which significantly inhibited cell proliferation and mediated caspase activities (caspases 8, 9 and 3/7) and apoptosis of CCA cells. The combined treatment of rhTRAIL and 5-FU effectively enhanced inhibition of CCA cell growth with a smaller effect on MMNK1. Our finding suggests TRAIL to be a novel anti-cancer therapeutic agent and advantage of its combination with a conventional chemotherapeutic drug for effective treatment of CCA.

Lit BM, Kwong YL, Wong KF
Immunohistochemical detection of cytoplasmic nucleophosmin in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded marrow trephine biopsies in acute myeloid leukaemia.
J Clin Pathol. 2016; 69(5):409-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: Nucleophosmin (NPM1) gene mutations resulting in cytoplasmic delocalisation of nucleophosmin (NPMc+) are the most common genetic abnormality in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). In this study, we tested whether immunohistochemical (IHC) detection of cytoplasmic NPM1 (cNPM1) in formalin-fixed bone marrow trephine biopsies correlated with NPM1 mutations and the prognostic impact of NPM1 and fms-related tyrosine kinase 3-internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD) gene mutations was also assessed.
METHODS: A total of 71 Chinese adult de novo AML cases were evaluated for cNPM1 by IHC where the bone marrow trephines were fixed in 10% buffered formalin and decalcified by 5% EDTA. NPM1 and FLT3-ITD gene mutations were also investigated using PCR, fragment analysis and direct DNA sequencing.
RESULTS: IHC analysis of cNPM1 had a very good sensitivity (86.7%) and excellent specificity (96.4%) for NPM1 mutation. The positive predictive value was 86.7% and the negative predictive value was 96.4%. NPM1 mutations and FLT3-ITD were closely associated (p = 0.003). Patients with mutated NPM1 and without FLT3-ITD mutation have a longer overall survival (p = 0.042) than patients with both NPM1 and FLT3-ITD mutations.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that IHC detection of cNPM1 in formalin-fixed trephine biopsies correlated well but not entirely with NPM1 mutation. Furthermore, NPM1 mutations were significantly more frequent in FLT3-ITD than FLT3-wild-type cases.

Mansour NM, Bernal GM, Wu L, et al.
Decoy Receptor DcR1 Is Induced in a p50/Bcl3-Dependent Manner and Attenuates the Efficacy of Temozolomide.
Cancer Res. 2015; 75(10):2039-48 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Temozolomide is used widely to treat malignant glioma, but the overall response to this agent is generally poor. Resistance to DNA-damaging drugs such as temozolomide has been related to the induction of antiapoptotic proteins. Specifically, the transcription factor NF-κB has been suggested to participate in promoting the survival of cells exposed to chemotherapy. To identify factors that modulate cytotoxicity in the setting of DNA damage, we used an unbiased strategy to examine the NF-κB-dependent expression profile induced by temozolomide. By this route, we defined the decoy receptor DcR1 as a temozolomide response gene induced by a mechanism relying upon p50/NF-κB1. A conserved NF-κB-binding sequence (κB-site) was identified in the proximal promoter and was demonstrated to be required for DcR1 induction by temozolomide. Loss-of-function and gain-of-function studies reveal that the atypical IκB protein, Bcl3, is also required for induction of DcR1 by temozolomide. Mechanistically, DcR1 attenuates temozolomide efficacy by blunting activation of the Fas receptor pathway in p53(+/+) glioma cells. Intracranial xenograft studies show that DcR1 depletion in glioma cells enhances the efficacy of temozolomide. Taken together, our results show how DcR1 upregulation mediates temozolomide resistance and provide a rationale for DcR1 targeting as a strategy to sensitize gliomas to this widely used chemotherapy.

Woo JK, Kang JH, Jang YS, et al.
Evaluation of preventive and therapeutic activity of novel non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, CG100649, in colon cancer: Increased expression of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptors enhance the apoptotic response to combination treatment with TRAIL.
Oncol Rep. 2015; 33(4):1947-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been suggested as the potential new class of preventive or therapeutic antitumor agents. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antitumor activity of the novel NSAID, CG100649. CG100649 is a novel NSAID dual inhibitor for COX-2 and carbonic anhydrase (CA)-I/-II. In the present study, we investigated the alternative mechanism by which CG100649 mediated suppression of the colon cancer growth and development. The anchorage‑dependent and -independent clonogenic assay showed that CG100649 inhibited the clonogenicity of human colon cancer cells. The flow cytometric analysis showed that CG100649 induced the G2/M cell cycle arrest in colon cancer cells. Animal studies showed that CG100649 inhibited the tumor growth in colon cancer xenograft in nude mice. Furthermore, quantitative PCR and FACS analysis demonstrated that CG100649 upregulated the expression of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptors (DR4 and DR5) but decreased the expression of decoy receptors (DcR1 and DcR2) in colon cancer cells. The results showed that CG100649 treatment sensitized TRAIL‑mediated growth suppression and apoptotic cell death. The combination treatment resulted in significant repression of the intestinal polyp formation in APCmin/+ mice. Our data clearly demonstrated that CG100649 contains preventive and therapeutic activity for colon cancer. The present study may be useful for identification of the potential benefit of the NSAID CG100649, for the achievement of a better treatment response in colon cancer.

Verim A, Turan S, Farooqi AA, et al.
Association between laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and polymorphisms in tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis induce ligand (TRAIL), TRAIL receptor and sTRAIL levels.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(24):10697-703 [PubMed] Related Publications
The laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors occurring in the head and neck. Tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis induce ligand (TRAIL) and TRAIL-receptors (DR4, DR5, DcR1, DcR2) are known as important members of TRAIL-mediated biochemical signaling pathway. Associations between polymorphisms in these genes and clinicopathological characteristics of human laryngeal carcinoma are not well defined. This study therefore aimed to investigate a possible relationship among the TRAIL and TRAIL-DR4 polymorphisms and sTRAIL levels in the risk or progression of LSCC. A total of 99 patients with laryngeal cancer and 120 healthy subjects were enrolled in the study. DR4 C626G and TRAIL 1595 C/T genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis and sTRAIL levels were measured by ELISA. There were significant differences in the distribution of DR4 C626G genotypes and frequencies of the alleles between laryngeal cancer patients and controls (p<0.001) but not in TRAIL 1595 C/T. We found the increased frequency of the DR4 C626G homozygote CC genotype in patients than in controls (p<0.001). Haplotype analysis revealed that there was also a statistically significant relationship between TRAIL and TRAIL-DR4 polymorphisms and laryngeal cancer. Serum sTRAIL levels in the laryngeal patients with CC genotype who had advanced tumour stage were lower than those of patients with early tumor stage (p=0.014). Our findings suggest that DR4 C626G genotypes and sTRAIL levels might be associated with progression of laryngeal cancer in the Turkish population.

Yu R, Albarenque SM, Cool RH, et al.
DR4 specific TRAIL variants are more efficacious than wild-type TRAIL in pancreatic cancer.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2014; 15(12):1658-66 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Current treatment modalities for pancreatic carcinoma afford only modest survival benefits. TRAIL, as a potent and specific inducer of apoptosis in cancer cells, would be a promising new treatment option. However, since not all pancreatic cancer cells respond to TRAIL, further improvements and optimizations are still needed. One strategy to improve the effectiveness of TRAIL-based therapies is to specifically target one of the 2 cell death inducing TRAIL-receptors, TRAIL-R1 or TRAIL-R2 to overcome resistance. To this end, we designed constructs expressing soluble TRAIL (sTRAIL) variants that were rendered specific for either TRAIL-R1 or TRAIL-R2 by amino acid changes in the TRAIL ectodomain. When we expressed these constructs, including wild-type sTRAIL (sTRAIL(wt)), TRAIL-R1 (sTRAIL(DR4)) and TRAIL-R2 (sTRAIL(DR5)) specific variants, in 293 producer cells we found all to be readily expressed and secreted into the supernatant. These supernatants were subsequently transferred onto target cancer cells and apoptosis measured. We found that the TRAIL-R1 specific variant had higher apoptosis-inducing activity in human pancreatic carcinoma Colo357 cells as well as PancTu1 cells that were additionally sensitized by targeting of XIAP. Finally, we tested TRAIL-R1 specific recombinant TRAIL protein (rTRAIL(DR4)) on Colo357 xenografts in nude mice and found them to be more efficacious than rTRAIL(wt). Our results demonstrate the benefits of synthetic biological approaches and show that TRAIL-R1 specific variants can potentially enhance the therapeutic efficacy of TRAIL-based therapies in pancreatic cancer, suggesting that they can possibly become part of individualized and tumor specific combination treatments in the future.

Sarhan D, D'Arcy P, Lundqvist A
Regulation of TRAIL-receptor expression by the ubiquitin-proteasome system.
Int J Mol Sci. 2014; 15(10):18557-73 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand- receptor (TRAIL-R) family has emerged as a key mediator of cell fate and survival. Ligation of TRAIL ligand to TRAIL-R1 or TRAIL-R2 initiates the extrinsic apoptotic pathway characterized by the recruitment of death domains, assembly of the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC), caspase activation and ultimately apoptosis. Conversely the decoy receptors TRAIL-R3 and TRAIL-R4, which lack the pro-apoptotic death domain, function to dampen the apoptotic response by competing for TRAIL ligand. The tissue restricted expression of the decoy receptors on normal but not cancer cells provides a therapeutic rational for the development of selective TRAIL-mediated anti-tumor therapies. Recent clinical trials using agonistic antibodies against the apoptosis-inducing TRAIL receptors or recombinant TRAIL have been promising; however the number of patients in complete remission remains stubbornly low. The mechanisms of TRAIL resistance are relatively unexplored but may in part be due to TRAIL-R down-regulation or shedding of TRAIL-R by tumor cells. Therefore a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying TRAIL resistance is required. The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) has been shown to regulate TRAIL-R members suggesting that pharmacological inhibition of the UPS may be a novel strategy to augment TRAIL-based therapies and increase efficacies. We recently identified b-AP15 as an inhibitor of proteasome deubiquitinase (DUB) activity. Interestingly, exposure of tumor cell lines to b-AP15 resulted in increased TRAIL-R2 expression and enhanced sensitivity to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis and cell death in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, targeting the UPS may represent a novel strategy to increase the cell surface expression of pro-apoptotic TRAIL-R on cancer cells and should be considered in clinical trials targeting TRAIL-receptors in cancer patients.

Dauksa A, Gulbinas A, Endzinas Z, et al.
DNA methylation at selected CpG sites in peripheral blood leukocytes is predictive of gastric cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2014; 34(10):5381-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Recently, a set of studies addressed the question of the prevalence of aberrant methylation in surrogate tissues, such as peripheral blood leukocytes. Toward this aim, we conducted a case-control pilot study to investigate aberrant methylation in leukocytes of gastric cancer patients.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The SNuPE combined with ion pair reverse phase HPLC (SIRPH method) was used to examine site-specific methylation status at selected CpG sites of the promoter regions of APC, ACIN1, BCL2, CD44, DAPK1, CDKN2A, RARB, TNFRSF10C HS3ST2 and of LINE-1, Alu repeats.
RESULTS: We observed that in the patients, tumor suppressor genes were slightly but significantly higher methylated at several CpG sites, while DNA repetitive elements were slightly less methylated compared to controls. This was found to be significantly associated with higher prevalence for gastric cancer.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that larger studies must be carried-out to explore the biological significance and clinical usefulness of leukocyte DNA as non-invasive detection tool for gastric cancer.

Xu Y, Zhang H, Lit LC, et al.
The kinase LMTK3 promotes invasion in breast cancer through GRB2-mediated induction of integrin β₁.
Sci Signal. 2014; 7(330):ra58 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lemur tyrosine kinase 3 (LMTK3) is associated with cell proliferation and endocrine resistance in breast cancer. We found that, in cultured breast cancer cell lines, LMTK3 promotes the development of a metastatic phenotype by inducing the expression of genes encoding integrin subunits. Invasive behavior in various breast cancer cell lines positively correlated with the abundance of LMTK3. Overexpression of LMTK3 in a breast cancer cell line with low endogenous LMTK3 abundance promoted actin cytoskeleton remodeling, focal adhesion formation, and adhesion to collagen and fibronectin in culture. Using SILAC (stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture) proteomic analysis, we found that LMTK3 increased the abundance of integrin subunits α5 and β1, encoded by ITGA5 and ITGB1. This effect depended on the CDC42 Rho family guanosine triphosphatase, which was in turn activated by the interaction between LMTK3 and growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (GRB2), an adaptor protein that mediates receptor tyrosine kinase-induced activation of RAS and downstream signaling. Knockdown of GRB2 suppressed LMTK3-induced CDC42 activation, blocked ITGA5 and ITGB1 expression promoted by the transcription factor serum response factor (SRF), and reduced invasive activity. Furthermore, abundance of LMTK3 positively correlated with that of the integrin β1 subunit in breast cancer patient's tumors. Our findings suggest a role for LMTK3 in promoting integrin activity during breast cancer progression and metastasis.

Kang KW, Lee MJ, Song JA, et al.
Overexpression of goosecoid homeobox is associated with chemoresistance and poor prognosis in ovarian carcinoma.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 32(1):189-98 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ovarian carcinoma is the most lethal cancer among all gynecological malignancies due to recurrence through chemoresistance. The aim of the present study was to identify new biomarkers to predict chemoresistance and prognosis in ovarian carcinomas. The mRNA expression by qRT-PCR was examined in 60 ovarian serous carcinomas for selected genes from the screening by PCR array focusing on apoptosis, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and cancer pathways. The clinical impact was assessed by analyzing the correlation between gene expression and clinicopathological variables. Further validation with immunohistochemistry was performed with 75 cases of serous carcinomas. The chemoresistance was significantly associated with high expression of FOS, GSC, SNAI1, TERT and TNFRSF10D, and low expression of CDKN1A, TNFRSF10A, TNFRSF10C and TRAF1 (p<0.05, t-test). Low expression of TRAF1 and high expression of E2F1, FOS, TERT and GSC were significantly associated with advanced clinical stage (p<0.05, χ2-test). Lymph node metastasis was significantly associated with high expression of GSC. The upregulation group of TERT, GSC, NOTCH1 and SNAI1, and downregulation group of TRAF1 were significantly associated with poor overall survival (p<0.05, log-rank test). On further validation with immunohistochemistry, overexpression of goosecoid homeobox (GSC) was associated with poor overall survival. The results suggest that GSC is the most potential biomarker of drug response and poor prognosis in ovarian serous carcinomas.

Hyland PL, Burke LS, Pfeiffer RM, et al.
Constitutional promoter methylation and risk of familial melanoma.
Epigenetics. 2014; 9(5):685-92 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Constitutional epigenetic changes detected in blood or non-disease involving tissues have been associated with disease susceptibility. We measured promoter methylation of CDKN2A (p16 and p14ARF) and 13 melanoma-related genes using bisulfite pyrosequencing of blood DNA from 114 cases and 122 controls in 64 melanoma-prone families (26 segregating CDKN2A germline mutations). We also obtained gene expression data for these genes using microarrays from the same blood samples. We observed that CDKN2A epimutation is rare in melanoma families, and therefore is unlikely to cause major susceptibility in families without CDKN2A mutations. Although methylation levels for most gene promoters were very low (<5%), we observed a significantly reduced promoter methylation (odds ratio = 0.63, 95% confidence interval = 0.50, 0.80, P<0.001) and increased expression (fold change = 1.27, P = 0.048) for TNFRSF10C in melanoma cases. Future research in large prospective studies using both normal and melanoma tissues is required to assess the significance of TNFRSF10C methylation and expression changes in melanoma susceptibility.

Kuo CC, Lin CY, Shih YL, et al.
Frequent methylation of HOXA9 gene in tumor tissues and plasma samples from human hepatocellular carcinomas.
Clin Chem Lab Med. 2014; 52(8):1235-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Aberrant DNA methylation is associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), suggesting that gene methylation could be a potential biomarker for detection of HCC. The aim of this study is to identify potential biomarkers in HCC.
METHODS: We used the Infinium methylation array and a DNA-pooling strategy to analyze the genome-wide methylation profile in HCC. Quantitative methylation-specific PCR (Q-MSP) was used to validate homeobox A9 (HOXA9) methylation in 29 normal controls, 100 HCC samples and adjacent non-tumor tissues and in 74 plasma samples, including 40 patients with HCC.
RESULTS: Ten genes (HOXA9, NEUROG1, TNFRSF10C, IRAK3, GFPT2, ZNF177, DPYSL4, ELOVL4, FSD1, and CACNA1G) showed differences in methylation between controls and HCCs. Of these, HOXA9 was significantly hypermethylated in HCCs (76.7%; 23/30) compared with controls (3.4%; 1/29). In addition, combination analysis of two- and three-gene sets for HCC detection showed greater sensitivity (90%-96.7%) and comparable specificity (93.1%-96.6%) to each individual gene (33.3%-76.7% and 55.2%-100.0%). HOXA9 methylation was further validated by Q-MSP in two independent set of clinical samples including 100 HCC and paired non-tumor tissues. Further, HOXA9 methylation could be detected in plasma from HCC patients (n=40) but not in normal plasma (n=34) (p<0.0005). Combined testing (either parameter positive) for α-fetoprotein (AFP, a plasma protein biomarker) and HOXA9 methylation showed greater sensitivity (94.6%) for detection of HCC than AFP alone (75.7%).
CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that methylation of HOXA9 could be a helpful biomarker to assist in HCC detection.

Stamatelli A, Vlachou C, Aroni K, et al.
Epigenetic alterations in sporadic basal cell carcinomas.
Arch Dermatol Res. 2014; 306(6):561-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common malignant human neoplasm characterized by slow growth and virtual absence of metastases. Recently, it has become evident that along with genetic mutations epigenetic alterations play a key role in the pathogenesis of human cancer. We searched for promoter methylation of hMLH1, RASSF1A, DAPK, APC, DCR1 and DCR2 genes and BRAF mutations in BCCs in association with the clinicopathological parameters and the histological subtypes of the tumours. Fifty-two BCCs, 17 FFPE along with 35 fresh tissue samples with matching normal tissues for 26 cases were analyzed by methylation-specific PCR to assess the methylation status of hMLH1, RASSF1A, DAPK, APC, DCR1 and DCR2 genes after sodium bisulfite treatment of the tumour and normal DNA. hMLH1 and DCR1 gene expression was investigated by immunohistochemistry. BRAF mutations were studied by high resolution melting analysis. Methylation was detected at a variable frequency of 44, 33, 32.5, 32 and 14 % of DCR2, APC, DCR1, RASSF1 and DAPK promoters, respectively, whereas methylation of hMLH1 promoter was absent. No BRAF mutations were found. There was no correlation between the frequency of the promoter methylation of the above-mentioned genes and the clinicopathological features or the histological subtypes of the tumours. The relatively high frequency of RASSF1A, DCR1, DCR2 and APC promoter methylation may imply that methylation constitutes an important pathway in the tumourigenesis of BCC that could provide new opportunities in developing epigenetic therapies for BCC patients. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to establish the above-mentioned hypothesis.

Takeuchi A, Shiota M, Beraldi E, et al.
Insulin-like growth factor-I induces CLU expression through Twist1 to promote prostate cancer growth.
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2014; 384(1-2):117-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
Clusterin (CLU) is cytoprotective molecular chaperone that is highly expressed in castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). CRPC is also characterized by increased insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I responsiveness which induces prostate cancer survival and CLU expression. However, how IGF-I induces CLU expression and whether CLU is required for IGF-mediated growth signaling remain unknown. Here we show that IGF-I induced CLU via STAT3-Twist1 signaling pathway. In response to IGF-I, STAT3 was phosphorylated, translocated to the nucleus and bound to the Twist1 promoter to activate Twist1 transcription. In turn, Twist1 bound to E-boxes on the CLU promoter and activated CLU transcription. Inversely, we demonstrated that knocking down Twist1 abrogated IGF-I induced CLU expression, indicating that Twist1 mediated IGF-I-induced CLU expression. When PTEN knockout mice were crossed with lit/lit mice, the resultant IGF-I deficiency suppressed Twist1 as well as CLU gene expression in mouse prostate glands. Moreover, both Twist1 and CLU knockdown suppressed prostate cancer growth accelerated by IGF-I, suggesting the relevance of this signaling not only in an in vitro, but also in an in vivo. Collectively, this study indicates that IGF-I induces CLU expression through sequential activation of STAT3 and Twist1, and suggests that this signaling cascade plays a critical role in prostate cancer pathogenesis.

Schiano C, Casamassimi A, Rienzo M, et al.
Involvement of Mediator complex in malignancy.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014; 1845(1):66-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mediator complex (MED) is an evolutionarily conserved multiprotein, fundamental for growth and survival of all cells. In eukaryotes, the mRNA transcription is dependent on RNA polymerase II that is associated to various molecules like general transcription factors, MED subunits and chromatin regulators. To date, transcriptional machinery dysfunction has been shown to elicit broad effects on cell proliferation, development, differentiation, and pathologic disease induction, including cancer. Indeed, in malignant cells, the improper activation of specific genes is usually ascribed to aberrant transcription machinery. Here, we focus our attention on the correlation of MED subunits with carcinogenesis. To date, many subunits are mutated or display altered expression in human cancers. Particularly, the role of MED1, MED28, MED12, CDK8 and Cyclin C in cancer is well documented, although several studies have recently reported a possible association of other subunits with malignancy. Definitely, a major comprehension of the involvement of the whole complex in cancer may lead to the identification of MED subunits as novel diagnostic/prognostic tumour markers to be used in combination with imaging technique in clinical oncology, and to develop novel anti-cancer targets for molecular-targeted therapy.

Zhu H, Huang M, Ren D, et al.
The synergistic effects of low dose fluorouracil and TRAIL on TRAIL-resistant human gastric adenocarcinoma AGS cells.
Biomed Res Int. 2013; 2013:293874 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a TNF family member which has been under intense focus because of its remarkable ability to induce apoptosis in malignant human cells while leaving normal cells unscathed. However, many cancer cells remain resistant to TRAIL. In this study, we had investigated the synergistic effects of low dose fluorouracil (5-Fu) and TRAIL on TRAIL-resistant human gastric adenocarcinoma AGS cells and explored the potential mechanisms. Cell viability was analyzed by sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay and the synergistic effects were evaluated by Jin's formula and confirmed by both morphological changes under inverted microscope and flow cytometry. The expression of TRAIL-R1 (death receptor 4, DR4), TRAIL-R2 (DR5), TRAIL-R3 (decoy receptor, DcR1), TRAIL-R4 (DcR2), procaspase-3, procaspase-8, and procaspase-9 was detected by western blotting. Our results showed that there were significant synergistic effects of low dose 5-Fu and TRAIL on TRAIL-resistant AGS cells, and this effect was supposed to be mediated by decreasing DcR2 expression and increasing DR5 expression. The extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis pathways were both activated. The data suggest that combined treatment of low dose 5-Fu and TRAIL can be an effective therapeutic approach for gastric adenocarcinoma.

Di Carli M, Tanno B, Capodicasa C, et al.
Proteome changes induced by c-myb silencing in human chronic myeloid leukemia cells suggest molecular mechanisms and putative biomarkers of hematopoietic malignancies.
J Proteomics. 2014; 96:200-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: To shed light on the molecular mechanisms associated with aberrant accumulation of c-Myb in chronic myeloid leukemia, comparative proteomic analysis was performed on c-myb RNAi-specifically silenced K562 cells, sampled on a time-course basis. 2D-DIGE technology highlighted 37 differentially-represented proteins that were further characterized by nLC-ESI-LIT-MS/MS and validated by western blotting and qRT-PCR analysis. Most of the deregulated proteins were related to protein folding, energy/primary metabolism, transcription/translation regulation and oxidative stress response. Protein network analysis suggested that glycolysis, gluconeogenesis and protein ubiquitination biosynthesis pathways were highly represented, confirming also the pivotal role of c-Myc. A specific reduced representation was observed for glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase and α-enolase, suggesting a possible role of c-Myb in the activation of aerobic glycolysis. A reduced amount was also observed for stress responsive heat shock 70kDa protein and 78kDa glucose-regulated protein, previously identified as direct targets of c-Myb. Among over-represented proteins, worth mentioning is the chromatin modifier chromobox protein homolog 3 that contributes to silencing of E2F- and Myc-responsive genes in quiescent G0 cells. Data here presented, while providing novel insights onto the molecular mechanisms underlying c-Myb activity, indicate potential protein biomarkers for monitoring the progression of chronic myeloid leukemia.
BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Myeloid leukemia is a malignant disease of the hematopoietic system in which cells of myeloid lineages accumulate to an undifferentiated state. In particular, it was shown that an aberrant accumulation of the c-Myb transcriptional factor is associated with the suppression of normal differentiation processes promoting the development of the hematopoietic malignancies. Many efforts have been recently made to identify novel genes directly targeted by c-Myb at a transcriptome level. In this work, we originally describe a differential proteomic approach to facilitate the comprehension of the regulation of the protein networks exerted by c-Myb. Our study reveals a complex network of proteins regulated by c-Myb. The functional heterogeneity of these proteins emphasizes the pleiotropic role of c-Myb as a regulator of genes that are crucial for energy production and stress response in leukemia. In fact, variations in glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase and α-enolase suggest a possible role of c-Myb in the activation of aerobic glycolysis. Moreover, significant differences were found for heat shock 70kDa protein and 78kDa glucose-regulated protein known as direct c-Myb targets. This work highlights potential protein biomarkers to look into disease progression and to develop translational medicine approaches in myeloid leukemia.

Ng EK, Li R, Shin VY, et al.
MicroRNA-143 is downregulated in breast cancer and regulates DNA methyltransferases 3A in breast cancer cells.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(3):2591-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-protein-coding RNAs that regulate expression of a wide variety of genes including those involved in cancer development. Here, we investigate the role of miR-143 in breast cancer. In this study, we showed that miR-143 was frequently downregulated in 80% of breast carcinoma tissues compared to their adjacent noncancerous tissues. Ectopic expression of miR-143 inhibited proliferation and soft agar colony formation of breast cancer cells and also downregulated DNA methyltransferase 3A (DNMT3A) expression on both mRNA and protein levels. Restoration of miR-143 expression in breast cancer cells reduces PTEN hypermethylation and increases TNFRSF10C methylation. DNMT3A was demonstrated to be a direct target of miR-143 by luciferase reporter assay. Furthermore, miR-143 expression was observed to be inversely correlated with DNMT3A mRNA and protein expression in breast cancer tissues. Our findings suggest that miR-143 regulates DNMT3A in breast cancer cells. These findings elucidated a tumor-suppressive role of miR-143 in epigenetic aberration of breast cancer, providing a potential development of miRNA-based treatment for breast cancer.

Venza M, Visalli M, Catalano T, et al.
Impact of DNA methyltransferases on the epigenetic regulation of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptor expression in malignant melanoma.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013; 441(4):743-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aberrant promoter methylation and resultant silencing of TRAIL decoy receptors were reported in a variety of cancers, but to date little is known about the relevance of this epigenetic modification in melanoma. In this study, we examined the methylation and the expression status of TRAIL receptor genes in cutaneous and uveal melanoma cell lines and specimens and their interaction with DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) DNMT1, DNMT3a, and DNMT3b. DR4 and DR5 methylation was not frequent in cutaneous melanoma but on the contrary it was very frequent in uveal melanoma. No correlation between methylation status of DR4 and DR5 and gene expression was found. DcR1 and DcR2 were hypermethylated with very high frequency in both cutaneous and uveal melanoma. The concordance between methylation and loss of gene expression ranged from 91% to 97%. Here we showed that DNMT1 was crucial for DcR2 hypermethylation and that DNMT1 and DNMT3a coregulate the methylation status of DcR1. Our work also revealed the critical relevance of DcR1 and DcR2 expression in cell growth and apoptosis either in cutaneous or uveal melanoma. In conclusion, the results presented here claim for a relevant impact of aberrant methylation of decoy receptors in melanoma and allow to understand how the silencing of DcR1 and DcR2 is related to melanomagenesis.

Braga Lda C, Silva LM, Piedade JB, et al.
Epigenetic and expression analysis of TRAIL-R2 and BCL2: on the TRAIL to knowledge of apoptosis in ovarian tumors.
Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2014; 289(5):1061-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: This study assesses TRAIL-R2 (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor 2) and BCL2 (B cell CLL/lymphoma 2) expression as well as CpG island methylation within the TRAIL-R2 promoter in ovarian serous tumors and primary and metastatic serous EOC (epithelial ovarian cancer).
METHODS: RNA and DNA were obtained from women with normal ovarian tissues (n = 18), ovarian serous cystadenoma tumors (n = 11) and serous EOC (n = 16) using Trizol®. Quantitative PCR was performed to quantify the relative levels of TRAIL-R2 and BCL2. The methylation frequency of the TRAIL-R3 promoter was assessed using a methylation-specific PCR assay after DNA bisulfite conversion. Differences between the groups were evaluated using the χ (2), Mann-Whitney U or Kruskal-Wallis tests, as indicated.
RESULTS: We identified TRAIL-R2 and BCL2 mRNA expressed in all ovarian tumor groups, and there were significant differences between the groups. Both genes had low expression levels in ovarian serous cystadenoma and primary EOC tumors when compared with metastatic EOC. Methylation of the TRAIL-R2 promoter was frequently observed in all groups; however, there were no statistically significant associations.
CONCLUSIONS: Primary EOC is associated with lower TRAIL-R2 and BCL2 expression levels, while metastatic EOC is associated with higher expression of these genes. Promoter DNA methylation was not related to this finding, suggesting there are other mechanisms involved in transcriptional control.

Zhang H, Xu Y, Filipovic A, et al.
SILAC-based phosphoproteomics reveals an inhibitory role of KSR1 in p53 transcriptional activity via modulation of DBC1.
Br J Cancer. 2013; 109(10):2675-84 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We have previously identified kinase suppressor of ras-1 (KSR1) as a potential regulatory gene in breast cancer. KSR1, originally described as a novel protein kinase, has a role in activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases. Emerging evidence has shown that KSR1 may have dual functions as an active kinase as well as a scaffold facilitating multiprotein complex assembly. Although efforts have been made to study the role of KSR1 in certain tumour types, its involvement in breast cancer remains unknown.
METHODS: A quantitative mass spectrometry analysis using stable isotope labelling of amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) was implemented to identify KSR1-regulated phosphoproteins in breast cancer. In vitro luciferase assays, co-immunoprecipitation as well as western blotting experiments were performed to further study the function of KSR1 in breast cancer.
RESULTS: Of significance, proteomic analysis reveals that KSR1 overexpression decreases deleted in breast cancer-1 (DBC1) phosphorylation. Furthermore, we show that KSR1 decreases the transcriptional activity of p53 by reducing the phosphorylation of DBC1, which leads to a reduced interaction of DBC1 with sirtuin-1 (SIRT1); this in turn enables SIRT1 to deacetylate p53.
CONCLUSION: Our findings integrate KSR1 into a network involving DBC1 and SIRT1, which results in the regulation of p53 acetylation and its transcriptional activity.

Abdulghani J, Allen JE, Dicker DT, et al.
Sorafenib sensitizes solid tumors to Apo2L/TRAIL and Apo2L/TRAIL receptor agonist antibodies by the Jak2-Stat3-Mcl1 axis.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(9):e75414 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Approximately half of tumor cell lines are resistant to the tumor-selective apoptotic effects of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (Apo22L/TRAIL). Previously, we showed that combining Apo2L/TRAIL with sorafenib, a multikinase inhibitor, results in dramatic efficacy in Apo2L/TRAIL-resistant tumor xenografts via inhibition of Mcl-1. Soluble Apo2L/TRAIL is capable of binding to several surface receptors, including the pro-apoptotic death receptors, DR4 and DR5, and decoy receptors, DcR1 and DcR2. Monoclonal antibodies targeting either of these death receptors are being investigated as antitumor agents in clinical trials. We hypothesized that sorafenib and Apo2L/TRAIL or Apo2L/TRAIL death receptor agonist (TRA) antibodies against DR4 (mapatumumab) and DR5 (lexatumumab) will overcome resistance to Apo2L/TRAIL-mediated apoptosis and as increase antitumor efficacy in Apo2L/TRAIL-sensitive solid tumors.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that Apo2L/TRAIL or TRA antibodies combined with sorafenib synergistically reduce cell growth and increase cell death across a panel of solid tumor cell lines in vitro. This panel included human breast, prostate, colon, liver and thyroid cancers. The cooperativity of these combinations was also observed in vivo, as measured by tumor volume and TUNEL staining as a measure of apoptosis. We found that sorafenib inhibits Jak/Stat3 signaling and downregulates their target genes, including cyclin D1, cyclin D2 and Mcl-1, in a dose-dependent manner.
CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The combination of sorafenib with Apo2L/TRAIL or Apo2L/TRAIL receptor agonist antibodies sensitizes Apo2L/TRAIL-resistant cells and increases the sensitivity of Apo2L/TRAIL-sensitive cells. Our findings demonstrate the involvement of the Jak2-Stat3-Mcl1 axis in response to sorafenib treatment, which may play a key role in sorafenib-mediated sensitization to Apo2L/TRAIL.

Vaitkienė P, Skiriutė D, Skauminas K, Tamašauskas A
GATA4 and DcR1 methylation in glioblastomas.
Diagn Pathol. 2013; 8:7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes plays important role in gliomagenesis. Recently, GATA4 and DcR1 were suggested to be a tumor suppressor genes involved in tumorigenesis in various types of human cancers. However, up to now the methylation frequency of GATA4 and DcR1 genes has not been determined in glioblastoma. In this study, we investigated methylation of GATA4 and DcR1 promoters and their association with patient prognosis in glioblastoma.
METHODS: Methylation status of GATA4 and DcR1 promoters was investigated by methylation specific PCR in 99 glioblastoma patients. Statistical analyses were conducted to investigate the association between clinical variables and overall survival time.
RESULTS: GATA4 and DcR1 were aberrantly methylated in 23.2% and 27.6% of glioblastoma tumors, but not in normal brain. GATA4 promoter hypermethylation showed significant association with patients age (p = 0.027). Relationship between genes promoter methylation and glioblastoma patient survival was not determined.
CONCLUSIONS: The present work demonstrated that GATA4 and DcR1 promoter hypermethylation is tumor specific event in glioblastoma but they promoter methylation cannot be considered as a prognostic marker of glioblastoma survival.
VIRTUAL SLIDES: The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here:

Lit LC, Scott S, Zhang H, et al.
LATS2 is a modulator of estrogen receptor alpha.
Anticancer Res. 2013; 33(1):53-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Estrogen Receptor α (ERα), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily of transcription factors, plays a central role in breast cancer development. More than two-thirds of patients with breast cancer are ERα-positive; however, a proportion becomes resistant. Phosphorylation of ERα is one of the mechanisms associated with resistance to endocrine therapy. In a kinome screen, we have identified the large tumor suppressor homolog-2 (LATS2) as a potential kinase, acting on ERα.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The role of LATS2 on activation of ERα transcription and its functional consequences was examined by various molecular and cellular biology techniques.
RESULTS: LATS2 co-localises with ERα in the nucleus. LATS2-silencing increases expression of ERα-regulated genes and inhibits proliferation. At the protein level, inhibition of LATS2 reduces the expression of cyclin-D1 and Nuclear Receptor Co-Repressor (NCoR) while increasing the expression of p27.
CONCLUSION: Identifying novel kinases which modulate ERα activity is relevant to therapeutics. LATS2 modulates ERα-regulated gene transcription, through direct and/or indirect interactions with ERα.

Tang SY, Zhong MZ, Yuan GJ, et al.
Casticin, a flavonoid, potentiates TRAIL-induced apoptosis through modulation of anti-apoptotic proteins and death receptor 5 in colon cancer cells.
Oncol Rep. 2013; 29(2):474-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
We investigated the effect of casticin on apoptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). We found that casticin potentiated TRAIL-induced apoptosis in human colon cancer cells. Casticin downregulated cell survival proteins including Bcl-xL, Bcl-2, survivin, XIAP and cFLIP, and induced death receptor 5 (DR5), but had no effect on DR4 and decoy receptors (DcR1 or DcR2). Deletion of DR5 by siRNA significantly reduced the apoptosis induced by TRAIL and casticin. In addition, casticin induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in a dose-dependent manner. Collectively, the present study showed that casticin potentiates TRAIL-induced apoptosis through downregulation of cell survival proteins and induction of DR5 mediated by ROS.

Dauksa A, Gulbinas A, Barauskas G, et al.
Whole blood DNA aberrant methylation in pancreatic adenocarcinoma shows association with the course of the disease: a pilot study.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(5):e37509 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Pancreatic tumors are usually diagnosed at an advanced stage in the progression of the disease, thus reducing the survival chances of the patients. Non-invasive early detection would greatly enhance therapy and survival rates. Toward this aim, we investigated in a pilot study the power of methylation changes in whole blood as predictive markers for the detection of pancreatic tumors. We investigated methylation levels at selected CpG sites in the CpG rich regions at the promoter regions of p16, RARbeta, TNFRSF10C, APC, ACIN1, DAPK1, 3OST2, BCL2 and CD44 in the blood of 30 pancreatic tumor patients and in the blood of 49 matching controls. In addition, we studied LINE-1 and Alu repeats using degenerate amplification approach as a surrogate marker for genome-wide methylation. The site-specific methylation measurements at selected CpG sites were done by the SIRPH method. Our results show that in the patient's blood, tumor suppressor genes were slightly but significantly higher methylated at several CpG sites, while repeats were slightly less methylated compared to control blood. This was found to be significantly associated with higher risk for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Additionally, high methylation levels at TNFRSCF10C were associated with positive perineural spread of tumor cells, while higher methylation levels of TNFRSF10C and ACIN1 were significantly associated with shorter survival. This pilot study shows that methylation changes in blood could provide a promising method for early detection of pancreatic tumors. However, larger studies must be carried out to explore the clinical usefulness of a whole blood methylation based test for non-invasive early detection of pancreatic tumors.

Braga Lda C, Alvares da Silva Ramos AP, Traiman P, et al.
TRAIL-R3-related apoptosis: epigenetic and expression analyses in women with ovarian neoplasia.
Gynecol Oncol. 2012; 126(2):268-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To assess the expression of TRAIL-R3 and the methylation of a CpG island within the TRAIL-R3 promoter both in cystadenoma tumors and primary and metastatic epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC).
METHODS: RNA was obtained from women with normal ovarian (NO) tissues (n=18), ovarian serous cystadenoma tumors (n=11) and EOC (n=16) using Trizol. Quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed to quantify the relative levels of TRAIL-R3. The methylation frequency of the CpG island in the TRAIL-R3 promoter was assessed using the methylation-specific PCR (MSP) assay after DNA bisulfite conversion. The differences between the groups were evaluated using the chi-square, Student's t, ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U, Wilcoxon or Kruskal-Wallis tests as indicated. The survival rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method.
RESULTS: Cystadenoma and metastatic EOC tumors expressed significantly more TRAIL-R3 mRNA than primary EOC tumors. Methylation of the TRAIL-R3 promoter was absent in NO tissues, while hemimethylation of the TRAIL-R3 promoter was frequently found in the neoplasia samples with 45.4% of the cystadenoma tumors, 8.3% of the primary EOC samples and 11.1% of the metastatic EOC samples showing at least partial methylation (p=0.018). Neither the expression of TRAIL-R3 nor alterations in the methylation profile were associated to cumulative progression-free survival or the overall survival in EOC patients.
CONCLUSIONS: Primary EOC is associated to a lower TRAIL-R3 expression, which leads to a better understanding of the complex disease and highlighting potential therapeutic targets. Promoter DNA methylation was not related to this finding, suggesting the presence of other mechanisms to transcriptional control.

Hu L, Cao D, Li Y, et al.
Resveratrol sensitized leukemia stem cell-like KG-1a cells to cytokine-induced killer cells-mediated cytolysis through NKG2D ligands and TRAIL receptors.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2012; 13(7):516-26 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human promyeloblastic leukemia KG-1a cells exhibit many characteristics similar to leukemia stem cells, which are resistant to chemotherapeutic drugs and hyposensitive to cytotoxic cells. Resveratrol (RES), as a member of plant polyphenols, has gained considerable attention due to its ability to prevent cancer from progressing. In this study, the potential of RES to sensitize KG-1a cells to cytolysis of cytokine-induced killer cells (CIKs) through NKG2D ligands and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptors were investigated. Twenty-five micromolars RES was found to inhibit approximately 50% of KG-1a cell growth and had the least growth-inhibition effect on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) after 24 h. Utilizing cytokines including interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interleukin-15 (IL-15) to activate PBMCs, we obtained substantial CD3 (+) CD56 (+) natural killer cell-like T lymphocytes that secreted cytokine interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and expressed NKG2D and TRAIL on their surfaces (i.e., cytokine-induced killer cells, CIKs). RES was shown to render KG-1a cells susceptible to CIK-mediated cytolysis estimated by LDH-release assay. This heightened sensitivity correlated with an increase in cell-surface expression of NKG2D ligands and death receptor 4 (DR4), coupled with a downregulation of cell-surface expression of decoy receptor 1 (DcR1) in KG-1a cells. Blocking NKG2D ligands or TRAIL with monoclonal antibodies could abrogate CIKs-mediated cytolysis. These results demonstrated that increased sensitivity of KG-1a cells, modulated by RES to alloreactive CIKs-mediated cytolysis is a phenomenon attributable to induced expression of NKG2D ligands and activation of TRAIL pathway. Thus, resveratrol combined with alloreactive CIKs merits clinical evaluation as a novel and effective immunotherapy strategy to eliminate residual leukemia stem cells.

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