Gene Summary

Gene:XPO1; exportin 1
Aliases: emb, CRM1, exp1
Summary:This cell-cycle-regulated gene encodes a protein that mediates leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES)-dependent protein transport. The protein specifically inhibits the nuclear export of Rev and U snRNAs. It is involved in the control of several cellular processes by controlling the localization of cyclin B, MPAK, and MAPKAP kinase 2. This protein also regulates NFAT and AP-1. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2015]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 06 August, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 06 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 06 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: XPO1 (cancer-related)

Khorashad JS, Eiring AM, Mason CC, et al.
shRNA library screening identifies nucleocytoplasmic transport as a mediator of BCR-ABL1 kinase-independent resistance.
Blood. 2015; 125(11):1772-81 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The mechanisms underlying tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) resistance in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients lacking explanatory BCR-ABL1 kinase domain mutations are incompletely understood. To identify mechanisms of TKI resistance that are independent of BCR-ABL1 kinase activity, we introduced a lentiviral short hairpin RNA (shRNA) library targeting ∼5000 cell signaling genes into K562(R), a CML cell line with BCR-ABL1 kinase-independent TKI resistance expressing exclusively native BCR-ABL1. A customized algorithm identified genes whose shRNA-mediated knockdown markedly impaired growth of K562(R) cells compared with TKI-sensitive controls. Among the top candidates were 2 components of the nucleocytoplasmic transport complex, RAN and XPO1 (CRM1). shRNA-mediated RAN inhibition or treatment of cells with the XPO1 inhibitor, KPT-330 (Selinexor), increased the imatinib sensitivity of CML cell lines with kinase-independent TKI resistance. Inhibition of either RAN or XPO1 impaired colony formation of CD34(+) cells from newly diagnosed and TKI-resistant CML patients in the presence of imatinib, without effects on CD34(+) cells from normal cord blood or from a patient harboring the BCR-ABL1(T315I) mutant. These data implicate RAN in BCR-ABL1 kinase-independent imatinib resistance and show that shRNA library screens are useful to identify alternative pathways critical to drug resistance in CML.

Han X, Wang J, Shen Y, et al.
CRM1 as a new therapeutic target for non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
Leuk Res. 2015; 39(1):38-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
The chromosomal region maintenance 1 (CRM1) may serve as a novel target for cancer treatment. Here, we investigated the anti non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) activity of two novel CRM1 inhibitors (KPT-185 and KPT-276) in vitro and in vivo. KPT-185 displayed potent antiproliferative properties and induced cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in several NHL cell lines and patients' tumor cells. The antitumor activity mainly consisted of inducing caspase cleavage and downregulating the expression of antiapoptotic proteins such as CRM1, nuclear factor-κB, and survivin. Furthermore, oral administration of KPT-276 significantly suppressed tumor growth in mice with Jeko-1 xenograft without any major toxic effects.

Yang J, Bill MA, Young GS, et al.
Novel small molecule XPO1/CRM1 inhibitors induce nuclear accumulation of TP53, phosphorylated MAPK and apoptosis in human melanoma cells.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(7):e102983 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
XPO1/CRM1 is a key nuclear exporter protein that mediates translocation of numerous cellular regulatory proteins. We investigated whether XPO1 is a potential therapeutic target in melanoma using novel selective inhibitors of nuclear export (SINE). In vitro effects of SINE on cell growth and apoptosis were measured by MTS assay and flow cytometry [Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI)], respectively in human metastatic melanoma cell lines. Immunoblot analysis was used to measure nuclear localization of key cellular proteins. The in vivo activity of oral SINE was evaluated in NOD/SCID mice bearing A375 or CHL-1 human melanoma xenografts. SINE compounds induced cytostatic and pro-apoptotic effects in both BRAF wild type and mutant (V600E) cell lines at nanomolar concentrations. The cytostatic and pro-apoptotic effects of XPO1 inhibition were associated with nuclear accumulation of TP53, and CDKN1A induction in the A375 cell line with wild type TP53, while pMAPK accumulated in the nucleus regardless of TP53 status. The orally bioavailable KPT-276 and KPT-330 compounds significantly inhibited growth of A375 (p<0.0001) and CHL-1 (p = 0.0087) human melanoma cell lines in vivo at well tolerated doses. Inhibition of XPO1 using SINE represents a potential therapeutic approach for melanoma across cells with diverse molecular phenotypes by promoting growth inhibition and apoptosis.

Conway AE, Haldeman JM, Wechsler DS, Lavau CP
A critical role for CRM1 in regulating HOXA gene transcription in CALM-AF10 leukemias.
Leukemia. 2015; 29(2):423-32 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The leukemogenic CALM-AF10 fusion protein is found in patients with immature acute myeloid and T-lymphoid malignancies. CALM-AF10 leukemias display abnormal H3K79 methylation and increased HOXA cluster gene transcription. Elevated expression of HOXA genes is critical for leukemia maintenance and progression; however, the precise mechanism by which CALM-AF10 alters HOXA gene expression is unclear. We previously determined that CALM contains a CRM1-dependent nuclear export signal (NES), which is both necessary and sufficient for CALM-AF10-mediated leukemogenesis. Here, we find that interaction of CALM-AF10 with the nuclear export receptor CRM1 is necessary for activating HOXA gene expression. We show that CRM1 localizes to HOXA loci where it recruits CALM-AF10, leading to transcriptional and epigenetic activation of HOXA genes. Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of the CALM-CRM1 interaction prevents CALM-AF10 enrichment at HOXA chromatin, resulting in immediate loss of transcription. These results provide a comprehensive mechanism by which the CALM-AF10 translocation activates the critical HOXA cluster genes. Furthermore, this report identifies a novel function of CRM1: the ability to bind chromatin and recruit the NES-containing CALM-AF10 transcription factor.

Sun H, Hattori N, Chien W, et al.
KPT-330 has antitumour activity against non-small cell lung cancer.
Br J Cancer. 2014; 111(2):281-91 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We investigated the biologic and pharmacologic activities of a chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1) inhibitor against human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells both in vitro and in vivo.
METHODS: The in vitro and in vivo effects of a novel CRM1 inhibitor (KPT-330) for a large number of anticancer parameters were evaluated using a large panel of 11 NSCLC cell lines containing different key driver mutations. Mice bearing human NSCLC xenografts were treated with KPT-330, and tumour growth was assessed.
RESULTS: KPT-330 inhibited proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis-related proteins in 11 NSCLC cells lines. Moreover, the combination of KPT-330 with cisplatin synergistically enhanced the cell kill of the NSCLC cells in vitro. Human NSCLC tumours growing in immunodeficient mice were markedly inhibited by KPT-330. Also, KPT-330 was effective even against NSCLC cells with a transforming mutation of either exon 20 of EGFR, TP53, phosphatase and tensin homologue, RAS or PIK3CA, suggesting the drug might be effective against a variety of lung cancers irrespective of their driver mutation.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results support clinical testing of KPT-330 as a novel therapeutic strategy for NSCLC.

Gousias K, Niehusmann P, Gielen G, et al.
KPNA2 predicts long term survival in patients with anaplastic oligoastrocytomas.
J Clin Neurosci. 2014; 21(10):1719-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
The family of karyopherins comprises importins and exportins which are both involved in nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. Increased levels of karyopherin a2/importin 1 (KPNA2) and chromosome region maintenance protein 1/exportin 1 (CRM1) have been associated with poorer prognosis in patients with infiltrative astrocytomas. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 gene (IDH1) R132H mutation status was also recently identified as a prognostic factor for malignant gliomas. We evaluated KPNA2 and CRM1, as well as the IDH1 mutation status, as possible novel biomarkers for World Health Organization grade III anaplastic oligoastrocytomas (AOA). We analyzed nuclear expression of KPNA2 by immunohistochemistry in 72 primary anaplastic gliomas (29 AOA, 24 anaplastic astrocytomas, 19 anaplastic oligodendrogliomas). The IDH1 mutation status was also determined in patients with anaplastic astrocytomas and AOA, and AOA patients were additionally evaluated for CRM1 nuclear expression. Long term survivors (LTS; >8 years) with AOA showed lower KPNA2 expression levels compared to non-LTS (p=0.005). KPNA2 expression (⩾ 5% versus <5%, 1-<5%, median) was found to correlate inversely with overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in our overall series as well as in the AOA group (anaplastic gliomas: OS p=0.017; PFS p=0.033; AOA: OS p=0.017, PFS p=0.040). Mutant IDH1-R132H was detected in 69% of the AOA cohort; a combination of KPNA2 low expression and mutant IDH1-R132H was only seen in LTS (p=0.050). No differences between the histological subtypes were observed in terms of KPNA2 expression and IDH1-R132H mutation status. To our knowledge this is the first time it has been shown that KPNA2 expression may have potential as a prognostic biomarker for AOA as well.

Li FF, Yi S, Wen L, et al.
Oridonin induces NPM mutant protein translocation and apoptosis in NPM1c+ acute myeloid leukemia cells in vitro.
Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2014; 35(6):806-13 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIM: Skewed cytoplasmic accumulation of NPM mutant protein (NPM1c+) is close related to leukemia pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether oridonin, a diterpenoid isolated from the Chinese traditional medicine Rabdosia rubescens, was able to interfere with NPM1c+ protein trafficking and induce apoptosis in NPM1c+ acute myeloid leukemia cells in vitro.
METHODS: OCI-AML3 cell line harboring a NPM1 gene mutation was examined. Cell growth was detected by MTT assay. Cell apoptosis was evaluated using flow cytometry and Hoechst 33258 staining. The expression and subcellular localization of relevant proteins were detected by Western blot and immunofluorescent staining. The mRNA expression was detected by RT-PCR.
RESULTS: Oridonin (2-12 μmol/L) dose-dependently inhibited the viability of OCI-AML3 cells (the IC50 value was 3.27±0.23 μmol/L at 24 h). Moreover, oridonin induced OCI-AML3 cell apoptosis accompanied by activation of caspase-3 and nuclear translocation of NPM1c+ protein. Oridonin did not change the expression of Crm1 (the export receptor for nuclear export signal-containing proteins), but induced nuclear translocation of Crm1. Oridonin markedly increased the expression of nucleoporin98 (Nup98), which had an important role in Crm1-mediated nuclear protein export, and induced nuclear accumulation of Nup98. Furthermore, oridonin markedly increased the expression of p14arf and p53.
CONCLUSION: In NPM1c+ leukemia cells, oridonin induces NPM1c+ protein translocation into the nucleus possibly via nuclear accumulation of Crm1; the compound markedly increases p53 and p14arf expression, which may contribute to cell apoptosis.

Gao J, Azmi AS, Aboukameel A, et al.
Nuclear retention of Fbw7 by specific inhibitors of nuclear export leads to Notch1 degradation in pancreatic cancer.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(11):3444-54 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chromosome maintenance region 1 (CRM1) also called Exportin 1 (Xpo1), a protein found elevated in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), blocks tumor suppressor protein (TSP) function through constant nuclear export. Earlier we had shown that targeting CRM1 by our newly developed specific inhibitors of nuclear export (SINE) leads to inhibition of pancreatic cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth arrest. In this paper we define the mechanism of SINE action. Our lead SINE KPT-185 inhibits PDAC cell growth, cell migration, tumor invasion and induces apoptosis and G2-M cell cycle arrest in low nano molar range (IC50s~150 nM). Mechanistically we demonstrate that the activity of KPT-185 is associated with nuclear retention of Fbw7; which degrades nuclear Notch-1 leading to decreased tumor promoting markers such as C-Myc, Cyclin-D1, Hes1 and VEGF. The orally bioavailable SINE (KPT-251) showed potent anti-tumor activity in a Colo-357 PDAC xenografts model; residual tumor analysis showed activation of Fbw7 concomitant with attenuation of Notch1 and its downstream genes. These results suggest that the antitumor activity of KPT-185 is in part due to nuclear retention of Fbw7 and consequent Notch1 degradation. The new CRM1 inhibitors, therefore, hold strong potential and warrant further clinical investigations for PDAC.

van der Watt PJ, Zemanay W, Govender D, et al.
Elevated expression of the nuclear export protein, Crm1 (exportin 1), associates with human oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 32(2):730-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
The nuclear export receptor, Crm1 (exportin 1), is involved in the nuclear translocation of proteins and certain RNAs from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and is thus crucial for the correct localisation of cellular components. Crm1 has recently been reported to be highly expressed in certain types of cancers, yet its expression in oesophageal cancer has not been investigated to date. We investigated the expression of Crm1 in normal and tumour tissues derived from 56 patients with human oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma and its functional significance in oesophageal cancer cell line models. Immunohistochemistry revealed that Crm1 expression was significantly elevated in oesophageal tumour tissues compared to normal tissues and its localisation shifted from predominantly nuclear to nuclear and cytoplasmic. Real‑time RT‑PCR revealed that Crm1 expression was elevated at the mRNA level. To determine the functional significance of elevated Crm1 expression in oesophageal cancer, its expression was inhibited using siRNA, and a significant decrease in cell proliferation was observed associated with G1 cell cycle arrest and the induction of apoptosis. Similarly, leptomycin B (LMB) treatment resulted in the effective killing of oesophageal cancer cells at nanomolar concentrations. Normal oesophageal epithelial cells, however, were much less sensitive to Crm1 inhibition with siRNA and LMB. Together, this study reveals that Crm1 expression is increased in oesophageal cancer and is required for the proliferation and survival of oesophageal cancer cells.

Yoshimura M, Ishizawa J, Ruvolo V, et al.
Induction of p53-mediated transcription and apoptosis by exportin-1 (XPO1) inhibition in mantle cell lymphoma.
Cancer Sci. 2014; 105(7):795-801 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The nuclear transporter exportin-1 (XPO1) is highly expressed in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) cells, and is believed to be associated with the pathogenesis of this disease. XPO1-selective inhibitors of nuclear export (SINE) compounds have been shown to induce apoptosis in MCL cells. Given that p53 is a cargo protein of XPO1, we sought to determine the significance of p53 activation through XPO1 inhibition in SINE-induced apoptosis of MCL cells. We investigated the prognostic impact of XPO1 expression in MCL cells using Oncomine analysis. The significance of p53 mutational/functional status on sensitivity to XPO1 inhibition in cell models and primary MCL samples, and the functional role of p53-mediated apoptosis signaling, were also examined. Increased XPO1 expression was associated with poor prognosis in MCL patients. The XPO1 inhibitor KPT-185 induced apoptosis in MCL cells through p53-dependent and -independent mechanisms, and p53 status was a critical determinant of its apoptosis induction. The KPT-185-induced, p53-mediated apoptosis in the MCL cells occurred in a transcription-dependent manner. Exportin-1 appears to influence patient survival in MCL, and the SINE XPO1 antagonist KPT-185 effectively activates p53-mediated transcription and apoptosis, which would provide a novel strategy for the therapy of MCL.

Lin DC, Hao JJ, Nagata Y, et al.
Genomic and molecular characterization of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Nat Genet. 2014; 46(5):467-73 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is prevalent worldwide and particularly common in certain regions of Asia. Here we report the whole-exome or targeted deep sequencing of 139 paired ESCC cases, and analysis of somatic copy number variations (SCNV) of over 180 ESCCs. We identified previously uncharacterized mutated genes such as FAT1, FAT2, ZNF750 and KMT2D, in addition to those already known (TP53, PIK3CA and NOTCH1). Further SCNV evaluation, immunohistochemistry and biological analysis suggested their functional relevance in ESCC. Notably, RTK-MAPK-PI3K pathways, cell cycle and epigenetic regulation are frequently dysregulated by multiple molecular mechanisms in this cancer. Our approaches also uncovered many druggable candidates, and XPO1 was further explored as a therapeutic target because it showed both gene mutation and protein overexpression. Our integrated study unmasks a number of novel genetic lesions in ESCC and provides an important molecular foundation for understanding esophageal tumors and developing therapeutic targets.

Takeda A, Yaseen NR
Nucleoporins and nucleocytoplasmic transport in hematologic malignancies.
Semin Cancer Biol. 2014; 27:3-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hematologic malignancies are often associated with chromosomal rearrangements that lead to the expression of chimeric fusion proteins. Rearrangements of the genes encoding two nucleoporins, NUP98 and NUP214, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several types of hematologic malignancies, particularly acute myeloid leukemia. NUP98 rearrangements result in fusion of an N-terminal portion of NUP98 to one of numerous proteins. These rearrangements often follow treatment with topoisomerase II inhibitors and tend to occur in younger patients. They have been shown to induce leukemia in mice and to enhance proliferation and disrupt differentiation in primary human hematopoietic precursors. NUP214 has only a few fusion partners. DEK-NUP214 is the most common NUP214 fusion in AML; it tends to occur in younger patients and is usually associated with FLT3 internal tandem duplications. The leukemogenic activity of NUP214 fusions is less well characterized. Normal nucleoporins, including NUP98 and NUP214, have important functions in nucleocytoplasmic transport, transcription, and mitosis. These functions and their disruptions by oncogenic nucleoporin fusions are discussed.

Abraham SA, Holyoake TL
Redirecting traffic using the XPO1 police.
Blood. 2013; 122(17):2926-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
In this issue of Blood, Walker et al investigate the preclinical potential of KPT-330, an exportin-1 (XPO1, also known as chromosome maintenance protein 1 [CRM1]) inhibitor, against both accelerated phase (AP) and blast crisis chronic myeloid leukemia (CML-BC) and against Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph1) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), all of which are diseases of significant unmet clinical need.1 The authors provide encouraging data from both a leukemic mouse model and a single CML-AP patient, corroborating mechanistic studies suggesting that KPT-330 efficacy relies on targeting abundantly expressed XPO1, followed by the reactivation of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A).

Jeromin S, Weissmann S, Haferlach C, et al.
SF3B1 mutations correlated to cytogenetics and mutations in NOTCH1, FBXW7, MYD88, XPO1 and TP53 in 1160 untreated CLL patients.
Leukemia. 2014; 28(1):108-17 [PubMed] Related Publications
We analyzed a large cohort of 1160 untreated CLL patients for novel genetic markers (SF3B1, NOTCH1, FBXW7, MYD88, XPO1) in the context of molecular, immunophenotypic and cytogenetic data. NOTCH1 mutations (mut) (12.3%), SF3B1mut (9.0%) and TP53mut (7.1%) were more frequent than XPO1mut (3.4%), FBXW7mut (2.5%) and MYD88mut (1.5%). SF3B1mut, NOTCH1mut, TP53mut and XPO1mut were highly correlated to unmutated, whereas MYD88mut were associated with mutated IGHV status. Associations of diverse cytogenetic aberrations and mutations emerged: (1) SF3B1mut with del(11q), (2) NOTCH1mut and FBXW7mut with trisomy 12 and nearly exclusiveness of SF3B1mut, (3) MYD88mut with del(13q) sole and low frequencies of SF3B1mut, NOTCH1mut and FBXW7mut. In patients with normal karyotype only SF3B1mut were frequent, whereas NOTCH1mut rarely occurred. An adverse prognostic impact on time to treatment (TTT) and overall survival (OS) was observed for SF3B1mut, NOTCH1mut and TP53 disruption. In multivariate analyses SF3B1mut, IGHV mutational status and del(11q) were the only independent genetic markers for TTT, whereas for OS SF3B1mut, IGHV mutational status and TP53 disruption presented with significant impact. Finally, our data suggest that analysis of gene mutations refines the risk stratification of cytogenetic prognostic subgroups and confirms data of a recently proposed model integrating molecular and cytogenetic data.

Beckham TH, Cheng JC, Lu P, et al.
Acid ceramidase promotes nuclear export of PTEN through sphingosine 1-phosphate mediated Akt signaling.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(10):e76593 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The tumor suppressor PTEN is now understood to regulate cellular processes at the cytoplasmic membrane, where it classically regulates PI3K signaling, as well as in the nucleus where multiple roles in controlling cell cycle and genome stability have been elucidated. Mechanisms that dictate nuclear import and, less extensively, nuclear export of PTEN have been described, however the relevance of these processes in disease states, particularly cancer, remain largely unknown. We investigated the impact of acid ceramidase on the nuclear-cytoplasmic trafficking of PTEN. Immunohistochemical analysis of a human prostate tissue microarray revealed that nuclear PTEN was lost in patients whose tumors had elevated acid ceramidase. We found that acid ceramidase promotes a reduction in nuclear PTEN that is dependent upon sphingosine 1-phosphate-mediated activation of Akt. We were further able to show that sphingosine 1-phosphate promotes formation of a complex between Crm1 and PTEN, and that leptomycin B prevents acid ceramidase and sphingosine 1-phosphate mediated loss of nuclear PTEN, suggesting an active exportin-mediated event. To investigate whether the tumor promoting aspects of acid ceramidase in prostate cancer depend upon its ability to export PTEN from the nucleus, we used enforced nuclear expression of PTEN to study docetaxel-induced apoptosis and cell killing, proliferation, and xenoengraftment. Interestingly, while acid ceramidase was able to protect cells expressing wild type PTEN from docetaxel, promote proliferation and xenoengraftment, acid ceramidase had no impact in cells expressing PTEN-NLS. These findings suggest that acid ceramidase, through sphingosine 1-phosphate, promotes nuclear export of PTEN as a means of promoting tumor formation, cell proliferation, and resistance to therapy.

Wang Y, Wang Y, Xiang J, et al.
Knockdown of CRM1 inhibits the nuclear export of p27(Kip1) phosphorylated at serine 10 and plays a role in the pathogenesis of epithelial ovarian cancer.
Cancer Lett. 2014; 343(1):6-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
In a previous study, the nuclear export protein chromosomal region maintenance (CRM1) was correlated with p27(Kip1) in glioma. The aims of the present study were to investigate the expression of CRM1 and pSer10p27 and their functional roles in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) tissues. Using immunohistochemical analysis, CRM1 and pSer10p27 expression levels were shown to be associated with histologic stage and grade (P<0.05). High CRM1 and pSer10p27 expression levels were prognostic indicators of overall survival (P<0.05). Knockdown of CRM1 and pSer10p27 expression arrested cell cycle progression and inhibited the proliferation of SKOV3 cells both in vitro and in vivo. These data support the idea that pSer10p27 and CRM1 play cooperative roles in EOC.

Walker CJ, Oaks JJ, Santhanam R, et al.
Preclinical and clinical efficacy of XPO1/CRM1 inhibition by the karyopherin inhibitor KPT-330 in Ph+ leukemias.
Blood. 2013; 122(17):3034-44 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
As tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) fail to induce long-term response in blast crisis chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML-BC) and Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph(+)) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), novel therapies targeting leukemia-dysregulated pathways are necessary. Exportin-1 (XPO1), also known as chromosome maintenance protein 1, regulates cell growth and differentiation by controlling the nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of proteins and RNAs, some of which are aberrantly modulated in BCR-ABL1(+) leukemias. Using CD34(+) progenitors from CML, B-ALL, and healthy individuals, we found that XPO1 expression was markedly increased, mostly in a TKI-sensitive manner, in CML-BC and Ph(+) B-ALL. Notably, XPO1 was also elevated in Ph(-) B-ALL. Moreover, the clinically relevant XPO1 inhibitor KPT-330 strongly triggered apoptosis and impaired the clonogenic potential of leukemic, but not normal, CD34(+) progenitors, and increased survival of BCR-ABL1(+) mice, 50% of which remained alive and, mostly, became BCR-ABL1 negative. Moreover, KPT-330 compassionate use in a patient with TKI-resistant CML undergoing disease progression significantly reduced white blood cell count, blast cells, splenomegaly, lactate dehydrogenase levels, and bone pain. Mechanistically, KPT-330 altered the subcellular localization of leukemia-regulated factors including RNA-binding heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 and the oncogene SET, thereby inducing reactivation of protein phosphatase 2A tumor suppressor and inhibition of BCR-ABL1 in CML-BC cells. Because XPO1 is important for leukemic cell survival, KPT-330 may represent an alternative therapy for TKI-refractory Ph(+) leukemias.

Iio A, Takagi T, Miki K, et al.
DDX6 post-transcriptionally down-regulates miR-143/145 expression through host gene NCR143/145 in cancer cells.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013; 1829(10):1102-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
In various human malignancies, widespread dysregulation of microRNA (miRNA) expression is reported to occur and affects various cell growth programs. Recent studies suggest that the expression levels of miRNAs that act as tumor suppressors are frequently reduced in cancers because of chromosome deletions, epigenetical changes, aberrant transcription, and disturbances in miRNA processing. MiR-143 and -145 are well-recognized miRNAs that are highly expressed in several tissues, but down-regulated in most types of cancers. However, the mechanism of this down-regulation has not been investigated in detail. Here, we show that DEAD-box RNA helicase 6, DDX6 (p54/RCK), post-transcriptionally down-regulated miR-143/145 expression by prompting the degradation of its host gene product, NCR143/145 RNA. In human gastric cancer cell line MKN45, DDX6 protein was abundantly expressed and accumulated in processing bodies (P-bodies). DDX6 preferentially increased the instability of non-coding RNA, NCR143/145, which encompasses the miR-143/145 cluster, and down-regulated the expression of mature miR-143/145. In human monocytic cell line THP-1, lipopolysaccharide treatment promoted the assembly of P-bodies and down-regulated the expression of NCR143/145 and its miR-143/145 rapidly. In these cells, cycloheximide treatment led to a loss of P-bodies and to an increase in NCR143/145 RNA stability, thus resulting in up-regulation of miR-143/145 expression. These data demonstrate that DDX6 contributed to the control of NCR143/145 RNA stability in P-bodies and post-transcriptionally regulated miR-143/145 expression in cancer cells.

Muqbil I, Bao B, Abou-Samra AB, et al.
Nuclear export mediated regulation of microRNAs: potential target for drug intervention.
Curr Drug Targets. 2013; 14(10):1094-100 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs that have been recognized to regulate the expression of uncountable number of genes. Their aberrant expression has been found to be linked to the pathology of many diseases including cancer. There is a drive to develop miRNA targeted therapeutics for different diseases especially cancer. Nevertheless, reining in these short non-coding RNAs is not as straightforward as originally thought. This is in view of the recent discoveries that miRNAs are under epigenetic regulations at multiple levels. Exportin 5 protein (XPO5) nuclear export mediated regulation of miRNAs is one such important epigenetic mechanism. XPO5 is responsible for exporting precursor miRNAs through the nuclear membrane to the cytoplasm, and is thus a critical step in miRNA biogenesis. A number of studies have shown that variations in components of the miRNA biogenesis pathways, particularly the aberrant expression of XPO5, increase the risk of developing cancer. In addition to XPO5, the Exportin 1 protein (XPO1) or chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1) can also carry miRNA export function. These findings are supported by pathway analyses that reveal certain miRNAs as direct interaction partners of CRM1. An in depth understanding of miRNA export mediated regulatory mechanisms is important for the successful design of clinically viable therapeutics. In this review, we describe the current knowledge on the mechanisms of miRNA nuclear transport mediated regulation and propose strategies to selectively block this important mechanism in cancer.

Schmidt J, Braggio E, Kortuem KM, et al.
Genome-wide studies in multiple myeloma identify XPO1/CRM1 as a critical target validated using the selective nuclear export inhibitor KPT-276.
Leukemia. 2013; 27(12):2357-65 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
RNA interference screening identified XPO1 (exportin 1) among the 55 most vulnerable targets in multiple myeloma (MM). XPO1 encodes CRM1, a nuclear export protein. XPO1 expression increases with MM disease progression. Patients with MM have a higher expression of XPO1 compared with normal plasma cells (P<0.04) and to patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance/smoldering MM (P<0.0001). The highest XPO1 level was found in human MM cell lines (HMCLs). A selective inhibitor of nuclear export compound KPT-276 specifically and irreversibly inhibits the nuclear export function of XPO1. The viability of 12 HMCLs treated with KTP-276 was significantly reduced. KPT-276 also actively induced apoptosis in primary MM patient samples. In gene expression analyses, two genes of probable relevance were dysregulated by KPT-276: cell division cycle 25 homolog A (CDC25A) and bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4), both of which are associated with c-MYC pathway. Western blotting and reverse transcription-PCR confirm that c-MYC, CDC25A and BRD4 are all downregulated after treatment with KPT-276. KPT-276 reduced monoclonal spikes in the Vk*MYC transgenic MM mouse model, and inhibited tumor growth in a xenograft MM mouse model. A phase I clinical trial of an analog of KPT-276 is ongoing in hematological malignancies including MM.

Mukai R, Ohshima T
HTLV-1 HBZ positively regulates the mTOR signaling pathway via inhibition of GADD34 activity in the cytoplasm.
Oncogene. 2014; 33(18):2317-28 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) infection causes adult T-cell leukemia (ATL). Modulation of the transcriptional control of cellular genes by HTLV-1 is thought to be associated with the development of ATL. The viral protein HTLV-1 basic leucine-zipper factor (HBZ) has been shown to dysregulate the activity of cellular transcription factors. Here, we demonstrate that HBZ is exported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, where it activates the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway through an association with growth arrest and DNA damage gene 34 (GADD34). The N-terminal region of HBZ interacts with the C-terminal region of GADD34. HBZ contains a functional nuclear export signal (NES) sequence within its N-terminal region and it is exported from the nucleus via the CRM1-dependent pathway. Nuclear export of HBZ is essential for its interaction with GADD34 and increased phosphorylation of S6 kinase, which is an established downstream target of the mTOR pathway. Starvation-induced autophagy is significantly suppressed by the overexpression of HBZ. These findings indicate that HBZ is actively exported to the cytoplasm, where it dysregulates the function of cellular factors.

Akagi I, Okayama H, Schetter AJ, et al.
Combination of protein coding and noncoding gene expression as a robust prognostic classifier in stage I lung adenocarcinoma.
Cancer Res. 2013; 73(13):3821-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prognostic tests for patients with early-stage lung cancer may provide needed guidance on postoperative surveillance and therapeutic decisions. We used a novel strategy to develop and validate a prognostic classifier for early-stage lung cancer. Specifically, we focused on 42 genes with roles in lung cancer or cancer prognosis. Expression of these biologically relevant genes and their association with relapse-free survival (RFS) were evaluated using microarray data from 148 patients with stage I lung adenocarcinoma. Seven genes associated with RFS were further examined by quantitative reverse transcription PCR in 291 lung adenocarcinoma tissues from Japan, the United States, and Norway. Only BRCA1, HIF1A, DLC1, and XPO1 were each significantly associated with prognosis in the Japan and US/Norway cohorts. A Cox regression-based classifier was developed using these four genes on the Japan cohort and validated in stage I lung adenocarcinoma from the US/Norway cohort and three publicly available lung adenocarcinoma expression profiling datasets. The results suggest that the classifier is robust across ethnically and geographically diverse populations regardless of the technology used to measure gene expression. We evaluated the combination of the four-gene classifier with miRNA miR-21 (MIR21) expression and found that the combination improved associations with prognosis, which were significant in stratified analyses on stage IA and stage IB patients. Thus, the four coding gene classifier, alone or with miR-21 expression, may provide a clinically useful tool to identify high-risk patients and guide recommendations regarding adjuvant therapy and postoperative surveillance of patients with stage I lung adenocarcinoma.

Tai YT, Landesman Y, Acharya C, et al.
CRM1 inhibition induces tumor cell cytotoxicity and impairs osteoclastogenesis in multiple myeloma: molecular mechanisms and therapeutic implications.
Leukemia. 2014; 28(1):155-65 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The key nuclear export protein CRM1/XPO1 may represent a promising novel therapeutic target in human multiple myeloma (MM). Here we showed that chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1) is highly expressed in patients with MM, plasma cell leukemia cells and increased in patient cells resistant to bortezomib treatment. CRM1 expression also correlates with increased lytic bone and shorter survival. Importantly, CRM1 knockdown inhibits MM cell viability. Novel, oral, irreversible selective inhibitors of nuclear export (SINEs) targeting CRM1 (KPT-185, KPT-330) induce cytotoxicity against MM cells (ED50<200 nM), alone and cocultured with bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) or osteoclasts (OC). SINEs trigger nuclear accumulation of multiple CRM1 cargo tumor suppressor proteins followed by growth arrest and apoptosis in MM cells. They further block c-myc, Mcl-1, and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activity. SINEs induce proteasome-dependent CRM1 protein degradation; concurrently, they upregulate CRM1, p53-targeted, apoptosis-related, anti-inflammatory and stress-related gene transcripts in MM cells. In SCID mice with diffuse human MM bone lesions, SINEs show strong anti-MM activity, inhibit MM-induced bone lysis and prolong survival. Moreover, SINEs directly impair osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption via blockade of RANKL-induced NF-κB and NFATc1, with minimal impact on osteoblasts and BMSCs. These results support clinical development of SINE CRM1 antagonists to improve patient outcome in MM.

Buanne P, Renzone G, Monteleone F, et al.
Characterization of carbonic anhydrase IX interactome reveals proteins assisting its nuclear localization in hypoxic cells.
J Proteome Res. 2013; 12(1):282-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is a transmembrane protein affecting pH regulation, cell migration/invasion, and survival in hypoxic tumors. Although the pathways related to CA IX have begun to emerge, molecular partners mediating its functions remain largely unknown. Here we characterize the CA IX interactome in hypoxic HEK-293 cells. Most of the identified CA IX-binding partners contain the HEAT/ARM repeat domain and belong to the nuclear transport machinery. We show that the interaction with two of these proteins, namely XPO1 exportin and TNPO1 importin, occurs via the C-terminal region of CA IX and increases with protein phosphorylation. We also demonstrate that nuclear CA IX is enriched in hypoxic cells and is present in renal cell carcinoma tissues. These data place CA IX among the cell-surface signal transducers undergoing nuclear translocation. Accordingly, CA IX interactome involves also CAND1, which participates in both gene transcription and assembly of SCF ubiquitin ligase complexes. It is noteworthy that down-regulation of CAND1 leads to decreased CA IX protein levels apparently via affecting its stability. Our findings provide the first evidence that CA IX interacts with proteins involved in nuclear/cytoplasmic transport, gene transcription, and protein stability, and suggest the existence of nuclear CA IX protein subpopulations with a potential intracellular function, distinct from the crucial CA IX role at the cell surface.

Lochmann TL, Bann DV, Ryan EP, et al.
NC-mediated nucleolar localization of retroviral gag proteins.
Virus Res. 2013; 171(2):304-18 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The assembly and release of retrovirus particles from the cell membrane is directed by the Gag polyprotein. The Gag protein of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) traffics through the nucleus prior to plasma membrane localization. We previously reported that nuclear localization of RSV Gag is linked to efficient packaging of viral genomic RNA, however the intranuclear activities of RSV Gag are not well understood. To gain insight into the properties of the RSV Gag protein within the nucleus, we examined the subnuclear localization and dynamic trafficking of RSV Gag. Restriction of RSV Gag to the nucleus by mutating its nuclear export signal (NES) in the p10 domain or interfering with CRM1-mediated nuclear export of Gag by leptomycin B (LMB) treatment led to the accumulation of Gag in nucleoli and discrete nucleoplasmic foci. Retention of RSV Gag in nucleoli was reduced with cis-expression of the 5' untranslated RU5 region of the viral RNA genome, suggesting the psi (Ψ) packaging signal may alter the subnuclear localization of Gag. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) demonstrated that the nucleolar fraction of Gag was highly mobile, indicating that there was rapid exchange with Gag proteins in the nucleoplasm. RSV Gag is targeted to nucleoli by a nucleolar localization signal (NoLS) in the NC domain, and similarly, the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) NC protein also contains an NoLS consisting of basic residues. Interestingly, co-expression of HIV-1 NC or Rev with HIV-1 Gag resulted in accumulation of Gag in nucleoli. Moreover, a subpopulation of HIV-1 Gag was detected in the nucleoli of HeLa cells stably expressing the entire HIV-1 genome in a Rev-dependent fashion. These findings suggest that the RSV and HIV-1 Gag proteins undergo nucleolar trafficking in the setting of viral infection.

Pathria G, Wagner C, Wagner SN
Inhibition of CRM1-mediated nucleocytoplasmic transport: triggering human melanoma cell apoptosis by perturbing multiple cellular pathways.
J Invest Dermatol. 2012; 132(12):2780-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
Development of multiple drug resistance mechanisms in melanomas necessitates the identification of new drug targets, which when inhibited could impact multiple cellular pathways, thus circumventing potential resistance. By performing complementary DNA microarray analysis, we identified four key components of the nucleocytoplasmic transport machinery-CRM1, RAN (RAN-GTPase), RANGAP1, and RANBP1-to be overexpressed in human melanoma metastases. Chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1) inhibition induced a marked depletion of prosurvival/cytoplasmic extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (Erk1/2) and p90 ribosomal S6 kinase1 and elicited persistent Erk-signaling hyperactivation. Consistently, CRM1 inhibition inflicted extensive apoptosis in melanoma cells while sparing nontransformed melanocytes and primary lung fibroblasts. Apoptosis required both the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways and was associated with a nuclear entrapment and downregulation of the antiapoptotic CRM1 target protein, Survivin. Apoptosis was preceded by a G1 cell-cycle arrest, and even though CRM1 inhibition mediated marked p53 and p21 induction in wild-type p53 melanoma cells, the latter's silencing or inactivation failed to alleviate apoptosis. Notably, CRM1 inhibition induced cell line-specific, G1 to S progression-retarding changes in the expression of multiple cell-cycle regulatory proteins, thus potentially explaining p53 dispensability. We propose CRM1 as a potential therapeutic target in human melanoma, whose inhibition induces loss of prosurvival/cytoplasmic Erk1/2, mediates persistent Erk hyperactivation, and initiates a multitude of cell context-dependent molecular events to trigger G1 arrest followed by massive apoptosis.

Clements JA, Mercer FC, Paterno GD, Gillespie LL
Differential splicing alters subcellular localization of the alpha but not beta isoform of the MIER1 transcriptional regulator in breast cancer cells.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(2):e32499 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MIER1 was originally identified in a screen for novel fibroblast growth factor activated early response genes. The mier1 gene gives rise to multiple transcripts encoding protein isoforms that differ in their amino (N-) and carboxy (C-) termini. Much of the work to date has focused on the two C-terminal variants, MIER1α and β, both of which have been shown to function as transcriptional repressors. Our previous work revealed a dramatic shift in MIER1α subcellular localization from nuclear in normal breast tissue to cytoplasmic in invasive breast carcinoma, suggesting that loss of nuclear MIER1α may play a role in breast cancer development. In the present study, we investigated whether alternative splicing to include a cassette exon and produce an N-terminal variant of MIER1α affects its subcellular localization in MCF7 breast carcinoma cells. We demonstrate that this cassette exon, exon 3A, encodes a consensus leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES). Inclusion of this exon in MIER1α to produce the MIER1-3Aα isoform altered its subcellular distribution in MCF7 cells from 81% nuclear to 2% nuclear and this change in localization was abrogated by mutation of critical leucines within the NES. Treatment with leptomycin B (LMB), an inhibitor of the nuclear export receptor CRM1, resulted in a significant increase in the percentage of cells with nuclear MIER1-3Aα, from 4% to 53%, demonstrating that cytoplasmic localization of this isoform was due to CRM1-dependent nuclear export. Inclusion of exon 3A in MIER1β to produce the N-terminal variant MIER1-3Aβ however had little effect on the nuclear targeting of this isoform. Our results demonstrate that alternative splicing to include exon 3A specifically affects the localization pattern of the α isoform.

Hsu CC, Hu CD
Critical role of N-terminal end-localized nuclear export signal in regulation of activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) subcellular localization and transcriptional activity.
J Biol Chem. 2012; 287(11):8621-32 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) belongs to the basic leucine zipper family of transcription factors. ATF2 regulates target gene expression by binding to the cyclic AMP-response element as a homodimer or a heterodimer with c-Jun. Cytoplasmic localization of ATF2 was observed in melanoma, brain tissue from patients with Alzheimer disease, prostate cancer specimens, and ionizing radiation-treated prostate cancer cells, suggesting that alteration of ATF2 subcellular localization may be involved in the pathogenesis of these diseases. We previously demonstrated that ATF2 is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein, and it contains two nuclear localization signals in the basic region and one nuclear export signal (NES) in the leucine zipper domain (named LZ-NES). In the present study, we demonstrate that a hydrophobic stretch in the N terminus, (1)MKFKLHV(7), also functions as an NES (termed N-NES) in a chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1)-dependent manner. Mutation of both N-NES and LZ-NES results in a predominant nuclear localization, whereas mutation of each individual NES only partially increases the nuclear localization. These results suggest that cytoplasmic localization of ATF2 requires function of at least one of the NESs. Further, mutation of N-NES enhances the transcriptional activity of ATF2, suggesting that the novel NES negatively regulates the transcriptional potential of ATF2. Thus, ATF2 subcellular localization is probably modulated by multiple mechanisms, and further understanding of the regulation of ATF2 subcellular localization under various pathological conditions will provide insight into the pathophysiological role of ATF2 in human diseases.

Castoria G, Giovannelli P, Lombardi M, et al.
Tyrosine phosphorylation of estradiol receptor by Src regulates its hormone-dependent nuclear export and cell cycle progression in breast cancer cells.
Oncogene. 2012; 31(46):4868-77 [PubMed] Related Publications
We report that in breast cancer cells, tyrosine phosphorylation of the estradiol receptor alpha (ERalpha) by Src regulates cytoplasmic localization of the receptor and DNA synthesis. Inhibition of Src or use of a peptide mimicking the ERalpha p-Tyr537 sequence abolishes ERalpha tyrosine phosphorylation and traps the receptor in nuclei of estradiol-treated MCF-7 cells. An ERalpha mutant carrying a mutation of Tyr537 to phenylalanine (ER537F) persistently localizes in nuclei of various cell types. In contrast with ERalpha wt, ER537F does not associate with Ran and its interaction with Crm1 is insensitive to estradiol. Thus, independently of estradiol, ER537F is retained in nuclei, where it entangles FKHR-driving cell cycle arrest. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis reveals that overexpression of ER537F in breast cancer cells enhances FKHR interaction with cyclin D1 promoter. This mutant also counteracts cell transformation by the activated forms of Src or PI3-K. In conclusion, in addition to regulating receptor localization, ERalpha phosphorylation by Src is required for hormone responsiveness of DNA synthesis in breast cancer cells.

Balatti V, Bottoni A, Palamarchuk A, et al.
NOTCH1 mutations in CLL associated with trisomy 12.
Blood. 2012; 119(2):329-31 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Two recent studies reported whole-genome sequencing of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) samples and found repeated mutations in the XPO1 and NOTCH1 genes. XPO1 was found mutated in 2.4% of cases, while NOTCH1 was found mutated in 12.2% or 15.1% of CLL samples. Here we report the results of sequencing of XPO1 and NOTCH1 in 186 CLL cases. Our results confirmed frequency of XPO1 mutations. However, we found only 5 NOTCH1 mutations in 127 IGVH unmutated/ZAP70(+) CLL samples (4%), and one mutation was found in IGVH mutated/ZAP70(-) CLL for a total percentage of 1.5%. Because 4 of 6 mutated samples also showed trisomy 12, we sequenced NOTCH1 in an additional 77 cases with trisomy 12 CLLs, including 47 IGVH unmutated/ZAP70(+) cases. Importantly, we found 41.9% NOTCH1 mutation frequency in aggressive trisomy 12 CLL cases. Our data suggest that activation of NOTCH1 plays a critical role in IGVH unmutated/ZAP70(+) trisomy 12 CLL.

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Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. XPO1 gene, Cancer Genetics Web: http://www.cancer-genetics.org/XPO1.htm Accessed:

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