Gene Summary

Gene:CASP7; caspase 7
Aliases: MCH3, CMH-1, LICE2, CASP-7, ICE-LAP3
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the cysteine-aspartic acid protease (caspase) family. Sequential activation of caspases plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis. Caspases exist as inactive proenzymes which undergo proteolytic processing at conserved aspartic residues to produce two subunits, large and small, that dimerize to form the active enzyme. The precursor of the encoded protein is cleaved by caspase 3 and 10, is activated upon cell death stimuli and induces apoptosis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2012]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CASP7 (cancer-related)

Zuo J, Jiang Y, Zhang E, et al.
Synergistic effects of 7-O-geranylquercetin and siRNAs on the treatment of human breast cancer.
Life Sci. 2019; 227:145-152 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: To investigate the antitumor effect of 7-O-geranylquercetin (GQ) combining with survivin siRNA (siSuvi) or IL-10 siRNA (siIL-10) to breast cancer.
MAIN METHODS: Xenograft tumor model was established by subcutaneously inoculating human breast cancer MCF-7 cells in BALB/c nude mice. Transfection efficiency of siRNA mediated by cationic liposome CDO14 in MCF-7 cells and tumor bearing mice was measured by flow cytometer and living imaging sysytem, respectively. Cell viability was detected using CCK-8 assay. Cell apoptosis was determined by Hoechst33342 staining and AV-PI staining. Tumors bearing mice were administered with GQ by gavage, and/or with liposome CDO14 mediated siRNAs via tail intravenous injection. Expression levels of proteins and cytokines were detected by western blot and ELISA, respectively.
KEY FINDINGS: Liposome CDO14 could deliver siRNA to tumor effectively. Combination of GQ and siSuvi promoted the antiproliferation and pro-apoptosis effects of GQ or siSuvi to MCF-7 cells, and reduced the level of survivin and raised the level of caspase-7 in cells. GQ combining with siSuvi inhibited the growth of tumor, down-regulated the expression of survivin and up-regulated the expression of caspase-7 in tumor tissue. Similarly, GQ combining with siIL-10 inhibited the growth of tumor, decreased the level of IL-10 and increased the level of TNF-α. These results revealed that GQ enhanced the pro-apoptosis effect of siSuvi on tumor cells and the modulating effect of siIL-10 on tumor microenvironment.
SIGNIFICANCES: Synergistic anti-tumor effect of GQ and siRNAs against breast cancer proved that chemical drugs combining with siRNAs is a promising antitumor strategy.

Wang Y, Sun L, Luo Y, He S
Knockdown of KDM1B inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis of pancreatic cancer cells.
Pathol Res Pract. 2019; 215(5):1054-1060 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the common malignant tumors in digestive tract with a high fatality rate. The oncogenic role of lysine-specific demethylase1 (LSD1/KDM1 A) has been well recognized in PC. While, the role of its homolog LSD2 (KDM1B) in regulating PC progression is poorly understood. In this study, we attempted to evaluate the functional role of KDM1B in PC cells. The expression of KDM1B was detected by immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting in PC tissues and cells. Lentivirus-mediated shRNA was applied to silence KDM1B in PANC-1 and SW1990 cells. Cell proliferation was measured by MTT and Celigo assay. Cell apoptosis was determined by both Caspase-Glo

Wu Q, Fu C, Li M, et al.
CINP is a novel cofactor of KLF5 required for its role in the promotion of cell proliferation, survival and tumor growth.
Int J Cancer. 2019; 144(3):582-594 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
Krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5) both suppresses and promotes tumor growth depending on cellular context. The mechanisms underlying tumor promotion could be targetable for therapy. Although a number of transcriptional targets of KLF5 have been identified and implicated in KLF5-mediated tumor growth, how KLF5 regulates these genes remains to be addressed. Here we performed coimmunoprecipitation (co-IP) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in the TSU-Pr1 bladder cancer cell line, in which KLF5 is shown to promote tumor growth, to identify KLF5-interacting nuclear proteins that are necessary for KLF5's tumor promoting function. LC-MS/MS revealed 122 potential KLF5 binding proteins in the nuclear proteins precipitated by the KLF5 antibody, and the top nine candidates included AHNAK, TFAM, HSDL2, HNRNPC, CINP, IST1, FBL, PABPC1 and SNRNP40. SRB assays of these nine proteins indicated that silencing CINP had the most potent inhibitory effect on cell growth in KLF5-expressing cells but did not affect parental TSU-Pr1 cells. Further analyses not only confirmed the physical interaction between KLF5 and CINP, also demonstrated that knockdown of CINP attenuated the effects of KLF5 on cell cycle progression, apoptosis and tumorigenesis. Silencing CINP also attenuated the effect of KLF5 on the expression of a number of genes and signaling pathways, including cell cycle regulator Cyclin D1 and apoptosis-related Caspase 7. These results suggest that CINP is a cofactor of KLF5 that is crucial for the promotion of tumor growth, and that the KLF5-CINP interaction could be a novel therapeutic target for inhibiting KLF5-promoted tumor growth.

Zhong Y, Yang S, Wang W, et al.
The interaction of Lin28A/Rho associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase2 accelerates the malignancy of ovarian cancer.
Oncogene. 2019; 38(9):1381-1397 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
Ovarian cancer (OC) is the leading cause of death among women with gynecologic malignant diseases, however, the molecular mechanism of ovarian cancer is not well defined. Previous studies have found that RNA binding protein Lin28A is a key factor of maintain the pluripotency of stem cells, and it is positively correlated with the degree of several cancers (breast, prostate, liver cancer, etc). Our previous study shows that Lin28A is highly expressed in OC tissues and is involved in the regulation of OC cell biological behavior. In this study, we confirmed that high expression of Lin28A promoted the survival, invasion, metastasis, and inhibited the apoptosis of OC cells. Lin28A interacts with Rho associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase2 (ROCK2) but not ROCK1 and upregulates the expression of ROCK2 in OC cells. The binding sites of each other were identified by truncated mutations and Immuno-precipitaion (IP) assay. After knock down of ROCK2 in cells with high expression of Lin28A, the survival, invasion, metastasis was significantly inhibited and early apoptosis was increased in OC cells and OC xenograft in nude mice. Our experimental data also showed that knock down of ROCK2 but not ROCK1 inhibited the invasion by decreasing the expression of N-cadherin, Slug, β-catenin and increasing ZO-1 expression. Simultaneously, knock down of ROCK2 induced cell apoptosis by increasing cleaved Caspase-9,cleaved Caspase-7, and cleaved Caspase-3. Taken together, Lin28A regulated the biological behaviors in OC cells through ROCK2 and the interaction of Lin28A/ROCK2 may be a new target for diagnosis and gene therapy of OC.

Dubash SR, Merchant S, Heinzmann K, et al.
Clinical translation of [
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2018; 45(13):2285-2299 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Effective anticancer therapy is thought to involve induction of tumour cell death through apoptosis and/or necrosis. [
RESULTS: Breast tumour SUV
CONCLUSION: This study highlights the potential use of [

Talib WH, Al Kury LT
Parthenolide inhibits tumor-promoting effects of nicotine in lung cancer by inducing P53 - dependent apoptosis and inhibiting VEGF expression.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2018; 107:1488-1495 [PubMed] Related Publications
The correlation between cigarette smoking and the onset of non-small cell lung cancer is well documented. Enhanced proliferation, angiogenesis induction, and resistance to apoptosis were reported as direct results associated with exposure to nicotine (the active ingredient of cigarettes). Parthenolide is a sesquiterpene lactone with anticancer activity against different cancer types. In this study, we tested the ability of parthenolide to inhibit the proliferating effect of nicotine in lung cancer cell lines. MTT assay was used to measure cell survival of A549 and H526 cells treated with nicotine, parthenolide, and their combination. Angiogenesis inhibition was measured using VEGF detection kit and apoptosis induction was evaluated by measuring caspase-3 activity. Real time PCR assay was used to detect the change in expression of several genes associated with cell proliferation and apoptosis (CASP3, CASP7, CASP8, CASP9, P53, GADD45, BAX, BIM, Bcl-2, TOPO I, and TOPO II). Parthenolide inhibited lung cancer cells in a concentration-dependent manner and decreased the proliferation stimulating effect of nicotine. Caspase-3 activity and VEGF assays evidenced an apoptosis-inducing and VEGF- inhibiting effects of parthenolide. The real time PCR assay demonstrated that parthenolide down-regulated the expression of Bcl-2 and up-regulated the expression of E2F1, P53, GADD45, BAX, BIM, and CASP 3,7,8,9, which indicates an activation of P53- dependent apoptosis pathway in response to parthenolide. Furthermore, this pathway remained active in the presence of nicotine suggesting the ability of parthenolide to exclude the anti-apoptotic effect of nicotine. Our results indicate that parthenolide inhibits nicotine proliferating effect on lung cancer. The anticancer effect of parthenolide is mediated by angiogenesis inhibition and activation of P53- dependent apoptosis. Parthenolide is a promising natural product for inhibiting and treating nicotine-associated lung cancer. However, further studied on more lung cancer cell lines and on protein level are needed to fully understand its mechanisms of action.

Huang YP, Jiang YW, Chen HY, et al.
Benzyl Isothiocyanate Induces Apoptotic Cell Death Through Mitochondria-dependent Pathway in Gefitinib-resistant NCI-H460 Human Lung Cancer Cells
Anticancer Res. 2018; 38(9):5165-5176 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Gefitinib is used to treat patients with lung cancer, but in some patients, the disease becomes gefitinib-resistant. Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC), found in cruciferous vegetables, has shown anticancer activity in many human cancer cell lines. However, the effects of BITC on gefitinib-resistant NCI-H460 lung cancer cells in vitro have not been investigated.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effects of BITC on gefitinib-resistant NCI-H460 lung cancer cells were investigated in vitro. Flow cytometric assay was used for determining the total viable cell number, apoptotic cell death, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca
RESULTS: BITC reduced total viable cell number via the induction of apoptotic cell death, that was also confirmed by annexin V/propidium iodide double staining assay. BITC increased ROS and Ca
CONCLUSION: BITC-induced apoptotic cell death appears to occur via caspase- and mitochondria-dependent pathways in both cell lines.

Viswanathan A, Zhurina A, Assoah B, et al.
Decane-1,2-diol derivatives as potential antitumor agents for the treatment of glioblastoma.
Eur J Pharmacol. 2018; 837:105-116 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioblastoma remains the most common and aggressive type of malignant brain tumor among adults thus, considerable attention has been given to discovery of novel anti-tumor drugs for its treatment. This study reports the synthesis of a series of twelve novel decane-1,2-diol derivatives and evaluation of its anti-tumor activity in mammalian glioblastoma cell lines, U87 and LN229. Starting from decane-1,2-diol, several derivatives were prepared using a diversity oriented synthesis approach through which a small library composed of esters, silyl ethers, sulfonates, sulfites, sulfates, ketals, and phosphonates was built. The decane-1,2-diol ditosylated derivative, DBT, found to have higher cytotoxicity than the standard drug cisplatin, has IC

Mesquita FP, Pinto LC, Soares BM, et al.
Small benzothiazole molecule induces apoptosis and prevents metastasis through DNA interaction and c-MYC gene supression in diffuse-type gastric adenocarcinoma cell line.
Chem Biol Interact. 2018; 294:118-127 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chemo-resistance has been reported as a relevant barrier for the efficiency of gastric cancer treatment. Therefore, the development of effective and safe drugs for cancer chemotherapy is still a challenge. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anticancer potential of (E)-2-(((2-(benzo[d]thiazo-2-yl)hydrazono)methyl)-4-nitrophenol) (AFN01) against gastric cancer cell lines. Our results showed promising anticancer activity against gastric cancer cells ACP-02 (IC

Wang J, Lv X, Xu F, et al.
GNA14 silencing suppresses the proliferation of endometrial carcinoma cells through inducing apoptosis and G
Biosci Rep. 2018; 38(5) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
Endometrial carcinoma is the most common gynecological malignancy. The pathological factors triggering this disease are largely unknown. Although the role of guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit α (GNA) 11 (GNA11) in melanoma has been described, the involvement of GNA14 in endometrial carcinoma remains to be determined. Here, we found that GNA14 expression was increased in endometrial carcinoma tissues compared with simple hyperplasia tissues. Based on lentivirus-mediated knockdown assay, we showed that GNA14 silencing significantly suppressed the proliferation of both HEC-1-A and Ishikawa cells. The caspase 3/caspase 7 activity and apoptosis were enhanced by GNA14 knockdown. GNA14 depletion led to cell cycle arrest at the G

Sindhu R, Manonmani HK
l-asparaginase induces intrinsic mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in human gastric adenocarcinoma cells and impedes tumor progression.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 503(4):2393-2399 [PubMed] Related Publications
l-asparagine essentially regulates growth and proliferation of cancer cells. l-asparaginase is an anti-cancer enzyme that deprives the cancer cells of l-asparagine. The purpose of this study was to explore the mechanism of a novel l-asparaginase from Pseudomonas fluorescens on l-asparagine deprivation mediated anti-proliferation, apoptosis in human gastric adenocarcinoma cells and to evaluate inhibition of angiogenesis. We observed that, the presence of extracellular l-asparagine was essential for the growth of AGS cells. l-asparagine deprivation by l-asparaginase induced metabolic stress, cytotoxicity and apoptosis by G0 phase cell-cycle arrest, modulated the mitochondrial membrane integrity, accelerated caspase-3 activation and instigated DNA damage. The RT-PCR analysis of pro-apoptosis genes: bak1, bax, bbc3, bik, pmaip1, bnip3l, apaf1, casp3, casp7 and casp9 were significantly higher (P < 0.05), while anti-apoptotic markers xiap, bid, mcl1, and death receptor genes tnf and tradd were significantly down-regulated (P < 0.05). Additionally, higher protein expressions of p53, caspase-3 and TEM analysis showing modulations in mitochondria confirmed intrinsic apoptosis pathway. The enzyme impeded tumor progression through inhibition of cell migration and vascular remodelling of endothelial cells. Our findings suggests that the action of l-asparaginase alters mitochondrial membrane permeability and auxiliary activates intrinsic apoptosis. Therefore, this mechanistic approach might be considered as a targeted enzymotherapy against gastric adenocarcinoma.

Eroğlu C, Avcı E, Vural H, Kurar E
Anticancer mechanism of Sinapic acid in PC-3 and LNCaP human prostate cancer cell lines.
Gene. 2018; 671:127-134 [PubMed] Related Publications
Sinapic acid (SA) is a derivative of hydroxycinnamic acid and found in various vegetables and fruit species. Aim was to evaluate the anticancer effects of SA in PC-3 and LNCaP human prostate cancer cells. The effect of SA on cell viability was determined using XTT assay. Expressions of 8 genes for apoptosis and 6 genes for metastasis were evaluated by qPCR. Caspase-3 activity was determined using caspase-3 colorimetric assay kit. Effect of SA on cell invasion was evaluated with cell invasion assay. The IC

Ryabaya O, Prokofieva A, Khochenkov D, et al.
Inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced autophagy sensitizes melanoma cells to temozolomide treatment.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 40(1):385-394 [PubMed] Related Publications
The incidence of malignant melanoma is increasing. The discovery of agents specifically targeting the mutated cascades has provided a good response for patients with oncogenic B-Raf proto-оncogene, serine/threonine kinase (BRAF). However, numerous studies continue to focus on novel methods of treatment to overcome acquired resistance to novel drugs. Recently, it has been revealed that inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress chaperon 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) leads to down-regulation of autophagy and increased sensitivity to temozolomide (TMZ) treatment. Melanoma cells have a different sensitivity to TMZ treatment, which corresponds to the basal autophagy level. In the present study, we demonstrated that downregulation of GRP78 mitigated chemoresistance to TMZ in three melanoma cell lines. We found that downregulation of GRP78 led to inhibition of autophagy, cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase, and activation of caspase-7-induced apoptosis, and this was affected by the initial autophagy level. Moreover, inhibition of GRP78 mitigated the combined TMZ and chloroquine effect. Our data revealed that autophagy inhibition through downregulation of ER stress response could overcome resistance to TMZ treatment in melanoma cells with a high basal level of autophagy treatment, which makes this combination a potential potent antitumor treatment for metastatic melanoma.

Jagadish N, Fatima R, Sharma A, et al.
Sperm associated antigen 9 (SPAG9) a promising therapeutic target of ovarian carcinoma.
Tumour Biol. 2018; 40(5):1010428318773652 [PubMed] Related Publications
SPAG9 is a novel tumor associated antigen, expressed in variety of malignancies. However, its role in ovarian cancer remains unexplored. SPAG9 expression was validated in ovarian cancer cells by real time PCR and Western blot. SPAG9 involvement in cell cycle, DNA damage, apoptosis, paclitaxel sensitivity and epithelial- mesenchymal transition (EMT) was investigated employing RNA interference approach. Combinatorial effect of SPAG9 ablation and paclitaxel treatment was evaluated in in vitro. Quantitative PCR and Western blot analysis revealed SPAG9 expression in A10, SKOV-3 and Caov3 compared to normal ovarian epithelial cells. SPAG9 ablation resulted in reduced cellular proliferation, colony forming ability and enhanced cytotoxicity of chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel. Effect of ablation of SPAG9 on cell cycle revealed S phase arrest and showed decreased expression of CDK1, CDK2, CDK4, CDK6, cyclin B1, cyclin D1, cyclin E and increased expression of tumor suppressor p21. Ablation of SPAG9 also resulted in increased apoptosis with increased expression of various pro- apoptotic molecules including BAD, BID, PUMA, caspase 3, caspase 7, caspase 8 and cytochrome C. Decreased expression of mesenchymal markers and increased expression of epithelial markers was found in SPAG9 ablated cells. Combinatorial effect of SPAG9 ablation and paclitaxel treatment was evaluated in in vitro assays which showed that ablation of SPAG9 resulted in increased paclitaxel sensitivity and caused enhanced cell death. In vivo ovarian cancer xenograft studies showed that ablation of SPAG9 resulted in significant reduction in tumor growth. Present study revealed therapeutic potential of SPAG9 in ovarian cancer.

Song M, Liu X, Liu K, et al.
Targeting AKT with Oridonin Inhibits Growth of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Mol Cancer Ther. 2018; 17(7):1540-1553 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
Overexpression or activation of AKT is very well known to control cell growth, survival, and gene expression in solid tumors. Oridonin, an inflammatory medical and diterpenoid compound isolated from

Park JK, Doseff AI, Schmittgen TD
MicroRNAs Targeting Caspase-3 and -7 in PANC-1 Cells.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(4) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a critical part of the RNA silencing machinery, are known to play important regulatory roles in cancer. However, the consequence of miRNA deregulation in cancer is unknown for many miRNAs. Here, we define that miRNAs, miR-17-5p, miR-132-3p/-212-3p, and miR-337-3p are significantly up-regulated in the pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAC) compared to the normal and benign tissues. Furthermore, by using PANC-1 cells, we demonstrate that overexpressed miR-337-3p and miR-17-5p/miR-132-3p/-212-3p can regulate executioner caspases-3 and -7, respectively. In addition, over-expression of miRNAs, especially miR-337-3p, attenuates tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) cytotoxicity in PANC-1 cells. Our findings unveil an important biological function for miRNAs up-regulated in PDAC in coordinately regulating caspases, potentially contributing to the malignant progression of PDAC.

Ai X, Mao F, Shen S, et al.
Bexarotene inhibits the viability of non-small cell lung cancer cells via slc10a2/PPARγ/PTEN/mTOR signaling pathway.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):407 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Thirty to 40 % of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients developed higher hypertriglyceridemia in the process of treatment with bexarotene. And bioinformatics studies discovered that the expression of slc10a2 was increased in high-grade hypertriglyceridemia patients. So, we will explore the mechanism which may involve in this process.
METHODS: We constructed slc10a2 overexpressed A549 cells and H1299 cells as cell models, normal A549 cells and H1299 cells as control. Then we explored the effects of slc10a2 on A549 cells and H1299 cells behaviors, including proliferation, invasion and apoptosis. The expression of apoptotic related genes and anti-cancer genes also been detected.
RESULTS: We found that the proliferation and migration were inhibited and the apoptosis of NSCLC cells was accelerated by bexarotene. In addition, overexpressed slc10a2 in NSCLC cells can further suppress the proliferation and migration, and promote apoptosis under the treatment of bexarotene. On the contrary, the opposite results were obtained after slc10a2 gene was silenced in NSCLC cells treated with bexarotene. Moreover, the expression of caspase 3, caspase 7, PTEN, P21, P53, LKB1, TSC2 were increased and the expression of Bcl-2, cyclin D1, c-FLIP were declined in NSCLC cells and slc10a2 overexpressed NSCLC cells with the treatment of bexarotene, and the opposite situations were seen after slc10a2 gene was silenced in NSCLC cells. The further studies revealed the increased expression of slc10a2 activated the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), then up-regulated PTEN expression and down-regulated mTOR expression.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that bexarotene inhibits the viability of lung cancer cells via slc10a2/PPARγ/PTEN/mTOR signaling pathway.

Fitzgerald S, Espina V, Liotta L, et al.
Stromal TRIM28-associated signaling pathway modulation within the colorectal cancer microenvironment.
J Transl Med. 2018; 16(1):89 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Stromal gene expression patterns predict patient outcomes in colorectal cancer. TRIM28 is a transcriptional co-repressor that regulates an abundance of genes through the KRAB domain family of transcription factors. We have previously shown that stromal expression of TRIM28 is a marker of disease relapse and poor survival in colorectal cancer. Here, we perform differential epithelium-stroma proteomic network analyses to characterize signaling pathways associated with TRIM28 within the tumor microenvironment.
METHODS: Reverse phase protein arrays were generated from laser capture micro-dissected carcinoma and stromal cells from fresh frozen colorectal cancer tissues. Phosphorylation and total protein levels were measured for 30 cancer-related signaling pathway endpoints. Strength and direction of associations between signaling endpoints were identified using Spearman's rank-order correlation analysis and compared to TRIM28 levels. Expression status of TRIM28 in tumor epithelium and stromal fibroblasts was assessed using IHC in formalin fixed tissue and the epithelium to stroma protein expression ratio method.
RESULTS: We found distinct proteomic networks in the epithelial and stromal compartments which were linked to expression levels of TRIM28. Low levels of TRIM28 in tumor stroma (high epithelium: stroma ratio) were found in 10 out of 19 cases. Upon proteomic network analyses, these stromal high ratio cases revealed moderate signaling pathway similarity exemplified by 76 significant Spearman correlations (ρ ≥ 0.75, p ≤ 0.01). Furthermore, low levels of stromal TRIM28 correlated with elevated MDM2 levels in tumor epithelium (p = 0.01) and COX-2 levels in tumor stroma (p = 0.002). Low TRIM28 epithelium to stroma ratios were associated with elevated levels of caspases 3 and 7 in stroma (p = 0.041 and p = 0.036) and an increased signaling pathway similarity in stromal cells with 81 significant Spearman correlations (ρ ≥ 0.75, p ≤ 0.01).
CONCLUSIONS: By dissecting TRIM28-associated pathways in stromal fibroblasts and epithelial tumor cells, we performed comprehensive proteomic analyses of molecular networks within the tumor microenvironment. We found modulation of several signaling pathways associated with TRIM28, which may be attributed to the pleiotropic properties of TRIM28 through its translational suppression of the family of KRAB domain transcription factors in tumor stromal compartments.

Chowchaikong N, Nilwarangkoon S, Laphookhieo S, et al.
p38 inhibitor inhibits the apoptosis of cowanin-treated human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells.
Int J Oncol. 2018; 52(6):2031-2040 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colorectal cancer, which is the third most common type of cancer diagnosed in both men and women, is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Cowanin is a pure compound extracted from Garcinia cowa Roxb., a tree species present in Thailand, Malaysia and Myanmar. The crude extract has been demonstrated to have antitumor activity, inflammation induction, antibacterial activity, anti-inflammatory activity and antimalarial activity. In the present study, the effects of cowanin on apoptosis induction and on the apoptosis-related and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways were investigated in the LoVo human colorectal cancer cell line. The cytotoxicity of cowanin in LoVo cells was determined by MTT assay. Hoechst 33342 and JC‑1 staining were used to determine nuclear morphological changes and mitochondrial membrane potential, respectively. The expression levels of BCL2 apoptosis regulator (Bcl‑2) family, MAPK and AKT serine/threonine kinase 1 (Akt) pathway proteins following cowanin treatment were determined by western blot analysis. The results demonstrated that cowanin inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell death via the apoptosis pathway. Cowanin treatment increased BCL2 associated X (Bax) and decreased Bcl‑2 expression. In addition, cowanin activated caspase‑9, -7 and poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase expression. Furthermore, cowanin decreased the levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p‑ERK), p‑Akt, p‑3‑phosphoinositide‑dependent protein kinase‑1, while it increased p‑p38 expression, thus resulting in the induction of apoptosis. In conclusion, cowanin inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis of LoVo cells via the MAPK and Akt signaling pathways. Notably, inhibition of p38 by using a p38 inhibitor (SB203580) prevented the cowanin-induced apoptosis in LoVo cells. These results suggested that cowanin may be a potential candidate for the treatment of colorectal cancer and provided important information on the molecular mechanisms underlying its antitumor activity.

Yang J, Bo L, Han T, et al.
Pathway- and clinical-factor-based risk model predicts the prognosis of patients with gastric cancer.
Mol Med Rep. 2018; 17(5):6345-6356 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
Gastric cancer (GC) has a high incidence and mortality rate. If discovered late, GC tends to have a poor prognosis. Improvements in the prognostic accuracy of GC through combined analysis of multiple relevant genes and clinical factors may solve this problem. In the present study, GSE62254 (including 300 GC tissues), obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, was used as a training set, and the mRNA‑sequencing data of GC (including 384 GC tissues) downloaded from the Cancer Genome Atlas database served as a validation set. Based on the t‑test and Wilcoxon test, the significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained by screening the intersecting DEGs. The prognosis-associated genes and clinical factors were identified using Cox regression analysis in the R survival package. The optimal prognosis‑associated pathways were examined using the Cox‑proportional hazards (Cox‑PH) model in the R penalized package. Finally, risk prediction models were constructed and validated using the Cox‑PH model and the Kaplan‑Meier method, respectively. There were a total of 382 significant DEGs, including 268 upregulated genes and 114 downregulated genes. A total of 50 prognosis‑associated genes were identified, 16 optimal prognosis‑associated pathways (including mitochondrial pathway and the tyrosine‑protein kinase JAK‑signal transducer and activator of transcription signaling pathway, which involve caspase 7, phosphoinositide‑3‑kinase regulatory subunit 3, peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor γ and collagen triple helix repeat containing 1) and four prognosis‑associated clinical factors [including Pathologic_N, Pathologic_stage, mutL homolog 1 (MLH1) mutation and recurrence]. The pathway‑ and clinical‑factor‑based risk prediction model exhibited marked prognostic accuracy. The clinical‑factor‑based risk prediction model with improved P‑values for prognosis prediction may be superior to the pathway‑based risk prediction model in predicting the prognosis of GC patients.

Rigalli JP, Reichel M, Reuter T, et al.
The pregnane X receptor (PXR) and the nuclear receptor corepressor 2 (NCoR2) modulate cell growth in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(2):e0193242 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most frequent cancer worldwide. The pregnane X receptor (PXR) is a nuclear receptor regulating several target genes associated with cancer malignancy. We here demonstrated a significant effect of PXR on HNSCC cell growth, as evidenced in PXR knock-down experiments. PXR transcriptional activity is more importantly regulated by the presence of coactivators and corepressors than by PXR protein expression. To date, there is scarce information on the regulation of PXR in HNSCC and on its role in the pathogenesis of this disease. Coactivator and corepressor expression was screened through qRT-PCR in 8 HNSCC cell lines and correlated to PXR activity, determined by using a reporter gene assay. All cell lines considerably expressed all the cofactors assessed. PXR activity negatively correlated with nuclear receptor corepressor 2 (NCoR2) expression, indicating a major role of this corepressor in PXR modulation and suggesting its potential as a surrogate for PXR activity in HNSCC. To test the association of NCoR2 with the malignant phenotype, a subset of three cell lines was transfected with an over-expression plasmid for this corepressor. Subsequently, cell growth and chemoresistance assays were performed. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying NCoR2 effects on cell growth, caspase 3/7 activity and protein levels of cleaved caspase 3 and PARP were evaluated. In HNO97 cells, NCoR2 over-expression decreased cell growth, chemoresistance and increased cleaved caspase 3 levels, caspase activity and cleaved PARP levels. On the contrary, in HNO124 and HNO210 cells, NCoR2 over-expression increased cell growth, drug resistance and decreased cleaved caspase 3 levels, caspase activity and cleaved PARP levels. In conclusion, we demonstrated a role of PXR and NCoR2 in the modulation of cell growth in HNSCC. This may contribute to a better understanding of the highly variable HNSCC therapeutic response.

Mathuram TL, Ravikumar V, Reece LM, et al.
Correlative Studies Unravelling the Possible Mechanism of Cell Death in Tideglusib-Treated Human Ovarian Teratocarcinoma-Derived PA-1 Cells.
J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. 2017; 36(4):321-344 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study aims to unravel the use of GSK-3 inhibitors as viable apoptotic inducers for teratocarcinoma-derived ovarian PA-1 cells. MTT assay was carried out to assess inhibitory concentrations of LiCl and TDG. AO/EB staining and Hoechst 33258 staining were employed to assess the damage. Mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and ROS generation were assessed with IC50 concentrations of LiCl and TDG. Tumor-related genes (p53, p21, IL-8, TNF-α, MMP-2, Fas-L, Cox-2, and caspase-3) were assessed with 1/4 IC50, 1/2 IC50, IC50 concentrations by semi-quantitative RT- PCR. Cell cycle analysis was performed with IC50 concentration of LiCl and TDG. Western blot analysis was performed for caspase-3, caspase-7, caspase-9, PARP to estimate the possible damage induced by GSK-3 inhibitors and regulation of GSK-3β, pGSK-3β, Cox-2. GSK-3 inhibitors demonstrated a concentration and time-dependent reduction in cell viability, exhibiting significant ROS generation and reduced ΔΨm at their IC50 values. Substantial concentration-dependent gene expression changes with significant upregulation of P21, Cox-2, TNF-α, caspase-3, Fas-L were observed. Protein expression of caspase-3 caspase-7, caspase-9, PARP exhibited significant cleavage in LiCl and TDG-treated cells. Protein expression of Cox-2 was significantly increased in IC50 concentration of TDG. Cell cycle analysis showed significant accumulation of cells at sub-G0-G1.

Wu Z, Liu J, Hu S, et al.
Serine/Threonine Kinase 35, a Target Gene of STAT3, Regulates the Proliferation and Apoptosis of Osteosarcoma Cells.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 45(2):808-818 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Serine/threonine kinase 35 (STK35) may be associated with Parkinson disease and human colorectal cancer, but there have been no reports on the expression levels or roles of STK35 in osteosarcoma.
METHODS: STK35 mRNA expression was determined in osteosarcoma and bone cyst tissues by real-time PCR. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were assessed by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and flow cytometry analysis, respectively.
RESULTS: STK35 was up-regulated in osteosarcoma tissues as indicated by analyzing publicly available expression data (GEO dataset E-MEXP-3628) and real-time PCR analysis on our own cohort. We subsequently investigated the effects of STK35 knockdown on two osteosarcoma cell lines, MG63 and U2OS. STK35 knockdown inhibited the growth of osteosarcoma cells in vitro and in xenograft tumors. Meanwhile, STK35 knockdown enhanced apoptosis. Expression of the active forms and the activity of two major executioner caspases, caspase 3 and caspase 7, were also increased in osteosarcoma cells with STK35 silenced. Additionally, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) identified that the JAK/STAT signaling pathway was positively correlated with STK35 expression. The mRNA expression of STK35 was repressed by STAT3 small interfering RNA (siRNA), but not by siRNA of STAT4, STAT5A or STAT6. A luciferase reporter assay further demonstrated that STAT3 transcriptionally regulated STK35 expression. A chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay confirmed the direct recruitment of STAT3 to the STK35 promoter. The promotion effects of STAT3 knockdown on cell apoptosis were partially abolished by STK35 overexpression. Furthermore, STK35 mRNA expression was positively correlated with STAT3 mRNA expression in osteosarcoma tissues by Pearson correlation analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: These results collectively reveal that STAT3 regulates the transcription of STK35 in osteosarcoma. STK35 may exert an oncogenic role in osteosarcoma.

Albano F, Chiurazzi F, Mimmi S, et al.
The expression of inhibitor of bruton's tyrosine kinase gene is progressively up regulated in the clinical course of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia conferring resistance to apoptosis.
Cell Death Dis. 2018; 9(1):13 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is the most common B-cell malignancy with a variable clinical outcome. Biomarkers of CLL progression are required for optimising prognosis and therapy. The Inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase-isoform α (IBTKα) gene encodes a substrate receptor of Cullin 3-dependent E3 ubiquitin ligase, and promotes cell survival in response to the reticulum stress. Searching for novel markers of CLL progression, we analysed the expression of IBTKα in the peripheral blood B-cells of CLL patients, before and after first line therapy causing remission. The expression of IBTKα was significantly increased in disease progression, and decreased in remission after chemotherapy. Consistently with a pro-survival action, RNA interference of IBTKα increased the spontaneous and Fludarabine-induced apoptosis of MEC-1 CLL cells, and impaired the cell cycle of DeFew B-lymphoma cells by promoting the arrest in G0/G1 phase and apoptosis. Consistently, RNA interference of IBTKα up regulated the expression of pro-apoptotic genes, including TNF, CRADD, CASP7, BNIP3 and BIRC3. Our results indicate that IBTKα is a novel marker of CLL progression promoting cell growth and resistance to apoptosis. In this view, IBTKα may represent an attractive cancer drug target for counteracting the therapy-resistance of tumour cells.

Davis T, van Niekerk G, Peres J, et al.
Doxorubicin resistance in breast cancer: A novel role for the human protein AHNAK.
Biochem Pharmacol. 2018; 148:174-183 [PubMed] Related Publications
Understanding the response of cancer cells to anti-cancer therapies is crucial to unraveling and preventing the development of therapeutic resistance. The human AHNAK protein is a giant scaffold protein implicated in several diverse cellular functions. The role of AHNAK in cancer is however unclear as the protein has previously been described as a tumor suppressor, as well as being essential for tumor metastasis and invasion, while also being implicated in selected chemotherapeutic responses. To clarify the role of AHNAK in cancer, we investigated the effect of doxorubicin treatment on AHNAK in doxorubicin-sensitive MCF-7 and doxorubicin-resistant MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines, as well as in a tumor-bearing mouse model. The role of AHNAK in the cellular response of breast cancer cells to doxorubicin was also investigated. We report here, for the first time, an association between AHNAK and resistance to doxorubicin. While treatment with doxorubicin modulated AHNAK protein expression both in vitro and in vivo in a dose-dependent manner, no changes in its cellular localization were observed. AHNAK knockdown prevented doxorubicin-induced modulation of cleaved caspase 7 protein expression and cell cycle arrest, while its overexpression decreased cleaved caspase 7 and cleaved PARP levels and induced S-phase arrest, changes that were comparable to the effects of doxorubicin. This novel association was restricted to doxorubicin-resistant cells, implicating the protein in therapeutic resistance. These findings confirm that AHNAK does indeed function in the chemotherapeutic response of breast cancer cells while also emphasizing the need for further investigation into potential implications for AHNAK in terms of predicting and modulating treatment response.

Omer FAA, Hashim NBM, Ibrahim MY, et al.
Beta-mangostin from Cratoxylum arborescens activates the intrinsic apoptosis pathway through reactive oxygen species with downregulation of the HSP70 gene in the HL60 cells associated with a G
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(11):1010428317731451 [PubMed] Related Publications
Xanthones are phytochemical compounds found in a number of fruits and vegetables. Characteristically, they are noted to be made of diverse properties based on their biological, biochemical, and pharmacological actions. Accordingly, the apoptosis mechanisms induced by beta-mangostin, a xanthone compound isolated from Cratoxylum arborescens in the human promyelocytic leukemia cell line (HL60) in vitro, were examined in this study. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was done to estimate the cytotoxicity effect of β-mangostin on the HL60 cell line. Acridine orange/propidium iodide and Hoechst 33342 dyes and Annexin V tests were conducted to detect the apoptosis features. Caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities; reactive oxygen species; real-time polymerase chain reaction for Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3, and caspase-9 Hsp70 genes; and western blot for p53, cytochrome c, and pro- and cleavage-caspase-3 and caspase-9 were assessed to examine the apoptosis mechanism. Cell-cycle analysis conducted revealed that β-mangostin inhibited the growth of HL60 at 58 µM in 24 h. The administration of β-mangostin with HL60 caused cell morphological changes related to apoptosis which increased the number of early and late apoptotic cells. The β-mangostin-catalyzed apoptosis action through caspase-3, caspase-7, and caspase-9 activation overproduced reactive oxygen species which downregulated the expression of antiapoptotic genes Bcl-2 and HSP70. Conversely, the expression of the apoptotic genes Bax, caspase-3, and caspase-9 were upregulated. Meanwhile, at the protein level, β-mangostin activated the formation of cleaved caspase-3 and caspase-9 and also upregulated the p53. β-mangostin arrested the cell cycle at the G

Fang S, Hong H, Li L, et al.
Plasminogen kringle 5 suppresses gastric cancer via regulating HIF-1α and GRP78.
Cell Death Dis. 2017; 8(10):e3144 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
Inhibition of tumour angiogenesis has an important role in antitumour therapy. However, a recent study indicates that antiangiogenesis therapy may lead to glucose-related protein 78 (GRP78) associated antiapoptotic resistance. The present study aims to elucidate the dual effects of plasminogen kringle 5 (K5) on tumour angiogenesis and apoptosis induction by targeting hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and GRP78. Co-immunoprecipitation and western blotting were used for examining the ubiquitination of HIF-1α and analysing angiogenesis and apoptosis-associated proteins. K5 promoted the sumo/ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation of HIF-1α by upregulating von Hippel-Lindau protein under hypoxia, resulting in the reduction of vascular endothelial growth factor and thus suppressing tumour angiogenesis. Furthermore, K5 decreased GRP78 expression via downregulation of phosphorylated extracellular-regulated protein kinase, leading to caspase-7 cleavage and tumour cell apoptosis. Blocking voltage-dependent anion channel abrogated the effects of K5 on both HIF-1α and GRP78. K5 significantly inhibited the growth of gastric carcinoma xenografts by inhibiting both angiogenesis and apoptosis. The dual effects suggest that K5 might be a promising bio-therapeutic agent in the treatment of gastric cancer, particularly in patients who exhibit the induction of GRP78.

Fang Z, Wang X, Yan Q, et al.
Knockdown of IARS2 suppressed growth of gastric cancer cells by regulating the phosphorylation of cell cycle-related proteins.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2018; 443(1-2):93-100 [PubMed] Related Publications
The purpose of the article is to investigate the role of IARS2 in proliferation, apoptosis, and cell cycle of gastric cancer (GC) cells in vitro. The IARS2-shRNA lentiviral vector was established and used to infect the GC cell line AGS. qRT-PCR and Western blot were employed to determine the efficiency of IARS2 knockdown. The effects of IARS2 knockdown on cell proliferation, cell clone formation, and cell cycle were assessed by MTT assay, colony formation assay, and flow cytometer analysis, respectively. Finally, a PathScan Antibody Array Kit was used to detect the expression levels of cell cycle-related proteins after IARS2 knockdown in AGS cells to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Compared with negative control group, IARS2 was significantly knocked down by transfection with lentivirus encoding shRNA of IARS2 in AGS cells. IARS2 knockdown significantly inhibited the proliferation and colony formation ability and induced cycle arrest at G2/M phase of AGS cells. IARS2 knockdown significantly decreased the expression levels of phosphorylation of (p-Smad2), p-SAPK/JUK, cleavage-Caspase-7, and p-TAK1, but increased the expression levels of p-53 and cleavage-PARP in AGS cells compared to shCtrl group. We demonstrated that IARS2 knockdown inhibits proliferation, suppresses colony formation, and causes cell cycle arrest in AGS cells. We also found that IARS2 regulates key molecules of cell apoptosis-related signaling pathway.

Zhang J, Dong W, Meng Y, et al.
Proteomic analysis of serum deprivation in tongue squamous cell carcinoma.
Mol Med Rep. 2017; 16(6):9323-9330 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2020 Related Publications
The occurrence of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) is closely correlated with serum components; however, the detailed mechanism remains to be fully elucidated. Proteomic analysis contributed to the discovery of potential biomarkers and provided an insight into TSCC at a molecular level. The present study investigated the effect of serum deprivation on the Tca‑8113 TSCC cell line through protein profiling using two‑dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, with the aim of improving TSCC diagnosis. The results showed that the Tca‑8113 cells maintained proliferative capacity and resisted apoptosis following serum deprivation. A total of 43 proteins were upregulated and 45 were downregulated following serum deprivation for 24 h, compared with untreated controls (0 h). The upregulated caspase-7, heat shock protein 27 and Annexin A1, and the downregulated peroxiredoxin‑6 and heat shock protein 70, were selected for verification using reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction analysis following serum deprivation for 16 h. The results indicated that reactive oxygen species may be important in serum deprivation‑induced oxidative stress.

Xiao B, Li J, Fan Y, et al.
Downregulation of SYT7 inhibits glioblastoma growth by promoting cellular apoptosis.
Mol Med Rep. 2017; 16(6):9017-9022 [PubMed] Related Publications
Synaptotagmin‑7 (SYT7) is a member of the synaptotagmin gene family, and encodes a protein that mediates the calcium‑dependent regulation of membrane trafficking during synaptic transmission. A previous study demonstrated that the expression of SYT7 is associated with prostate cancer and serves an important role in development of prostate cancer. However, the roles of SYT7 in the progression of glioma remain unknown. In the present study, reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR) analysis demonstrated that SYT7 was expressed in three human glioma cell lines. Western blotting and RT‑qPCR analysis demonstrated the knockdown efficiency of SYT7 shRNA in 293T cells and U87MG cells. Celigo Image Cytometer Analysis, a caspase‑3/7 assay, flow cytometry and an MTT assay demonstrated that the proliferation of U87MG cells was inhibited as SYT7 was downregulated by a lentiviral vector expressing SYT7 shRNA, via the promotion of cellular apoptosis. The results of the present study demonstrated that the downregulation of SYT7 inhibited glioblastoma growth by promoting cellular apoptosis, and that SYT7 may therefore be a potential target for glioma intervention.

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