HIC1

Gene Summary

Gene:HIC1; HIC ZBTB transcriptional repressor 1
Aliases: hic-1, ZBTB29, ZNF901
Location:17p13.3
Summary:This gene functions as a growth regulatory and tumor repressor gene. Hypermethylation or deletion of the region of this gene have been associated with tumors and the contiguous-gene syndrome, Miller-Dieker syndrome. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2010]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:hypermethylated in cancer 1 protein
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 March, 2017

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Phenotype
  • Tumor Suppressor Gene
  • Epigenetics
  • CpG Islands
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Single-Blind Method
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Transcription Initiation Site
  • Gene Silencing
  • Loss of Heterozygosity
  • Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors
  • Disease Progression
  • Mutation
  • Cancer DNA
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Transcription Factors
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Cervical Cancer
  • Azacitidine
  • Breast Cancer
  • DNA Methylation
  • Medulloblastoma
  • CDKN2A Protein
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Down-Regulation
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Messenger RNA
  • RTPCR
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Cohort Studies
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Chromosome 17
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Base Sequence
  • Transcription
Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: HIC1 (cancer-related)

Juodzbalys G, Kasradze D, Cicciù M, et al.
Modern molecular biomarkers of head and neck cancer. Part I. Epigenetic diagnostics and prognostics: Systematic review.
Cancer Biomark. 2016; 17(4):487-502 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Nearly half of the head and neck cancer cases are diagnosed in late stages. Traditional screening modalities have many disadvantages. The aim of the present article was to review the scientific literature about novel head and neck cancer diagnostics - epigenetic biomarkers.
EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A comprehensive review of the current literature was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines by accessing the NCBI PubMed database. Authors conducted the search of articles in English language published from 2004 to 2015.
EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: A total of thirty three relevant studies were included in the review. Fifteen of them concerned DNA methylation alterations, nine evaluation of abundancies in histone expressions and nine miRNA expression changes in HNC.
CONCLUSIONS: Considerable number of epigenetic biomarkers have been identified in both tumor tissue and salivary samples. Genes with best diagnostic effectiveness rates and further studying prospects were: TIMP3, DCC, DAPK, CDH1, CCNA1, AIM1, MGMT, HIC1, PAX1, PAX5, ZIC4, p16, EDNRB, KIF1A, MINT31, CD44, RARβ , ECAD. Individual histone and miRNA alterations tend to be hnc specific. Prognostic values of separate biomarkers are ambiguous. No established standards for molecular assay of head and neck cancer was found in order to elude the paradoxical results and discrepancies in separate trials.

Cheng G, He J, Zhang L, et al.
HIC1 modulates uveal melanoma progression by activating lncRNA-numb.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(9):12779-12789 [PubMed] Related Publications
Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary intraocular cancer in adults. Although the diagnosis modality of primary UM was improved significantly, there are currently no effective therapies for metastatic UM. Hypermethylated in cancer 1 (HIC1) is frequently deleted or epigenetically silenced in various human cancers. However, the role and mechanism of HIC1 in UM is still unclear. In this study, we found that HIC1 acted as a tumor suppressor and that its expression was downregulated in UM. Functional studies demonstrated that ectopic expression of HIC1 in UM cells inhibited cell proliferation and invasion. Moreover, through long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) microarray and real-time PCR, we found that expression of lncRNA-numb was activated by HIC1 in UM. The results provide evidence that lncRNA-numb is a newly proposed tumor suppressor that is involved in HIC1-induced phenotypes. Taken together, our studies of UM reveal a critical role of HIC1 in the regulation of tumorigenesis, at least partly through its downstream target, lncRNA-numb, and provide a potential therapeutic target for UM.

Bagci B, Sari M, Karadayi K, et al.
KRAS, BRAF oncogene mutations and tissue specific promoter hypermethylation of tumor suppressor SFRP2, DAPK1, MGMT, HIC1 and p16 genes in colorectal cancer patients.
Cancer Biomark. 2016; 17(2):133-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is a serious disease that causes significant morbidity and mortality in developed countries. Genetic changes, such as mutations in proto-oncogenes and DNA repair genes, and loss of function in the tumor suppressor genes cause colorectal cancer development. Abnormal DNA methylation is also known to play a crucial role in colorectal carcinogenesis.
OBJECTIVE: In this study, frequencies of KRAS and BRAF mutations, promoter hypermethylation profiles of SFRP2, DAPK1, MGMT, HIC1 and p16 genes, and possible associations between hypermethylation of these genes and KRAS and BRAF mutations were aimed to find out.
METHODS: Ninety three colorectal cancer tissues and 14 normal colon mucosas were included in the study. Common twelve KRAS gene mutation were investigated with using reverse-hybridization strip assay method. BRAF V600E mutations were investigated with RFLP method. Hypermethylation status of five tumor suppressor genes were detected by using reverse-hybridization strip assay method after bisulfite modification of DNA.
RESULTS: KRAS and BRAF mutation frequencies were determined as 54.84% and 12.9%, respectively. Promoter hypermethylation frequencies of tumor suppressor genes SFRP2, DAPK1, MGMT, HIC1 and p16 were determined as 66.7%, 45.2%, 40.9%, 40.9% and 15.1%, respectively. Statistically significant associations were found between BRAF mutation and SFRP2 and p16 tumor suppressor genes hypermethylation (SFRP2; p= 0.005, p16; p= 0.016). Compared to rectum, SFRP2 (p= 0.017) and MGMT (p= 0.013) genes have statistically significantly higher promoter hypermethylation in colon.
CONCLUSIONS: Results of the current study have confirmed that KRAS mutations and SFRP2 hypermethylation can be used as genetic markers in colorectal cancer.

Hu B, Zhang K, Li S, et al.
HIC1 attenuates invasion and metastasis by inhibiting the IL-6/STAT3 signalling pathway in human pancreatic cancer.
Cancer Lett. 2016; 376(2):387-98 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hypermethylated in cancer 1 (HIC1) is a tumour suppressor gene that is frequently deleted or epigenetically silenced in many human cancers. However, the molecular function of HIC1 in pancreatic cancer has not been fully elucidated, especially in cancer invasion and metastasis. We aimed to clarify the clinical relevance of HIC1 and human pancreatic cancer and the mechanism of its effect on invasion and metastasis .HIC1 was downregulated in pancreatic cancer patient cancer tissue and pancreatic cancer cell lines. A tissue microarray analysis demonstrated that negative HIC1 expression predicted advanced pathological stages and worse patient survival. In addition, HIC1 inhibited the invasion and metastasis of pancreatic cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Finally, HIC1 repressed the expression of STAT3 target genes, including c-Myc, VEGF, CyclinD1, MMP2 and MMP9, by binding and interacting with STAT3 to impede its DNA-binding ability but without affecting the protein levels of STAT3 and p-STAT3. Therefore, HIC1 appears to function as a STAT3 inhibitor and may be a promising target for cancer research and for the development of an optimal treatment approach for pancreatic cancer.

Achille NJ, Othus M, Phelan K, et al.
Association between early promoter-specific DNA methylation changes and outcome in older acute myeloid leukemia patients.
Leuk Res. 2016; 42:68-74 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Treatment options for older patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) range from supportive care alone to full-dose chemotherapy. Identifying factors that predict response to therapy may help increase efficacy and avoid toxicity. The phase II SWOG S0703 study investigated the use of hydroxyurea and azacitidine with gemtuzumab ozogamicin in the elderly AML population and found survival rates similar to those expected with standard AML regimens, with less toxicity. As part of this study, global DNA methylation along with promoter DNA methylation and expression analysis of six candidate genes (CDKN2A, CDKN2B, HIC1, RARB, CDH1 and APAF1) were determined before and during therapy to investigate whether very early changes are prognostic for clinical response. Global DNA methylation was not associated with a clinical response. Samples after 3 or 4 days of treatment with azacitidine showed significantly decreased CDKN2A promoter DNA methylation in patients achieving complete remission (CR) compared to those who did not. Samples from day 7 of treatment showed significantly decreased RARB, CDKN2B and CDH1 promoter DNA methylation in responders compared to nonresponders. Gene-specific DNA methylation analysis of peripheral blood samples may help early identification of those older AML patients most likely to benefit from demethylating agent therapy.

Li P, Liu X, Dong ZM, Ling ZQ
Epigenetic silencing of HIC1 promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition and drives progression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(35):38151-65 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Downregulation of the novel tumor suppressor gene HIC1 (hypermethylated in cancer 1) occurs frequently in various tumors where it causes tumor progression and metastasis. In this study, we investigated a role of HIC1 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and the underlying mechanisms. Downregulation of HIC1 occurred in approximately 70% of primary ESCCs at both mRNA and protein level where it was associated significantly with vascular invasion, advanced clinical stage, lymph node metastasis, and poor disease free survival (DFS). The promoter methylation analyses suggested that loss of HIC1 expression was mediated by epigenetic mechanisms. Functional studies established that ectopic re-expression of HIC1 in ESCC cells inhibited cell proliferation, clonogenicity, cell motility, tumor formation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Our results decipher the mechanism through which HIC1 deficiency induce ESCC cells to undergo EMT and promote tumor progression and metastasis through activation of EphA2 signaling pathway. Together, loss of the regulation of EphA2 pathway through HIC1 epigenetic silencing could be an important mechanism in the ESCC progression. We identify a novel pathway that linking HIC1 downregulation to EphA2-inducing EMT in ESCC cells and may shed light on the development of novel anti-tumor therapeutics.

Duan K, Gomez Hernandez K, Mete O
Clinicopathological correlates of hyperparathyroidism.
J Clin Pathol. 2015; 68(10):771-87 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hyperparathyroidism is a common endocrine disorder with potential complications on the skeletal, renal, neurocognitive and cardiovascular systems. While most cases (95%) occur sporadically, about 5% are associated with a hereditary syndrome: multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes (MEN-1, MEN-2A, MEN-4), hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumour syndrome (HPT-JT), familial hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia (FHH-1, FHH-2, FHH-3), familial hypercalciuric hypercalcaemia, neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism and isolated familial hyperparathyroidism. Recently, molecular mechanisms underlying possible tumour suppressor genes (MEN1, CDC73/HRPT2, CDKIs, APC, SFRPs, GSK3β, RASSF1A, HIC1, RIZ1, WT1, CaSR, GNA11, AP2S1) and proto-oncogenes (CCND1/PRAD1, RET, ZFX, CTNNB1, EZH2) have been uncovered in the pathogenesis of hyperparathyroidism. While bi-allelic inactivation of CDC73/HRPT2 seems unique to parathyroid malignancy, aberrant activation of cyclin D1 and Wnt/β-catenin signalling has been reported in benign and malignant parathyroid tumours. Clinicopathological correlates of primary hyperparathyroidism include parathyroid adenoma (80-85%), hyperplasia (10-15%) and carcinoma (<1-5%). Secondary hyperparathyroidism generally presents with diffuse parathyroid hyperplasia, whereas tertiary hyperparathyroidism reflects the emergence of autonomous parathyroid hormone (PTH)-producing neoplasm(s) from secondary parathyroid hyperplasia. Surgical resection of abnormal parathyroid tissue remains the only curative treatment in primary hyperparathyroidism, and parathyroidectomy specimens are frequently encountered in this setting. Clinical and biochemical features, including intraoperative PTH levels, number, weight and size of the affected parathyroid gland(s), are crucial parameters to consider when rendering an accurate diagnosis of parathyroid proliferations. This review provides an update on the expanding knowledge of hyperparathyroidism and highlights the clinicopathological correlations of this prevalent disease.

Milutin Gašperov N, Sabol I, Planinić P, et al.
Methylated Host Cell Gene Promoters and Human Papillomavirus Type 16 and 18 Predicting Cervical Lesions and Cancer.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(6):e0129452 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Change in the host and/or human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA methylation profile is probably one of the main factors responsible for the malignant progression of cervical lesions to cancer. To investigate those changes we studied 173 cervical samples with different grades of cervical lesion, from normal to cervical cancer. The methylation status of nine cellular gene promoters, CCNA1, CDH1, C13ORF18, DAPK1, HIC1, RARβ2, hTERT1, hTERT2 and TWIST1, was investigated by Methylation Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (MSP). The methylation of HPV18 L1-gene was also investigated by MSP, while the methylated cytosines within four regions, L1, 5'LCR, enhancer, and promoter of the HPV16 genome covering 19 CpG sites were evaluated by bisulfite sequencing. Statistically significant methylation biomarkers distinguishing between cervical precursor lesions from normal cervix were primarily C13ORF18 and secondly CCNA1, and those distinguishing cervical cancer from normal or cervical precursor lesions were CCNA1, C13ORF18, hTERT1, hTERT2 and TWIST1. In addition, the methylation analysis of individual CpG sites of the HPV16 genome in different sample groups, notably the 7455 and 7694 sites, proved to be more important than the overall methylation frequency. The majority of HPV18 positive samples contained both methylated and unmethylated L1 gene, and samples with L1-gene methylated forms alone had better prognosis when correlated with the host cell gene promoters' methylation profiles. In conclusion, both cellular and viral methylation biomarkers should be used for monitoring cervical lesion progression to prevent invasive cervical cancer.

Janeckova L, Pospichalova V, Fafilek B, et al.
HIC1 Tumor Suppressor Loss Potentiates TLR2/NF-κB Signaling and Promotes Tissue Damage-Associated Tumorigenesis.
Mol Cancer Res. 2015; 13(7):1139-48 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Hypermethylated in cancer 1 (HIC1) represents a prototypic tumor suppressor gene frequently inactivated by DNA methylation in many types of solid tumors. The gene encodes a sequence-specific transcriptional repressor controlling expression of several genes involved in cell cycle or stress control. In this study, a Hic1 allele was conditionally deleted, using a Cre/loxP system, to identify genes influenced by the loss of Hic1. One of the transcripts upregulated upon Hic1 ablation is the toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). Tlr2 expression levels increased in Hic1-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) and cultured intestinal organoids or in human cells upon HIC1 knockdown. In addition, HIC1 associated with the TLR2 gene regulatory elements, as detected by chromatin immunoprecipitation, indicating that Tlr2 indeed represents a direct Hic1 target. The Tlr2 receptor senses "danger" signals of microbial or endogenous origin to trigger multiple signaling pathways, including NF-κB signaling. Interestingly, Hic1 deficiency promoted NF-κB pathway activity not only in cells stimulated with Tlr2 ligand, but also in cells treated with NF-κB activators that stimulate different surface receptors. In the intestine, Hic1 is mainly expressed in differentiated epithelial cells and its ablation leads to increased Tlr2 production. Finally, in a chemical-induced mouse model of carcinogenesis, Hic1 absence resulted in larger Tlr2-positive colonic tumors that showed increased proportion of proliferating cells.
IMPLICATIONS: The tumor-suppressive function of Hic1 in colon is related to its inhibitory action on proproliferative signaling mediated by the Tlr2 receptor present on tumor cells.

Verdelli C, Forno I, Vaira V, Corbetta S
Epigenetic alterations in human parathyroid tumors.
Endocrine. 2015; 49(2):324-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epigenetics alterations are involved in tumorigenesis and have been identified in endocrine neoplasia. In particular, DNA methylation, microRNAs deregulations and histone methylation impairment are detected in tumors of the parathyroid glands. Parathyroid tumors are the second most common endocrine neoplasia following thyroid cancer in women, and it is associated with primary hyperparathyroidism, a disease sustained by PTH hypersecretion. Despite the hallmark of global promoter hypomethylations was not detectable in parathyroid tumors, increase of hypermethylation in specific CpG islands was detected in the progression from benign to malignant parathyroid tumors. Furthermore, deregulation of a panel of embryonic-related microRNAs (miRNAs) was documented in parathyroid tumors compared with normal glands. Impaired expression of the histone methyltransferases EZH2, BMI1, and RIZ1 have been described in parathyroid tumors. Moreover, histone methyltransferases have been shown to be modulated by the oncosuppressors HIC1, MEN1, and HRPT2/CDC73 gene products that characterize tumorigenesis of parathyroid adenomas and carcinomas, respectively. The epigenetic scenario in parathyroid tumors have just began to be decoded but emerging data highlight the involvement of an embryonic gene signature in parathyroid tumor development.

Kiga K, Fukuda-Yuzawa Y, Tanabe M, et al.
Comprehensive silencing of target-sharing microRNAs is a mechanism for SIRT1 overexpression in cancer.
RNA Biol. 2014; 11(11):1347-54 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Overexpression of SIRT1 is frequently observed in various types of cancers, suggesting its potential role in malignancies. However, the molecular basis of how SIRT1 is elevated in cancer is less understood. Here we show that cancer-related SIRT1 overexpression is due to evasion of Sirt1 mRNA from repression by a group of Sirt1-targeting microRNAs (miRNAs) that might be robustly silenced in cancer. Our comprehensive library-based screening and subsequent miRNA gene profiling revealed a housekeeping gene-like broad expression pattern and strong CpG island-association of the Sirt1-targeting miRNA genes. This suggests aberrant CpG DNA methylation as the mechanistic background for malignant SIRT1 elevation. Our work also provides an example where epigenetic mechanisms cause the group-wide regulation of miRNAs sharing a common key target.

Tudoran O, Virtic O, Balacescu L, et al.
Differential peripheral blood gene expression profile based on Her2 expression on primary tumors of breast cancer patients.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(7):e102764 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Breast cancer prognosis and treatment is highly dependent on the molecular features of the primary tumors. These tumors release specific molecules into the environment that trigger characteristic responses into the circulatory cells. In this study we investigated the expression pattern of 84 genes known to be involved in breast cancer signaling in the peripheral blood of breast cancer patients with ER-, PR- primary tumors. The patients were grouped according to Her2 expression on the primary tumors in Her2+ and Her2- cohorts. Transcriptional analysis revealed 15 genes to be differentially expressed between the two groups highlighting that Her2 signaling in primary tumors could be associated with specific blood gene expression. We found CCNA1 to be up-regulated, while ERBB2, RASSF1, CDH1, MKI67, GATA3, GLI1, SFN, PTGS2, JUN, NOTCH1, CTNNB1, KRT8, SRC, and HIC1 genes were down-regulated in the blood of triple negative breast cancer patients compared to Her2+ cohort. IPA network analysis predicts that the identified genes are interconnected and regulate each other. These genes code for cell cycle regulators, cell adhesion molecules, transcription factors or signal transducers that modulate immune signaling, several genes being also associated with cancer progression and treatment response. These results indicate an altered immune signaling in the peripheral blood of triple negative breast cancer patients. The involvement of the immune system is necessary in favorable treatment response, therefore these results could explain the low response rates observed for triple negative breast cancer patients.

Kumar S
P53 induction accompanying G2/M arrest upon knockdown of tumor suppressor HIC1 in U87MG glioma cells.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2014; 395(1-2):281-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hypermethylated in cancer 1 (HIC1) is a novel tumor suppressor gene (tsg) frequently silenced by epigenetic modification, predominantly by methylation in different tumors. HIC1 functionally co-operates with p53 in cultured cells as well as in transgenic animals to suppress tumors and has binding site on its promoter. Its over expression often leads to cell cycle arrests. Although HIC1 proven to have role as tsg, its regulation to cell cycle and dependency upon p53 is grossly unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of HIC1 in cell cycle and proliferation of glioma cell line U87MG which has wild type p53, in both serum-containing and serum-deprived medium. Microscopic analysis and MTT assay showed reduced cell number and rate of proliferation upon HIC1 knock down compared to control siRNA (p = 0.025) and untreated cells (p = 0.03) in serum-containing medium and serum-free medium (p = 0.014 vs control siRNA; p = 0.018 vs untreated cells). Cell cycle analysis revealed an arrest at G2/M phase of cell cycle with no demonstrable increase in apoptosis with both medium. An increased expression of p53 concomitant with HIC1 knockdown was observed. Furthermore P21, a p53 responsive gene, along with p27 was significantly increased in comparison with controls. Our results demonstrated an important role of HIC1 for the normal progression of cell cycle, and at molecular level, it could affect the homeostasis of p53 as well as number of cell cycle-related genes, which may or may not be directly linked to p53.

Pradhan AK, Halder A, Chakraborty S
Physical and functional interaction of the proto-oncogene EVI1 and tumor suppressor gene HIC1 deregulates Bcl-xL mediated block in apoptosis.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2014; 53:320-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ecotropic viral integration site 1 was originally identified as a retroviral integration site in murine leukemias. Several studies have established ecotropic viral integration site 1 as both a transcription factor and an interacting partner that presumably regulates gene expression. Using coimmunoprecipitation and fluorescence resonance energy transfer analysis, we found that the N-terminal domain of hypermethylated in cancer 1 interacts with the proximal set of zinc fingers of ecotropic viral integration site 1. This interaction not only abolishes the DNA binding activity of ecotropic viral integration site 1 but also disrupts the transcriptional activity of an anti-apoptotic gene promoter selectively targeted by ecotropic viral integration site 1. By using flow cytometry and western blotting, here we show that hypermethylated in cancer 1 can deregulate ecotropic viral integration site 1-mediated blockage of apoptosis. We hypothesize that therapeutic upregulation of hypermethylated in cancer 1 may provide an important means of targeting ecotropic viral integration site 1-positive cancers.

Fotouhi O, Adel Fahmideh M, Kjellman M, et al.
Global hypomethylation and promoter methylation in small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors: an in vivo and in vitro study.
Epigenetics. 2014; 9(7):987-97 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Aberrant DNA methylation is a feature of human cancer affecting gene expression and tumor phenotype. Here, we quantified promoter methylation of candidate genes and global methylation in 44 small intestinal-neuroendocrine tumors (SI-NETs) from 33 patients by pyrosequencing. Findings were compared with gene expression, patient outcome and known tumor copy number alterations. Promoter methylation was observed for WIF1, RASSF1A, CTNNB1, CXCL14, NKX2-3, P16, LAMA1, and CDH1. By contrast APC, CDH3, HIC1, P14, SMAD2, and SMAD4 only had low levels of methylation. WIF1 methylation was significantly increased (P = 0.001) and WIF1 expression was reduced in SI-NETs vs. normal references (P = 0.003). WIF1, NKX2-3, and CXCL14 expression was reduced in metastases vs. primary tumors (P<0.02). Low expression of RASSF1A and P16 were associated with poor overall survival (P = 0.045 and P = 0.011, respectively). Global methylation determined by pyrosequencing of LINE1 repeats was reduced in tumors vs. normal references, and was associated with loss in chromosome 18. The tumors fell into three clusters with enrichment of WIF1 methylation and LINE1 hypomethylation in Cluster I and RASSF1A and CTNNB1 methylation and loss in 16q in Cluster II. In Cluster III, these alterations were low-abundant and NKX2-3 methylation was low. Similar analyses in the SI-NET cell lines HC45 and CNDT2 showed methylation for CDH1 and WIF1 and/or P16, CXCL14, NKX2-3, LAMA1, and CTNNB1. Treatment with the demethylating agent 5-azacytidine reduced DNA methylation and increased expression of these genes in vitro. In conclusion, promoter methylation of tumor suppressor genes is associated with suppressed gene expression and DNA copy number alterations in SI-NETs, and may be restored in vitro.

Keating GL, Reid HM, Eivers SB, et al.
Transcriptional regulation of the human thromboxane A2 receptor gene by Wilms' tumor (WT)1 and hypermethylated in cancer (HIC) 1 in prostate and breast cancers.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014; 1839(6):476-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
The prostanoid thromboxane (TX) A(2) plays a central role in hemostasis and is increasingly implicated in neoplastic disease, including prostate and breast cancers. In humans, TXA(2) signals through the TPα and TPβ isoforms of the T prostanoid receptor, two structurally related receptors transcriptionally regulated by distinct promoters, Prm1 and Prm3, respectively, within the TP gene. Focusing on TPα, the current study investigated its expression and transcriptional regulation through Prm1 in prostate and breast cancers. Expression of TPα correlated with increasing prostate and breast tissue tumor grade while the TXA(2) mimetic U46619 promoted both proliferation and migration of the respective prostate (PC3) and breast (MCF-7 and MDA-MD-231) derived-carcinoma cell lines. Through 5' deletional and genetic reporter analyses, several functional upstream repressor regions (URRs) were identified within Prm1 in PC3, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells while site-directed mutagenesis identified the tumor suppressors Wilms' tumor (WT)1 and hypermethylated in cancer (HIC) 1 as the trans-acting factors regulating those repressor regions. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) studies confirmed that WT1 binds in vivo to multiple GC-enriched WT1 cis-elements within the URRs of Prm1 in PC3, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Furthermore, ChIP analyses established that HIC1 binds in vivo to the HIC1((b))cis-element within Prm1 in PC3 and MCF-7 cells but not in the MDA-MB-231 carcinoma line. Collectively, these data establish that WT1 and HIC1, both tumor suppressors implicated in prostate and breast cancers, transcriptionally repress TPα expression and thereby provide a strong genetic basis for understanding the role of TXA2 in the progression of certain human cancers.

Zhao F, Pan S, Gu Y, et al.
Small activating RNA restores the activity of the tumor suppressor HIC-1 on breast cancer.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(1):e86486 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
HIC-1 is a gene that is hypermethylated in cancer, and commonly downregulated in human breast cancer. However, the precise mechanisms and molecular pathways regulated by HIC-1 remain unclear. We assessed HIC-1 expression on a tissue microarray containing 80 cases of breast cancer. We also analyzed its biological function by restoring HIC-1 expression using 5-aza-2' deoxycytidine (5-CdR) and small-activating RNAs for the reversal of HIC-1 tumor suppressive effects on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines. An Agilent Q44h global expressing microarray was probed after restoring the expression of HIC-1. Data demonstrated that HIC-1 expression was reduced significantly in breast cancer tissues. HIC-1 immunohistochemistry resulted in mean staining scores in cancer tissue and normal ductal epithelia of 3.54 and 8.2, respectively (p<0.01). 5-CdR partially reversed HIC-1 expression, and modulated cell growth and apoptosis. dsHIC1-2998, an saRNA, showed activating efficacy in breast cancer cells. A group of differentially expressed genes were characterized by cDNA microarray. Upon saRNA treatment, genes upregulated included those involved in immune activation, cell cycle interference, the induction of apoptosis, anti-metastasis, and cell differentiation. Downregulated genes included oncogenes and those that play roles in cell invasion, cell growth, and cell division. Our findings may provide valuable resources not only for gene functional studies, but also for potential clinical applications to develop novel drug targets.

Cheng G, Sun X, Wang J, et al.
HIC1 silencing in triple-negative breast cancer drives progression through misregulation of LCN2.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(3):862-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
The tumor suppressor gene HIC1 is frequently deleted or epigenetically silenced in human cancer, where its restoration may improve cancer prognosis. Here, we report results illuminating how HIC1 silencing alters effect or signals in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), which are crucial for its pathogenesis. HIC1 expression was silenced only in TNBC compared with other molecular subtypes of breast cancer. Restoring HIC1 expression in TNBC cells reduced cell migration, invasion, and metastasis, whereas RNAi-mediated silencing of HIC1 in untransformed human breast cells increased their invasive capabilities. Mechanistic investigations identified the small-secreted protein lipocalin-2 (LCN2), as a critical downstream target of HIC1 in TNBC cells. Elevating LCN2 expression in cells expressing HIC1 partially rescued its suppression of cell invasion and metastasis. Notably, autocrine secretion of LCN2 induced by loss of HIC1 activated the AKT pathway through the neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin receptor, which is associated with TNBC progression. Taken together, our findings revealed that the HIC1-LCN2 axis may serve as a subtype-specific prognostic biomarker, providing an appealing candidate target for TNBC therapy.

Casadio V, Molinari C, Calistri D, et al.
DNA Methylation profiles as predictors of recurrence in non muscle invasive bladder cancer: an MS-MLPA approach.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2013; 32:94 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Although non muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) generally has a good long-term prognosis, up to 80% of patients will nevertheless experience local recurrence after the primary tumor resection. The search for markers capable of accurately identifying patients at high risk of recurrence is ongoing. We retrospectively evaluated the methylation status of a panel of 24 tumor suppressor genes (TIMP3, APC, CDKN2A, MLH1, ATM, RARB, CDKN2B, HIC1, CHFR, BRCA1, CASP8, CDKN1B, PTEN, BRCA2, CD44, RASSF1, DAPK1, FHIT, VHL, ESR1, TP73, IGSF4, GSTP1 and CDH13) in primary lesions to obtain information about their role in predicting local recurrence in NMIBC.
METHODS: Formaldehyde-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples from 74 patients operated on for bladder cancer were analyzed by methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA): 36 patients had relapsed and 38 were disease-free at the 5-year follow up. Methylation status was considered as a dichotomous variable and genes showing methylation ≥20% were defined as "positive".
RESULTS: Methylation frequencies were higher in non recurring than recurring tumors. A statistically significant difference was observed for HIC1 (P = 0.03), GSTP1 (P = 0.02) and RASSF1 (P = 0.03). The combination of the three genes showed 78% sensitivity and 66% specificity in identifying recurrent patients, with an overall accuracy of 72%.
CONCLUSIONS: Our preliminary data suggest a potential role of HIC1, GSTP1 and RASSF1 in predicting local recurrence in NMIBC. Such information could help clinicians to identify patients at high risk of recurrence who require close monitoring during follow up.

Brait M, Maldonado L, Noordhuis MG, et al.
Association of promoter methylation of VGF and PGP9.5 with ovarian cancer progression.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(9):e70878 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: To elucidate the role of biological and clinical impact of aberrant promoter hypermethylation (PH) in ovarian cancer (OC).
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: PH of PGP9.5, HIC1, AIM1, APC, PAK3, MGMT, KIF1A, CCNA1, ESR1, SSBP2, GSTP1, FKBP4 and VGF were assessed by quantitative methylation specific PCR (QMSP) in a training set. We selected two genes (VGF and PGP9.5) for further QMSP analysis in a larger independent validation (IV) set with available clinical data. Biologic relevance of VGF gene was also evaluated.
RESULTS: PH frequency for PGP9.5 and VGF were 85% (316/372) and 43% (158/366) respectively in the IV set of samples while no PH was observed in controls. In 372 OC cases with available follow up, PGP9.5 and VGF PH were correlated with better patient survival [Hazard Ratios (HR) for overall survival (OS) were 0.59 (95% Confidence Intervals (CI)  = 0.42-0.84, p = 0.004), and 0.73 (95%CI = 0.55-0.97, p = 0.028) respectively, and for disease specific survival (DSS) were 0.57 (95%CI 0.39-0.82, p = 0.003) and 0.72 (95%CI 0.54-0.96, p = 0.027). In multivariate analysis, VGF PH remained an independent prognostic factor for OS (HR 0.61, 95%CI 0.43-0.86, p<0.005) and DSS (HR 0.58, 95%CI 0.41-0.83, p<0.003). Furthermore, PGP9.5 PH was significantly correlated with lower grade, early stage tumors, and with absence of residual disease. Forced expression of VGF in OC cell lines inhibited cell growth.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that VGF and PGP9.5 PH are potential biomarkers for ovarian carcinoma. Confirmatory cohorts with longitudinal follow-up are required in future studies to define the clinical impact of VGF and PGP9.5 PH before clinical application.

Pan S, Wang Z, Chen Y, et al.
Inactivation of tumor suppressor gene HIC1 in gastric cancer is reversed via small activating RNAs.
Gene. 2013; 527(1):102-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
HIC1 is a tumor suppressor gene that is down-expressed in different malignancies, in part, because of promoter hypermethylation. However, the biological function of HIC1 in gastric cancer remains unclear. It is known that small double-stranded RNAs can induce gene expression by targeting promoter sequences. In the present study, we examined the expression levels of HIC1 in gastric cancer tissue. Several pieces of small double-stranded RNAs were used for the activation of HIC1. Tissue microarray analysis of gastric cancer indicated that down-regulation of HIC1 in gastric cancer tissue was dramatic compared with the adjacent gastric mucosa. Gastric cancer cell lines also showed down-regulated HIC1 expression compared with a human immortalized gastric mucosa cell line. One out of four dsRNAs produced activation of HIC1 as assessed by real-time PCR and Western blotting. Use of a cell counting kit 8 and clonogenicity assays indicated that dsRNA-mediated re-expression of HIC1 inhibited cell proliferation and clonogenicity in gastric cancer. Reactivation of HIC1 suppressed cell migration and induced cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase, as well as induced apoptosis. These results suggest that HIC1 is a potential target of gene therapy against gastric cancer, and that dsRNAs could function as a therapeutic option for up-regulating tumor suppressor genes in gastric cancer and other malignancies.

Alvarez MC, Ladeira MS, Scaletsky IC, et al.
Methylation pattern of THBS1, GATA-4, and HIC1 in pediatric and adult patients infected with Helicobacter pylori.
Dig Dis Sci. 2013; 58(10):2850-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori infection is usually acquired in childhood and persists into adulthood if untreated. The bacterium induces a chronic inflammatory response, which is associated with epigenetic alterations in oncogenes, tumor-suppressor genes, cell-cycle regulators, and cell-adhesion molecules.
AIM: The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of H. pylori infection on the methylation status of Thrombospondin-1 (THBS1), Hypermethylated in cancer 1 (HIC1) and Gata binding protein-4 (GATA-4) in gastric biopsy samples from children and adults infected or uninfected with the bacterium and in samples obtained from gastric cancer patients.
METHODS: The methylation pattern was analyzed with methylation-specific PCR.
RESULTS: Our results showed that H. pylori infection was associated with methylation of the promoter regions of the THBS1 and GATA-4 genes in pediatric and adult samples (p < 0.01). HIC1 showed the lowest level of methylation, which was not an early event during gastric carcinogenesis.
CONCLUSIONS: The results from this study indicate that methylation of THBS1 and GATA-4 occurs in the early stages of chronic gastritis and gastric cancer in association with H. pylori infection; however, in gastric cancer samples, other mechanisms cooperate with the down-regulation of these genes. Methylation of HIC1 may not be the principal mechanism implicated in its down-regulation in gastric cancer samples.

Marescalco MS, Capizzi C, Condorelli DF, Barresi V
Genome-wide analysis of recurrent copy-number alterations and copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
J Oral Pathol Med. 2014; 43(1):20-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the eighth most commonly diagnosed malignancy worldwide, and it is generally characterized by a poor prognosis. The aim of our study has been to identify possible recurring genomic abnormalities in this malignancy, likely to have a key role in pathogenesis.
METHODS: The single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-array data relative to 19 HNSCC samples (submitted by Poage et al., PloS ONE 2010; 5: e9651), accessible at NCBI GEO database (GSE20939), were analyzed using criteria that take into account both genotyping and intensity data. By this method, we determined the number and localization of recurrent copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity (CN-LOH) regions and compared them with recurrent somatic copy-number alterations (CNAs).
RESULTS: Single-nucleotide polymorphism-array data analysis allowed us to detect, for the first time in HNSCC, chromosomal segment of CN-LOHs in addition to CNAs. Chromosomal alterations have been detected in 14 (73.7%) of 19 samples, and the 12.1% of all alterations observed (LOHs, gains, and CN-LOHs) were CN-LOHs. The most recurrent gain events, occurring in 78.5% of cases (11 samples), were harbored within 8q21.11-q21.13 and 8q23.1-q24.22 loci, while the most recurrent loss and CN-LOH events were present at 3p21.31-p21.1 (57.1%; 8 samples) and 17p13.3-p13.1 (28.6%; 4 samples) loci, respectively.
CONCLUSION: The investigated chromosomal regions, in particular those with CN-LOH, harbored some interesting genes, such as HIC1, DOCK8, KANK1, and NOTCH1 whose role, mutations and epigenetic modifications in HNSCC deserve to be investigated, in order to understand the significance of CN-LOH events in HNSCC pathogenesis.

Rood BR, Leprince D
Deciphering HIC1 control pathways to reveal new avenues in cancer therapeutics.
Expert Opin Ther Targets. 2013; 17(7):811-27 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The tumor suppressor gene HIC1 (Hypermethylated in Cancer 1), which encodes a transcriptional repressor with multiple partners and multiple targets, is epigenetically silenced but not mutated in tumors. HIC1 has broad biological roles during normal development and is implicated in many canonical processes of cancer such as control of cell growth, cell survival upon genotoxic stress, cell migration, and motility.
AREAS COVERED: The HIC1 literature herein discussed includes its discovery as a candidate tumor suppressor gene hypermethylated or deleted in many human tumors, animal models establishing it as tumor suppressor gene, its role as a sequence-specific transcriptional repressor recruiting several chromatin regulatory complexes, its cognate target genes, and its functional roles in normal tissues. Finally, this review discusses how its loss of function contributes to the early steps in tumorigenesis.
EXPERT OPINION: Given HIC1's ability to direct repressive complexes to sequence-specific binding sites associated with its target genes, its loss results in specific changes in the transcriptional program of the cell. An understanding of this program through identification of HIC1's target genes and their involvement in feedback loops and cell process regulation will yield the ability to leverage this knowledge for therapeutic translation.

Rinner B, Weinhaeusel A, Lohberger B, et al.
Chordoma characterization of significant changes of the DNA methylation pattern.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(3):e56609 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chordomas are rare mesenchymal tumors occurring exclusively in the midline from clivus to sacrum. Early tumor detection is extremely important as these tumors are resistant to chemotherapy and irradiation. Despite continuous research efforts surgical excision remains the main treatment option. Because of the often challenging anatomic location early detection is important to enable complete tumor resection and to reduce the high incidence of local recurrences. The aim of this study was to explore whether DNA methylation, a well known epigenetic marker, may play a role in chordoma development and if hypermethylation of specific CpG islands may serve as potential biomarkers correlated with SNP analyses in chordoma. The study was performed on tumor samples from ten chordoma patients. We found significant genomic instability by Affymetrix 6.0. It was interesting to see that all chordomas showed a loss of 3q26.32 (PIK 3CA) and 3q27.3 (BCL6) thus underlining the potential importance of the PI3K pathway in chordoma development. By using the AITCpG360 methylation assay we elucidated 20 genes which were hyper/hypomethylated compared to normal blood. The most promising candidates were nine hyper/hypomethylated genes C3, XIST, TACSTD2, FMR1, HIC1, RARB, DLEC1, KL, and RASSF1. In summary, we have shown that chordomas are characterized by a significant genomic instability and furthermore we demonstrated a characteristic DNA methylation pattern. These findings add new insights into chordoma development, diagnosis and potential new treatment options.

Brait M, Munari E, LeBron C, et al.
Genome-wide methylation profiling and the PI3K-AKT pathway analysis associated with smoking in urothelial cell carcinoma.
Cell Cycle. 2013; 12(7):1058-70 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) is the second most common genitourinary malignant disease in the USA, and tobacco smoking is the major known risk factor for UCC development. Exposure to carcinogens, such as those contained in tobacco smoke, is known to directly or indirectly damage DNA, causing mutations, chromosomal deletion events and epigenetic alterations in UCC. Molecular studies have shown that chromosome 9 alterations and P53, RAS, RB and PTEN mutations are among the most frequent events in UCC. Recent studies suggested that continuous tobacco carcinogen exposure drives and enhances the selection of epigenetically altered cells in UCC, predominantly in the invasive form of the disease. However, the sequence of molecular events that leads to UCC after exposure to tobacco smoke is not well understood. To elucidate molecular events that lead to UCC oncogenesis and progression after tobacco exposure, we developed an in vitro cellular model for smoking-induced UCC. SV-40 immortalized normal HUC1 human bladder epithelial cells were continuously exposed to 0.1% cigarette smoke extract (CSE) until transformation occurred. Morphological alterations and increased cell proliferation of non-malignant urothelial cells were observed after 4 months (mo) of treatment with CSE. Anchorage-independent growth assessed by soft agar assay and increase in the migratory and invasive potential was observed in urothelial cells after 6 mo of CSE treatment. By performing a PCR mRNA expression array specific to the PI3K-AKT pathway, we found that 26 genes were upregulated and 22 genes were downregulated after 6 mo of CSE exposure of HUC1 cells. Among the altered genes, PTEN, FOXO1, MAPK1 and PDK1 were downregulated in the transformed cells, while AKT1, AKT2, HRAS, RAC1 were upregulated. Validation by RT-PCR and western blot analysis was then performed. Furthermore, genome-wide methylation analysis revealed MCAM, DCC and HIC1 are hypermethylated in CSE-treated urothelial cells when compared with non-CSE exposed cells. The methylation status of these genes was validated using quantitative methylation-specific PCR (QMSP), confirming an increase in methylation of CSE-treated urothelial cells compared to untreated controls. Therefore, our findings suggest that a tobacco signature could emerge from distinctive patterns of genetic and epigenetic alterations and can be identified using an in vitro cellular model for the development of smoking-induced cancer.

Dehennaut V, Loison I, Dubuissez M, et al.
DNA double-strand breaks lead to activation of hypermethylated in cancer 1 (HIC1) by SUMOylation to regulate DNA repair.
J Biol Chem. 2013; 288(15):10254-64 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
HIC1 (hypermethylated in cancer 1) is a tumor suppressor gene frequently epigenetically silenced in human cancers. HIC1 encodes a transcriptional repressor involved in the regulation of growth control and DNA damage response. We previously demonstrated that HIC1 can be either acetylated or SUMOylated on lysine 314. This deacetylation/SUMOylation switch is governed by an unusual complex made up of SIRT1 and HDAC4 which deacetylates and thereby favors SUMOylation of HIC1 by a mechanism not yet fully deciphered. This switch regulates the interaction of HIC1 with MTA1, a component of the NuRD complex and potentiates the repressor activity of HIC1. Here, we show that HIC1 silencing in human fibroblasts impacts the repair of DNA double-strand breaks whereas ectopic expression of wild-type HIC1, but not of nonsumoylatable mutants, leads to a reduced number of γH2AX foci induced by etoposide treatment. In this way, we demonstrate that DNA damage leads to (i) an enhanced HDAC4/Ubc9 interaction, (ii) the activation of SIRT1 by SUMOylation (Lys-734), and (iii) the SUMO-dependent recruitment of HDAC4 by SIRT1 which permits the deacetylation/SUMOylation switch of HIC1. Finally, we show that this increase of HIC1 SUMOylation favors the HIC1/MTA1 interaction, thus demonstrating that HIC1 regulates DNA repair in a SUMO-dependent way. Therefore, epigenetic HIC1 inactivation, which is an early step in tumorigenesis, could contribute to the accumulation of DNA mutations through impaired DNA repair and thus favor tumorigenesis.

Zheng J, Wang J, Sun X, et al.
HIC1 modulates prostate cancer progression by epigenetic modification.
Clin Cancer Res. 2013; 19(6):1400-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths among men in Western counties, which has also occurred in Chinese male with markedly increasing incidence in recent years. Although the mechanism underlying its progression still remains unclear, epigenetic modifications are important ethological parameters. The purpose of this study is to determine the methylation status and function of hypermethylatioted in cancer 1 (HIC1) in prostate cancer progression.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The methylation status of HIC1 promoter was assayed in cell lines, tissues, and plasma of patients with prostate cancer by using methylation-specific PCR and bisulfate sequencing PCR. The ability of HIC1 to regulate proliferation, migration, and invasion was assessed by MTT, scratch-healing assay, and reconstituted extracellular matrices in porous culture chambers. Tumorigenesis, metastases, and bone destruction were analyzed in mice bearing prostate cancer cells restoring HIC1 by using Xenogen IVIS with radiographic system and small-animal positron emission tomography computed tomographic images. Microarrays were searched for genes that had correlated expression with HIC1 mRNA. Reporter gene assays were used to determine whether HIC1 affected the expression of CXCR7, and chromatin immunoprecipitation was used to determine whether HIC1 bound to CXCR7 promoters. All P values were determined using 2-sided tests.
RESULTS: The methylation status of 11 CpG sites within HIC1 promoter was abundantly methylated in cell lines, tissues, and plasma of patients with prostate cancer compared with those of respective normal controls. Restoring HIC1 expression in prostate cancer cells markedly inhibited proliferation, migration, and invasion and induced the apoptosis in these cells. Moreover, mice bearing prostate cancer-restoring HIC1 cells had a marked effect on reducing tumor growth, multiple tissue metastases, and bone destruction. Notably, we also identified that the chemokine receptor CXCR7 is a direct downstream target gene of HIC1. Finally, we showed that CXCR7 promoter in prostate cancer cells is negatively regulated by HIC1, which may be responsible for prostate cancer progression.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data show for the first time that hypermethylation of HIC1 promoter results in loss of its repressive function, responsible for prostate cancer progression and invasion. These findings suggest that therapies targeting epigenetic events regulating HIC1 expression may provide a more effective strategy for prostate cancer treatment.

Kanamori M, Sano A, Yasuda T, et al.
Array-based comparative genomic hybridization for genomic-wide screening of DNA copy number alterations in aggressive bone tumors.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2012; 31:100 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The genetic pathways of aggressive changes of bone tumors are still poorly understood. It is very important to analyze DNA copy number alterations (DCNAs), to identify the molecular events in the step of progression to the aggressive change of bone tissue.
METHODS: Genome-wide array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) was used to investigate DCNAs of 14 samples from 13 aggressive bone tumors, such as giant cell tumors (GCTs) and osteosarcoma (OS), etc.
RESULTS: Primary aggressive bone tumors had copy number gains of 17.8±12.7% in the genome, and losses of 17.3±11.4% in 287 target clones (threshold for each DCNA: ≦085, 1.15≦). Genetic unstable cases, which were defined by the total DCNAs aberration ≧30%, were identified in 9 of 13 patients (3 of 7 GCTs and all malignant tumors). High-level amplification of TGFβ2, CCND3, WI-6509, SHGC-5557, TCL1A, CREBBP, HIC1, THRA, AFM217YD10, LAMA3, RUNX1 and D22S543, were commonly observed in aggressive bone tumors. On the other hand, NRAS, D2S447, RAF1, ROBO1, MYB, MOS, FGFR2, HRAS, D13S319, D13S327, D18S552, YES1 and DCC, were commonly low. We compared genetic instability between a primary OS and its metastatic site in Case #13. Metastatic lesion showed increased 9 DCNAs of remarkable change (m/p ratio ≧1.3 folds), compared to a primary lesion. D1S214, D1S1635, EXT1, AFM137XA11, 8 M16/SP6, CCND2, IGH, 282 M15/SP6, HIC1 and LAMA3, were overexpressed. We gave attention to HIC1 (17p13.3), which was common high amplification in this series.
CONCLUSION: Our results may provide several entry points for the identification of candidate genes associated with aggressive change of bone tumors. Especially, the locus 17p11-13 including HIC1 close to p53 was common high amplification in this series and review of the literature.

Dallol A, Al-Maghrabi J, Buhmeida A, et al.
Methylation of the polycomb group target genes is a possible biomarker for favorable prognosis in colorectal cancer.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2012; 21(11):2069-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cancer in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia with ever increasing incidence rates. DNA methylation is a common event in CRC where it is now considered an important phenomenon in CRC carcinogenesis and useful for the classification and prognosis of CRC.
METHODS: To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms underpinning CRC in Saudi Arabian patients, we profiled the DNA methylation frequency of key genes (MLH1, MSH2, RASSF1A, SLIT2, HIC1, MGMT, SFRP1, MYOD1, APC, CDKN2A, as well as five CIMP markers) in 120 sporadic CRC cases. CRC tumors originating from the rectum, left, and right colons are represented in this cohort of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues.
RESULTS: The most common methylation frequency was detected in the polycomb group target genes (PCGT) including SFRP1 (70%), MYOD1 (60.8%), HIC1 (61.7%), and SLIT2 (56.7%). In addition, MGMT methylation was detected at a high frequency (68.3%). RASSF1A, APC, and CDKN2A methylation frequencies were 42.5%, 25%, and 32.8%, respectively. K-means clustering analysis of the methylation events results in the clustering of the CRC samples into three groups depending on the level of methylation detected.
CONCLUSION: Group II (PCGT methylation and CIMP-negative) methylation signature carried a favorable prognosis for male patients, whereas older patients with group I rare methylation signature have a potentially poorer clinical outcome.
IMPACT: Methylation of the PCGT genes along with RASSF1A, APC, and MGMT can be potentially used as a new biomarker for the classification and prognosis of CRC tumors and independently of where the tumor has originated.

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