TPM3; tropomyosin 3 (1q21.2)

Gene Summary

Gene:TPM3; tropomyosin 3
Aliases: TM3, TM5, TRK, CFTD, NEM1, TM-5, TM30, CAPM1, TM30nm, TPMsk3, hscp30, HEL-189, HEL-S-82p, OK/SW-cl.5
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the tropomyosin family of actin-binding proteins. Tropomyosins are dimers of coiled-coil proteins that provide stability to actin filaments and regulate access of other actin-binding proteins. Mutations in this gene result in autosomal dominant nemaline myopathy and other muscle disorders. This locus is involved in translocations with other loci, including anaplastic lymphoma receptor tyrosine kinase (ALK) and neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 1 (NTRK1), which result in the formation of fusion proteins that act as oncogenes. There are numerous pseudogenes for this gene on different chromosomes. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:tropomyosin alpha-3 chain
Updated:14 December, 2014


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (12)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1989-2014)
Graph generated 14 December 2014 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Chromosome 1
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Ukraine
  • Oncogenes
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Oncogene Fusion Proteins
  • Lymphoma, Large-Cell, Anaplastic
  • Tumor Markers
  • NTRK1
  • Mutation
  • Signal Transduction
  • Chromosome 2
  • Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Down-Regulation
  • Lung Cancer
  • Translocation
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Western Blotting
  • Receptors, Nerve Growth Factor
  • Breast Cancer
  • Thyroid Cancer
  • Cancer DNA
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
  • Childhood Cancer
  • Messenger RNA
  • Adolescents
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Cell Movement
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Gene Rearrangement
  • NTRK2
  • Base Sequence
  • Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional
  • rho GTP-Binding Proteins
Tag cloud generated 14 December, 2014 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Notable (3)

Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Entity Topic PubMed Papers
Breast CancerTPM3 and Breast Cancer View Publications11
Lung CancerTPM3 and Lung Cancer View Publications11
Thyroid CancerTPM3 and Thyroid Cancer View Publications8

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Related Links

Latest Publications: TPM3 (cancer-related)

Sinkevicius KW, Kriegel C, Bellaria KJ, et al.
Neurotrophin receptor TrkB promotes lung adenocarcinoma metastasis.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014; 111(28):10299-304 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 15/01/2015 Related Publications
Lung cancer is notorious for its ability to metastasize, but the pathways regulating lung cancer metastasis are largely unknown. An in vitro system designed to discover factors critical for lung cancer cell migration identified brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which stimulates cell migration through activation of tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB; also called NTRK2). Knockdown of TrkB in human lung cancer cell lines significantly decreased their migratory and metastatic ability in vitro and in vivo. In an autochthonous lung adenocarcinoma model driven by activated oncogenic Kras and p53 loss, TrkB deficiency significantly reduced metastasis. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 directly regulated TrkB expression, and, in turn, TrkB activated Akt signaling in metastatic lung cancer cells. Finally, TrkB expression was correlated with metastasis in patient samples, and TrkB was detected more often in tumors that did not have Kras or epidermal growth factor receptor mutations. These studies demonstrate that TrkB is an important therapeutic target in metastatic lung adenocarcinoma.

Related: AKT1 NTRK2 Signal Transduction

Agaram NP, Zhang L, Sung YS, et al.
Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma with non-EWSR1-NR4A3 variant fusions correlate with rhabdoid phenotype and high-grade morphology.
Hum Pathol. 2014; 45(5):1084-91 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/05/2015 Related Publications
Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcomas (EMC) are rare soft tissue sarcomas with distinctive histology and uncertain histogenesis, characterized by Ewing sarcoma breakpoint region 1-nuclear receptor subfamily 4, group A, member 3 (EWSR1-NR4A3) fusion in 75% of the cases. A smaller proportion of cases show NR4A3 fused to other gene partners including TATA binding protein-associated factor 15 (TAF15), transcription factor 12 (TCF12), and TRK-fused gene (TFG). The impact of various gene fusions on morphology and outcome has not been previously evaluated. We investigated 26 consecutive EMCs and correlated the genetic findings with morphology and clinical outcome. There were 5 females and 21 males (median age, 49.5 years). Mean size of the tumors was 11 cm. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis showed EWSR1-NR4A3 gene fusion in 16 cases (62%), TAF15-NR4A3 gene fusion in 7 cases (27%), and TCF12-NR4A3 gene fusion in 1 case (4%). Two cases showed only NR4A3 gene rearrangements. Morphologically, most EWSR1-rearranged tumors (10/16) showed low cellularity, minimal cytologic atypia, and low mitotic counts. In contrast, 80% of EMCs with variant (non-EWSR1) NR4A3 gene fusions (TAF15, TCF12) had high-grade morphology with increased cellularity, proliferation, and cytologic atypia, showing a plasmacytoid/rhabdoid morphology in half the cases. Follow-up showed that only 1 of 16 patients with EWSR1-rearranged tumors died of disease, in contrast to 3 (43%) of 7 TAF15-rearranged tumors. In conclusion, EMCs with variant NR4A3 gene fusions show a higher incidence of rhabdoid phenotype, high-grade morphology, and a more aggressive outcome compared with the EWSR1-NR4A3 positive tumors. Furthermore, fluorescence in situ hybridization assay for NR4A3, along with EWSR1, may be an additional ancillary test to confirm diagnosis of EMCs.

Related: Chondrosarcoma Soft Tissue Sarcomas EWSR1 gene

Busam KJ, Kutzner H, Cerroni L, Wiesner T
Clinical and pathologic findings of Spitz nevi and atypical Spitz tumors with ALK fusions.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2014; 38(7):925-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
Spitz tumors represent a group of melanocytic neoplasms that typically affect young individuals. Microscopically, the lesions are composed of cytologically distinct spindle and epithelioid melanocytes, with a range in the architectural display or the cells, their nuclear features, and secondary epidermal or stromal changes. Recently, kinase fusions have been documented in a subset of Spitz tumors, but there is limited information on the clinical and pathologic features associated with those lesions. Here, we report a series of 17 patients (9 male, 8 female) with spitzoid neoplasms showing ALK fusions (5 Spitz nevi and 12 atypical Spitz tumors). The patients' ages ranged from 2 years to 35 years (mean=17 y; median=16 y). Most lesions were located on the lower extremities and presented clinically as polypoid nodules. All tumors were compound melanocytic proliferations with a predominant intradermal growth. Tumor thickness ranged from 1.1 to 6 mm (mean=2.9 mm; median=2.5 mm). The most characteristic histopathologic feature of the tumors (seen in all but 2 lesions) was a plexiform dermal growth of intersecting fascicles of fusiform melanocytes. All but 2 tumors were amelanotic. All tumors were strongly immunoreactive for ALK. The ALK rearrangements were confirmed in all cases by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and the fusion partner was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction as TPM3 (tropomyosin 3) in 11 cases and DCTN1 (dynactin 1) in 6 cases. None of the 8 tumors that were analyzed by FISH for copy number changes of 6p, 6q, 9p, or 11q met criteria for melanoma. Two patients underwent a sentinel lymph node biopsy, and in both cases melanocyte nests were found in the subcapsular sinus of the node. Array comparative genomic hybridization of these 2 tumors revealed no chromosomal gains or losses. In conclusion, our study revealed that Spitz nevi/tumors with ALK rearrangement show a characteristic plexiform morphology and that ALK immunohistochemistry and FISH enable the accurate identification of this morphologic and genetic distinct subset of spitzoid neoplasms.

Related: FISH Skin Cancer

Chen Y, Tseng SH
Targeting tropomyosin-receptor kinase fused gene in cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2014; 34(4):1595-600 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tropomyosin-receptor kinase fused gene (TRK-fused gene, TFG) encodes a protein which is a conserved regulator of protein secretion that localizes in the endoplasmic reticulum exit sites and controls the export of materials from the endoplasmic reticulum. It is important for intracellular trafficking of protein secretion. TFG belongs to the systems which control cell size, and is involved in regulatory mechanisms of apoptosis and cell proliferation. The TFG fusion proteins have been found to play a role in oncogenesis, with the activity of TFG fusion proteins promoting tumor development. In addition, TFG alone has been demonstrated to function like an oncoprotein; however, there are contradictory data suggesting TFG might act as a tumor suppressor. In this article, we will review the functions and regulation of TFG, the TFG fusion proteins, and the role of TFG in tumorigenesis. Finally, the potential of targeting TFG in cancer treatment is discussed.

Related: Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction

Forsyth PA, Krishna N, Lawn S, et al.
p75 neurotrophin receptor cleavage by α- and γ-secretases is required for neurotrophin-mediated proliferation of brain tumor-initiating cells.
J Biol Chem. 2014; 289(12):8067-85 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 21/03/2015 Related Publications
Malignant gliomas are highly invasive, proliferative, and resistant to treatment. Previously, we have shown that p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) is a novel mediator of invasion of human glioma cells. However, the role of p75NTR in glioma proliferation is unknown. Here we used brain tumor-initiating cells (BTICs) and show that BTICs express neurotrophin receptors (p75NTR, TrkA, TrkB, and TrkC) and their ligands (NGF, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and neurotrophin 3) and secrete NGF. Down-regulation of p75NTR significantly decreased proliferation of BTICs. Conversely, exogenouous NGF stimulated BTIC proliferation through α- and γ-secretase-mediated p75NTR cleavage and release of its intracellular domain (ICD). In contrast, overexpression of the p75NTR ICD induced proliferation. Interestingly, inhibition of Trk signaling blocked NGF-stimulated BTIC proliferation and p75NTR cleavage, indicating a role of Trk in p75NTR signaling. Further, blocking p75NTR cleavage attenuated Akt activation in BTICs, suggesting role of Akt in p75NTR-mediated proliferation. We also found that p75NTR, α-secretases, and the four subunits of the γ-secretase enzyme were elevated in glioblastoma multiformes patients. Importantly, the ICD of p75NTR was commonly found in malignant glioma patient specimens, suggesting that the receptor is activated and cleaved in patient tumors. These results suggest that p75NTR proteolysis is required for BTIC proliferation and is a novel potential clinical target.

Hong M, Kim RN, Song JY, et al.
HIP1-ALK, a novel fusion protein identified in lung adenocarcinoma.
J Thorac Oncol. 2014; 9(3):419-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The most common mechanism underlying overexpression and activation of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) in non-small-cell lung carcinoma could be attributed to the formation of a fusion protein. To date, five fusion partners of ALK have been reported, namely, echinoderm microtubule associated protein like 4, tropomyosin-related kinase-fused gene, kinesin family member 5B, kinesin light chain 1, and protein tyrosine phosphatase, nonreceptor type 3.
METHODS: In this article, we report a novel fusion gene huntingtin interacting protein 1 (HIP1)-ALK, which is conjoined between the huntingtin-interacting protein 1 gene HIP1 and ALK. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical analysis were used to detect this fusion gene's transcript and protein expression, respectively. We had amplified the full-length cDNA sequence of this novel fusion gene by using 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The causative genomic translocation t(2;7)(p23;q11.23) for generating this novel fusion gene was verified by using genomic sequencing.
RESULTS: The examined adenocarcinoma showed predominant acinar pattern, and ALK immunostaining was localized to the cytoplasm, with intense staining in the submembrane region. In break-apart, fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis for ALK, split of the 5' and 3' probe signals, and isolated 3' signals were observed. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction revealed that the tumor harbored a novel fusion transcript in which exon 21 of HIP1 was fused to exon 20 of ALK in-frame.
CONCLUSION: The novel fusion gene and its protein HIP1-ALK harboring epsin N-terminal homology, coiled-coil, juxtamembrane, and kinase domains, which could play a role in carcinogenesis, could become diagnostic and therapeutic target of the lung adenocarcinoma and deserve a further study in the future.

Related: Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer FISH Lung Cancer

Narayanan R, Yepuru M, Coss CC, et al.
Discovery and preclinical characterization of novel small molecule TRK and ROS1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors for the treatment of cancer and inflammation.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(12):e83380 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 21/03/2015 Related Publications
Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), in response to their growth factor ligands, phosphorylate and activate downstream signals important for physiological development and pathological transformation. Increased expression, activating mutations and rearrangement fusions of RTKs lead to cancer, inflammation, pain, neurodegenerative diseases, and other disorders. Activation or over-expression of ALK, ROS1, TRK (A, B, and C), and RET are associated with oncogenic phenotypes of their respective tissues, making them attractive therapeutic targets. Cancer cDNA array studies demonstrated over-expression of TRK-A and ROS1 in a variety of cancers, compared to their respective normal tissue controls. We synthesized a library of small molecules that inhibit the above indicated RTKs with picomolar to nanomolar potency. The lead molecule GTx-186 inhibited RTK-dependent cancer cell and tumor growth. In vitro and in vivo growth of TRK-A-dependent IMR-32 neuroblastoma cells and ROS1-overexpressing NIH3T3 cells were inhibited by GTx-186. GTx-186 also inhibited inflammatory signals mediated by NFκB, AP-1, and TRK-A and potently reduced atopic dermatitis and air-pouch inflammation in mice and rats. Moreover, GTx-186 effectively inhibited ALK phosphorylation and ALK-dependent cancer cell growth. Collectively, the RTK inhibitor GTx-186 has a unique kinase profile with potential to treat cancer, inflammation, and neuropathic pain.

Related: Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction NTRK1 gene Signal Transduction

Atak ZK, Gianfelici V, Hulselmans G, et al.
Comprehensive analysis of transcriptome variation uncovers known and novel driver events in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
PLoS Genet. 2013; 9(12):e1003997 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 21/03/2015 Related Publications
RNA-seq is a promising technology to re-sequence protein coding genes for the identification of single nucleotide variants (SNV), while simultaneously obtaining information on structural variations and gene expression perturbations. We asked whether RNA-seq is suitable for the detection of driver mutations in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). These leukemias are caused by a combination of gene fusions, over-expression of transcription factors and cooperative point mutations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. We analyzed 31 T-ALL patient samples and 18 T-ALL cell lines by high-coverage paired-end RNA-seq. First, we optimized the detection of SNVs in RNA-seq data by comparing the results with exome re-sequencing data. We identified known driver genes with recurrent protein altering variations, as well as several new candidates including H3F3A, PTK2B, and STAT5B. Next, we determined accurate gene expression levels from the RNA-seq data through normalizations and batch effect removal, and used these to classify patients into T-ALL subtypes. Finally, we detected gene fusions, of which several can explain the over-expression of key driver genes such as TLX1, PLAG1, LMO1, or NKX2-1; and others result in novel fusion transcripts encoding activated kinases (SSBP2-FER and TPM3-JAK2) or involving MLLT10. In conclusion, we present novel analysis pipelines for variant calling, variant filtering, and expression normalization on RNA-seq data, and successfully applied these for the detection of translocations, point mutations, INDELs, exon-skipping events, and expression perturbations in T-ALL.

Li SS, Liu JJ, Wang S, et al.
Clinical significance of TrkB expression in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 31(2):665-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent research has demonstrated that tropomyosin‑related kinase B (TrkB) plays an important role in neuronal survival, differentiation and migration; yet, its specific role in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is unclear. To elucidate its role in NPC, we examined TrkB expression in NPC tissues and cell lines, and investigated the correlation between TrkB expression and prognosis in patients with NPC. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on NPC specimens from 108 patients with follow-up information. Additionally, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analyses were used to determine TrkB expression levels in NPC and noncancerous nasopharyngeal tissues. RT-PCR and western blot analyses were also used to determine TrkB expression levels in 7 NPC cell lines and a nasopharyngeal epithelium cell line. High TrkB expression was significantly correlated with T classification, lymph node metastasis and clinical stage, respectively. Patients with NPC who had high TrkB expression had reduced disease-free survival and overall survival when compared with patients who had low TrkB expression. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that TrkB overexpression was an independent prognostic factor for patients with NPC. Furthermore, TrkB was overexpressed in NPC specimens and cell lines. TrkB expression levels were significantly increased in NPC specimens, and enhanced levels were correlated with a poor prognosis in patients with NPC. These findings suggest that TrkB may contribute to NPC progression and represent a novel prognostic indicator for patients with NPC.

Related: Nasopharyngeal Cancer

Skoda J, Neradil J, Zitterbart K, et al.
EGFR signaling in the HGG-02 glioblastoma cell line with an unusual loss of EGFR gene copy.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 31(1):480-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene amplification and the overexpression of EGFR are described as common features of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Nevertheless, we previously reported the loss of EGFR gene copy in a GBM specimen from a patient with an unusually favorable course of the disease, and the HGG-02 cell line with this aberration was successfully derived from this tumor. Here, we present a detailed analysis of changes in gene expression and cell signaling in the HGG-02 cell line; the GM7 reference cell line with a standard EGFR gene copy number derived from a very aggressive GBM was used as a control. We confirmed the downregulation of EGFR expression and signaling in HGG-02 cells using different methods (RTK analysis, gene profiling and RT-PCR). Other changes that may have contributed to the non-aggressive phenotype of the primary tumor were identified, including the downregulated phosphorylation of the Axl and Trk receptors, as well as increased activity of JNK and p38 kinases. Notably, differences in PDGF signaling were detected in both of these cell lines; HGG-02 cells preferentially expressed and signaled through PDGFRα, and PDGFRβ was strongly overexpressed and phosphorylated in the GM7 reference cell line. Using expression profiling of cancer-related genes, we revealed the specific profile of HGG-02 cells that included upregulated tumor-suppressors as well as downregulated genes associated with the extracellular matrix. This study represents the first comprehensive analysis of gene expression and cell signaling in glioblastoma cells with lower EGFR gene dosage. As indicated by our results, the TAM receptors, Trk receptors and PDGFRs need to be investigated further since their regulation appears to be important for glioblastoma biological features as well as the clinical course of the disease.

Related: PDGFB gene NTRK1 gene Signal Transduction PDGFA AXL

Wang Y, Gao X, Wei F, et al.
Diagnostic and prognostic value of circulating miR-21 for cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Gene. 2014; 533(1):389-97 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to be aberrantly expressed in patients with cancer. Many studies have shown that circulating miRNAs could play potential roles as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of cancers. The aim of this meta-analysis is to summarize the role of circulating miR-21 as a biomarker in patients with a variety of carcinomas.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eligible studies were identified and assessed for quality through multiple search strategies. For diagnostic meta-analysis, the sensitivity, specificity, and other measures of miR-21 in the diagnosis of cancer were pooled using bivariate random-effects approach models. For prognostic meta-analysis, pooled hazard ratios (HRs) of circulating miR-21 for survival were calculated.
RESULTS: A total of 36 studies dealing with various carcinomas were included for the systemic review. Among them, 23 studies were finally enrolled in the global meta-analysis (17 studies for diagnosis and 6 studies for prognosis). For diagnostic meta-analysis, the overall pooled results for sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (LRP), negative likelihood ratios (LRN) and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) were 75.7% (95% CI: 67.1%-82.6%), 79.3% (95% CI: 74.2%-83.5%), 3.65 (95% CI: 2.83-4.70), 0.31 (95% CI: 0.22-0.43), and 11.88 (95% CI: 6.99-20.19), respectively. For prognostic meta-analysis, the pooled HR of higher miR-21 expression in circulation was 2.37 (95% CI: 1.83-3.06, P<0.001), which could significantly predict poorer survival in general carcinomas. Importantly, subgroup analysis suggested that higher expression of miR-21 correlated with worse overall survival (OS) significantly in carcinomas of digestion system (HR, 5.77 [95% CI: 2.65-12.52]).
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that circulating miR-21 may not suitable to be a diagnostic biomarker, but it has a prognostic value in patients with cancer.

Related: Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction miR-21

Häbig K, Gellhaar S, Heim B, et al.
LRRK2 guides the actin cytoskeleton at growth cones together with ARHGEF7 and Tropomyosin 4.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013; 1832(12):2352-67 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene represent the most common genetic cause of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, LRRK2 function and molecular mechanisms causing the parkinsonian phenotype remain widely unknown. Most of LRRK2 knockdown and overexpression models strengthen the relevance of LRRK2 in regulating neurite outgrowth. We have recently identified ARHGEF7 as the first guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) of LRRK2. This GEF is influencing neurite outgrowth through regulation of actin polymerization. Here, we examined the expression profile of neuroblastoma cells with reduced LRRK2 and ARHGEF7 levels to identify additional partners of LRRK2 in this process. Tropomyosins (TPMs), and in particular TPM4, were the most interesting candidates next to other actin cytoskeleton regulating transcripts in this dataset. Subsequently, enhanced neurite branching was shown using primary hippocampal neurons of LRRK2 knockdown animals. Furthermore, we observed an enhanced number of growth cones per neuron and a mislocalization and dysregulation of ARHGEF7 and TPM4 in these neuronal compartments. Our results reveal a fascinating connection between the neurite outgrowth phenotype of LRRK2 models and the regulation of actin polymerization directing further investigations of LRRK2-related pathogenesis.

Related: Neuroblastoma

Farrelly LA, Savage NT, O'Callaghan C, et al.
Therapeutic concentrations of valproate but not amitriptyline increase neuropeptide Y (NPY) expression in the human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line.
Regul Pept. 2013; 186:123-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a peptide found in the brain and autonomic nervous system, which is associated with anxiety, depression, epilepsy, learning and memory, sleep, obesity and circadian rhythms. NPY has recently gained much attention as an endogenous antiepileptic and antidepressant agent, as drugs with antiepileptic and/or mood-stabilizing properties may exert their action by increasing NPY concentrations, which in turn can reduce anxiety and depression levels, dampen seizures or increase seizure threshold. We have used human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells to investigate the effect of valproate (VPA) and amitriptyline (AMI) on NPY expression at therapeutic plasma concentrations of 0.6mM and 630nM, respectively. In addition, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) known to differentiate SH-SY5Y cells into a neuronal phenotype and to increase NPY expression through activation of protein kinase C (PKC) was applied as a positive control (16nM). Cell viability after drug treatment was tested with a 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. NPY expression was measured using immunofluorescence and quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Results from immunocytochemistry have shown NPY levels to be significantly increased following a 72h but not 24h VPA treatment. A further increase in expression was observed with simultaneous VPA and TPA treatment, suggesting that the two agents may increase NPY expression through different mechanisms. The increase in NPY mRNA by VPA and TPA was confirmed with qRT-PCR after 72h. In contrast, AMI had no effect on NPY expression in SH-SY5Y cells. Together, the data point to an elevation of human NPY mRNA and peptide levels by therapeutic concentrations of VPA following chronic treatment. Thus, upregulation of NPY may have an impact in anti-cancer treatment of neuroblastomas with VPA, and antagonizing hypothalamic NPY effects may help to ameliorate VPA-induced weight gain and obesity without interfering with the desired central effects of VPA.

Related: Neuroblastoma

Peng WM, Maintz L, Allam JP, et al.
Increased circulating levels of neurotrophins and elevated expression of their high-affinity receptors on skin and gut mast cells in mastocytosis.
Blood. 2013; 122(10):1779-88 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mastocytosis is a rare heterogeneous disease characterized by increase of mast cells (MCs) in different organs. Neurotrophins (NTs) have been shown to promote differentiation and survival of MCs, which in turn represent a major source of NTs. Thus, a contribution of NTs to mastocytosis seems highly conceivable but has not yet been investigated. We could demonstrate expression of high-affinity NT receptors tropomyosin-related kinase A (TrkA) for nerve growth factor (NGF)-β, TrkB for brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and NT-4 and TrkC for NT-3 on skin MCs; and of TrkA and TrkC on intestinal MCs of patients with mastocytosis. Moreover, increased expression of NGF-β; NT-3; TrkA, TrkB, and TrkC; and isoforms truncated TrkB-T1 and truncated TrkC were observed on skin MCs. Patients with mastocytosis featured elevated serum levels of NGF, NT-3, and NT-4. Levels of NGF-β and NT-4 correlated with tryptase levels, suggesting a link between MC load and blood levels of NGF and NT-4. Migration of CD117+ progenitor cells from the blood was enhanced toward NGF-β gradient in both mastocytosis and controls. Together with enhanced NT levels, the elevated expression of modified Trk receptors on skin and gut MCs might contribute to the pathophysiology of mastocytosis in autocrine and paracrine loops.

Tang HY, Beer LA, Tanyi JL, et al.
Protein isoform-specific validation defines multiple chloride intracellular channel and tropomyosin isoforms as serological biomarkers of ovarian cancer.
J Proteomics. 2013; 89:165-78 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 21/03/2015 Related Publications
UNLABELLED: New serological biomarkers for early detection and clinical management of ovarian cancer are urgently needed, and many candidates have been reported. A major challenge frequently encountered when validating candidates in patients is establishing quantitative assays that distinguish between highly homologous proteins. The current study tested whether multiple members of two recently discovered ovarian cancer biomarker protein families, chloride intracellular channel (CLIC) proteins and tropomyosins (TPM), were detectable in ovarian cancer patient sera. A multiplexed, label-free multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) assay was established to target peptides specific to all detected CLIC and TPM family members, and their serum levels were quantitated for ovarian cancer patients and non-cancer controls. In addition to CLIC1 and TPM1, which were the proteins initially discovered in a xenograft mouse model, CLIC4, TPM2, TPM3, and TPM4 were present in ovarian cancer patient sera at significantly elevated levels compared with controls. Some of the additional biomarkers identified in this homolog-centric verification and validation approach may be superior to the previously identified biomarkers at discriminating between ovarian cancer and non-cancer patients. This demonstrates the importance of considering all potential protein homologs and using quantitative assays for cancer biomarker validation with well-defined isoform specificity.
BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This manuscript addresses the importance of distinguishing between protein homologs and isoforms when identifying and validating cancer biomarkers in plasma or serum. Specifically, it describes the use of targeted in-depth LC-MS/MS analysis to determine the members of two protein families, chloride intracellular channel (CLIC) and tropomyosin (TPM) proteins that are detectable in sera of ovarian cancer patients. It then establishes a multiplexed isoform- and homology-specific MRM assay to quantify all observed gene products in these two protein families as well as many of the closely related tropomyosin isoforms. Using this assay, levels of all detected CLICs and TPMs were quantified in ovarian cancer patient and control subject sera. These results demonstrate that in addition to the previously known CLIC1, multiple tropomyosins and CLIC4 are promising new ovarian cancer biomarkers. Based on these initial validation studies, these new ovarian cancer biomarkers appear to be superior to most previously known ovarian cancer biomarkers.

Related: Ovarian Cancer

Varisli L
Identification of new genes downregulated in prostate cancer and investigation of their effects on prognosis.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers. 2013; 17(7):562-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prostate cancer is the most common noncutaneous malignant neoplasm in men in the Western countries. It is well established that genetic and epigenetic alterations are common events in prostate cancer, which may lead to aberrant expression of critical genes. Most of the studies are focused on the overexpressed or duplicated genes in prostate cancer. However, it is known that some of the differentially expressed genes in prostate cancer are downregulated. Since the inventory of downregulated genes is incomplete, we performed in silico approaches to reveal the novel prostate cancer downregulated genes. Moreover, we also investigated for a possible link between the expression of the downregulated genes and tumor grade, recurrence, metastasis, or survival status in prostate cancer. Our results showed that the expression of GSTP1 and AOX1 are downregulated in prostate cancer, in concordance with previous reports. Moreover, we showed that TPM2, CLU, and COL4A6 mRNA levels are downregulated in prostate cancer. Further, we found a significant negative correlation between the expression of the above-mentioned genes and the prognosis of prostate cancer.

Related: CLU GSTP1 Prostate Cancer

He M, Wang L, Pu J, et al.
Proliferin-related protein overexpression in SGC‑7901 gastric cancer cells inhibits in vitro cell growth and tumorigenesis in nude mice.
Oncol Rep. 2013; 29(6):2243-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
As reported in the literature, the worldwide 5-year overall survival rate for patients with gastric cancer receiving surgical treatment in the progressive stage is less than 25%. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Our preliminary studies demonstrated that proliferin-related protein (PRP) inhibits the proliferation of TM3 Leydig testicular cells. To evaluate whether PRP has antitumor effects in vitro and in vivo, we stably expressed PRP in SGC-7901 gastric carcinoma cells. PRP inhibited the proliferation and cell cycle progression of SCG-7901 cells, as determined by cell growth and cell cycle assays. Transwell experiments demonstrated that PRP inhibited the cell migration and invasion of SCG-7901 cells. Western blotting demonstrated that PRP-overexpressing cells had upregulated matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) and downregulated tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1). In a xenograft tumor formation assay using nude mice, tumors formed by PRP-overexpressing cells had significantly lower weights than those formed by control cells, and the tumor inhibitory rate reached 71.9%. We demonstrated for the first time that PRP inhibits gastric carcinoma cell proliferation, motility, and tumorigenicity in vivo, suggesting that PRP may become an important target for the development of gastric cancer gene therapy.

Related: MMP9: matrix metallopeptidase 9 Stomach Cancer Gastric Cancer TIMP1

Arseneault R, Chien A, Newington JT, et al.
Attenuation of LDHA expression in cancer cells leads to redox-dependent alterations in cytoskeletal structure and cell migration.
Cancer Lett. 2013; 338(2):255-66 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aerobic glycolysis, the preferential use of glycolysis even in the presence of oxygen to meet cellular metabolic demands, is a near universal feature of cancer. This unique type of metabolism is thought to protect cancer cells from damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced in the mitochondria. Using the cancer cell line MDA-MB-435 it is shown that shRNA mediated knockdown of lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), a key mediator of aerobic glycolysis, results in elevated mitochondrial ROS production and a concomitant decrease in cell proliferation and motility. Redox-sensitive proteins affected by oxidative stress associated with LDHA knockdown were identified by Redox 2D-PAGE and mass spectrometry. In particular, tropomyosin (Tm) isoforms Tm4, Tm5NM1 and Tm5NM5, proteins involved in cell migration and cytoskeletal dynamics, exhibited changes in disulfide bonding and co-localized with peri-nuclear actin aggregates in LDHA knockdown cells. In contrast, treatment with the thiol-based antioxidant N-acetylcysteine promoted the relocalization of Tms to cortical actin microfilaments and partially rescued the migration defects associated with attenuated LDHA expression. These results suggest that aerobic glycolysis and reduced mitochondrial ROS production create an environment conducive to cytoskeletal remodeling; key events linked to the high cell motility associated with cancer.

Related: Breast Cancer Mitochondrial Mutations in Cancer LDHA

Lv L, Huang F, Mao H, et al.
MicroRNA-21 is overexpressed in renal cell carcinoma.
Int J Biol Markers. 2013 Apr-Jun; 28(2):201-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To identify microRNAs (miRNAs) that are overexpressed in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and characterize the functional role of miR-21.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The miRNA expression profiles between RCC tissue and adjacent normal tissue were compared using microarray analysis. The differential expression of miR-21 was validated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). 786-O RCC cells were transfected with miR-21 mimic, miR-21 inhibitor, or negative controls and cell proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle were examined by MTT assay and flow cytometry. The expression of programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) and tropomyosin 1 (TPM1) was detected by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis.
RESULTS: Compared to adjacent normal tissue, 10 human miRNAs were significantly upregulated and 7 were downregulated in RCC tissue. RT-PCR confirmed that miR-21 was significantly overexpressed in RCC tissue. In vitro expression of miR-21 mimic promoted the growth of 786-O cells, whereas miR-21 inhibitor inhibited cell growth by inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at S phase. Furthermore, miR-21 mimic or inhibitor significantly reduced or increased the expression of PDCD4 and TPM1.
CONCLUSIONS: MiR-21 is overexpressed in RCC tissue and modulates the growth, apoptosis and cell cycle progression of RCC cells and regulates the expression of PDCD4 and TPM1.

Related: Apoptosis miR-21 PDCD4

Sasahira T, Ueda N, Kurihara M, et al.
Tropomyosin receptor kinases B and C are tumor progressive and metastatic marker in colorectal carcinoma.
Hum Pathol. 2013; 44(6):1098-106 [PubMed] Related Publications
Members of the tropomyosin receptor kinase (Trk) family have a high affinity for neurotrophins and regulate neuronal survival. The role of Trks in cancer is still controversial. The expression and role of TrkB and TrkC were examined in colorectal cancer (CRC). Immunohistochemical analysis of TrkB and TrkC was performed in 133 patients with CRC. Using human CRC cell lines, expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and transforming growth factor β, cell growth, invasion, and apoptosis were examined by knockdown methods. Immunohistochemistry showed positive results of TrkB and TrkC (23.3% and 12.8%, respectively). TrkB expression was associated with local progression (P = .0284), clinical stage (P = .0026), nodal metastasis (P = .0068), and peritoneal metastasis (P = .0026). TrkC expression was only related to liver metastasis (P = .0001). Coexpression of TrkB or TrkC and their ligands was found in 80.6% and 82.4% of cases, respectively. In vitro analysis using human CRC cells showed that TrkB positively regulated gene expression of VEGF-A (P < .05) and VEGF-C (P < .05), whereas TrkC suppressed transforming growth factor β expression (P < .05). TrkB and TrkC induced cell growth (P < .05) and invasion (P < .05), respectively. Both TrkB and TrkC showed antiapoptotic effect (P < .05). These results suggest that TrkB and TrkC have a tumor progressive function and may be a useful diagnostic and therapeutic target in CRC.

Related: Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer NTRK2 NTRK3 gene

Imam JS, Plyler JR, Bansal H, et al.
Genomic loss of tumor suppressor miRNA-204 promotes cancer cell migration and invasion by activating AKT/mTOR/Rac1 signaling and actin reorganization.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(12):e52397 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 21/03/2015 Related Publications
Increasing evidence suggests that chromosomal regions containing microRNAs are functionally important in cancers. Here, we show that genomic loci encoding miR-204 are frequently lost in multiple cancers, including ovarian cancers, pediatric renal tumors, and breast cancers. MiR-204 shows drastically reduced expression in several cancers and acts as a potent tumor suppressor, inhibiting tumor metastasis in vivo when systemically delivered. We demonstrated that miR-204 exerts its function by targeting genes involved in tumorigenesis including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a neurotrophin family member which is known to promote tumor angiogenesis and invasiveness. Analysis of primary tumors shows that increased expression of BDNF or its receptor tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) parallel a markedly reduced expression of miR-204. Our results reveal that loss of miR-204 results in BDNF overexpression and subsequent activation of the small GTPase Rac1 and actin reorganization through the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway leading to cancer cell migration and invasion. These results suggest that microdeletion of genomic loci containing miR-204 is directly linked with the deregulation of key oncogenic pathways that provide crucial stimulus for tumor growth and metastasis. Our findings provide a strong rationale for manipulating miR-204 levels therapeutically to suppress tumor metastasis.

Related: Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction AKT1 Signal Transduction

Yang W, Wang X, Zheng W, et al.
Genetic and epigenetic alterations are involved in the regulation of TPM1 in cholangiocarcinoma.
Int J Oncol. 2013; 42(2):690-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cholangiocarcinoma is a malignant tumor originating from biliary epithelial cells. The tumor suppressor gene tropomyosin 1 (TPM1) is downregulated in several human cancer types; however, its expression status in cholangiocarcinoma is still unknown. We elucidated TPM1 expression and its regulation mechanism in cholangiocarcinoma. Real-time (RT)-PCR, western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry were performed to examine TPM1 expression levels in cholangiocarcinoma cell lines and tumor tissues. Cell lines were treated with lentiviral vector containing the miR-21 knockdown and inhibitors of genetic and epigenetic mechanisms (manumycin A, LY294002, U0126, DAC and TSA), and the TPM1 expression change was observed by RT-PCR and western blot analyses. Cell proliferation, apoptosis and migration were evaluated by water-soluble tetrazolium salt (WST-1) assay, flow cytometry and wound healing experiments, respectively. TPM1 was downregulated in the intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma cells (HuCCT1) and upregulated in the extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma cells (QBC939) compared with normal intrahepatic biliary epithelial cells (HIBEC). TPM1 stained negative in the intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma tissues, as revealed by immunohistochemistry, although there was no significant difference in staining of the intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma tissues and adjacent non-cancer tissues. RAS and two important downstream signaling pathways (RAS/PI3K/AKT and RAS/MEK/ERK) were involved in TPM1 regulation and inhibition of the epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation, histone deacetylation and miR-21 upregulation upregulated TPM1 expression. Inhibitors of genetic and epigenetic mechanisms (manumycin A, LY294002, U0126, DAC and TSA) inhibited cell proliferation and migration and induced apoptosis. These data indicated that TPM1 is downregulated in HuCCT1 cells and that the Ras signaling pathway as well as DNA methylation, histone deacetylation and miR-21 upregulation play important roles in the suppression of TPM1 expression in HuCCT1 cells. Thus, compounds that inhibit genetic and epigenetic mechanisms may be promising agents in treating cholangiocarcinoma.

Related: Apoptosis Extra-Hepatic Bile duct cancer (cholangiocarcinoma) Signal Transduction miR-21

Degl'Innocenti D, Romeo P, Tarantino E, et al.
DUSP6/MKP3 is overexpressed in papillary and poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma and contributes to neoplastic properties of thyroid cancer cells.
Endocr Relat Cancer. 2013; 20(1):23-37 [PubMed] Related Publications
Thyroid carcinomas derived from follicular cells comprise papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), follicular thyroid carcinoma, poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC) and undifferentiated anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC). PTC, the most frequent thyroid carcinoma histotype, is associated with gene rearrangements that generate RET/PTC and TRK oncogenes and with BRAF-V600E and RAS gene mutations. These last two genetic lesions are also present in a fraction of PDTCs. The ERK1/2 pathway, downstream of the known oncogenes activated in PTC, has a central role in thyroid carcinogenesis. In this study, we demonstrate that the BRAF-V600E, RET/PTC, and TRK oncogenes upregulate the ERK1/2 pathway's attenuator cytoplasmic dual-phase phosphatase DUSP6/MKP3 in thyroid cells. We also show DUSP6 overexpression at the mRNA and protein levels in all the analysed PTC cell lines. Furthermore, DUSP6 mRNA was significantly higher in PTC and PDTC in comparison with normal thyroid tissues both in expression profile datasets and in patients' surgical samples analysed by real-time RT-PCR. Immunohistochemical and western blot analyses showed that DUSP6 was also overexpressed at the protein level in most PTC and PDTC surgical samples tested, but not in ATC, and revealed a positive correlation trend with ERK1/2 pathway activation. Finally, DUSP6 silencing reduced the neoplastic properties of four PTC cell lines, thus suggesting that DUSP6 may have a pro-tumorigenic role in thyroid carcinogenesis.

Related: Apoptosis Thyroid Cancer

Shiohira H, Kitaoka A, Enjoji M, et al.
Am80 induces neuronal differentiation via increased tropomyosin-related kinase B expression in a human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line.
Biomed Res. 2012; 33(5):291-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Am80, a synthetic retinoid, has been used in differentiation therapy for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) as one of natural retinoid has been also used to treat APL. ATRA treatment causes neuronal differentiation by inducing tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) expression and increasing the sensitivity to brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a TrkB ligand. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Am80 on neuronal differentiation, BDNF sensitivity and TrkB expression in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Treatment with Am80 induced morphological differentiation of neurite outgrowth and increased the expression of GAP43 mRNA, a neuronal differentiation marker. Additionally, TrkB protein was also increased, and exogenous BDNF stimulation after treatment with Am80 induced greater neurite outgrowth than without BDNF treatment. These results suggest that Am80 induced neuronal differentiation by increasing TrkB expression and BDNF sensitivity.

Related: Neuroblastoma NTRK2

Huang RY, Chen GB, Matsumura N, et al.
Histotype-specific copy-number alterations in ovarian cancer.
BMC Med Genomics. 2012; 5:47 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 21/03/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Epithelial ovarian cancer is characterized by multiple genomic alterations; most are passenger alterations which do not confer tumor growth. Like many cancers, it is a heterogeneous disease and can be broadly categorized into 4 main histotypes of clear cell, endometrioid, mucinous, and serous. To date, histotype-specific copy number alterations have been difficult to elucidate. The difficulty lies in having sufficient sample size in each histotype for statistical analyses.
METHODS: To dissect the heterogeneity of ovarian cancer and identify histotype-specific alterations, we used an in silico hypothesis-driven approach on multiple datasets of epithelial ovarian cancer.
RESULTS: In concordance with previous studies on global copy number alterations landscape, the study showed similar alterations. However, when the landscape was de-convoluted into histotypes, distinct alterations were observed. We report here significant histotype-specific copy number alterations in ovarian cancer and showed that there is genomic diversity amongst the histotypes. 76 cancer genes were found to be significantly altered with several as potential copy number drivers, including ERBB2 in mucinous, and TPM3 in endometrioid histotypes. ERBB2 was found to have preferential alterations, where it was amplified in mucinous (28.6%) but deleted in serous tumors (15.1%). Validation of ERBB2 expression showed significant correlation with microarray data (p=0.007). There also appeared to be reciprocal relationship between KRAS mutation and copy number alterations. In mucinous tumors where KRAS mutation is common, the gene was not significantly altered. However, KRAS was significantly amplified in serous tumors where mutations are rare in high grade tumors.
CONCLUSIONS: The study demonstrates that the copy number landscape is specific to the histotypes and identification of these alterations can pave the way for targeted drug therapy specific to the histotypes.

Related: Ovarian Cancer

Ivanov SV, Panaccione A, Brown B, et al.
TrkC signaling is activated in adenoid cystic carcinoma and requires NT-3 to stimulate invasive behavior.
Oncogene. 2013; 32(32):3698-710 [PubMed] Related Publications
Treatment options for adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the salivary gland, a slowly growing tumor with propensity for neuroinvasion and late recurrence, are limited to surgery and radiotherapy. Based on expression analysis performed on clinical specimens of salivary cancers, we identified in ACC expression of the neurotrophin-3 receptor TrkC/NTRK3, neural crest marker SOX10, and other neurologic genes. Here, we characterize TrkC as a novel ACC marker, which was highly expressed in 17 out of 18 ACC primary-tumor specimens, but not in mucoepidermoid salivary carcinomas or head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Expression of the TrkC ligand NT-3 and Tyr-phosphorylation of TrkC detected in our study suggested the existence of an autocrine signaling loop in ACC with potential therapeutic significance. NT-3 stimulation of U2OS cells with ectopic TrkC expression triggered TrkC phosphorylation and resulted in Ras, Erk 1/2 and Akt activation, as well as VEGFR1 phosphorylation. Without NT-3, TrkC remained unphosphorylated, stimulated accumulation of phospho-p53 and had opposite effects on p-Akt and p-Erk 1/2. NT-3 promoted motility, migration, invasion, soft-agar colony growth and cytoskeleton restructuring in TrkC-expressing U2OS cells. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that TrkC-positive ACC specimens also show high expression of Bcl2, a Trk target regulated via Erk 1/2, in agreement with activation of the TrkC pathway in real tumors. In normal salivary gland tissue, both TrkC and Bcl2 were expressed in myoepithelial cells, suggesting a principal role for this cell lineage in the ACC origin and progression. Sub-micromolar concentrations of a novel potent Trk inhibitor AZD7451 completely blocked TrkC activation and associated tumorigenic behaviors. Pre-clinical studies on ACC tumors engrafted in mice showed efficacy and low toxicity of AZD7451, validating our in vitro data and stimulating more research into its clinical application. In summary, we describe in ACC a previously unrecognized pro-survival neurotrophin signaling pathway and link it with cancer progression.

Related: NTRK3 gene Signal Transduction

Zare M, Jazii FR, Soheili ZS, Moghanibashi MM
Downregulation of tropomyosin-1 in squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus, the role of Ras signaling and methylation.
Mol Carcinog. 2012; 51(10):796-806 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tropomyosins (TMs) are a family of cytoskeletal proteins that bind to and stabilize actin microfilaments. Non-muscle cells express multiple isoforms of TMs including three high molecular weight (HMW) isoforms: TM1, TM2, and TM3. While reports have indicated downregulation of TMs in transformed cells and several human cancers, nevertheless, little is known about the underlying mechanism of TMs suppression. In present study the expression of HMW TMs was investigated in squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus (SCCE), relative to primary cell cultures of normal esophagus by western blotting and real-time RT-PCR. Our results showed that TM1, TM2, and TM3 were significantly downregulated in cell line of SCCE. Moreover, mRNA level of TPM1 and TPM2 were markedly decreased by 93% and 96%, in tumor cell line relative to esophagus normal epithelial cells. Therefore, downregulation of TMs could play an important role in tumorigenesis of esophageal cancer. To asses the mechanism of TM downregulation in esophageal cancer, the role of Ras dependent signaling and promoter hypermethylation were investigated. We found that inhibition of two Ras effectory downstream pathways; MEK/ERK and PI3K/Akt leads to significant increased expression of TM1 protein and both TPM1 and TPM2 mRNAs. In addition, methyltransferase inhibition significantly upregulated TM1, suggesting the prominent contribution of promoter hypermethylation in TM1 downregulation in esophageal cancer. These data indicate that downregulation of HMW TMs occurs basically in SCCE and the activation of MEK/ERK and PI3K/Akt pathways as well as the epigenetic mechanism of promoter hypermethylation play important role in TM1 suppression in SCCE.

Related: Cancer of the Esophagus Esophageal Cancer Signal Transduction

Tonini GP, Nakagawara A, Berthold F
Towards a turning point of neuroblastoma therapy.
Cancer Lett. 2012; 326(2):128-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
In 1983, the MYCN oncogene amplification was discovered in neuroblastoma cells and few years later its prognostic role was clearly demonstrated. The first European study, in which MYCN gene status is taken as prognostic factor for therapeutic decision, was released by SIOPEN and GPOH in 1995. Afterward, other trials were released by SIOPEN, GPOH, COG, and JNBSG in which MYCN gene amplification was employed as prognostic risk factor. However, since MYCN is abnormal in about 20% of tumors and is a reliable prognostic marker for only some subgroups of patients, additional chromosomal abnormalities have been introduced for clinical decisions: 1p deletions/imbalances (GPOH), 11q deletions/imbalances (COG), and structural copy number aberrations (SIOPEN). MYCN gene status and chromosome aberrations improved patients' risk evaluation and helped to develop tailored therapy for diverse subgroups of patients. Unfortunately, high risk patients still have an unfavorable prognosis and are the major challenge for oncologists. In the last decade, the advent of genome-wide analysis and the next generation sequencing technique have given the opportunity to deeply investigate the genome of neuroblastoma to identify both candidate genes associated with tumor progression and druggable target genes. ALK gene is an actual candidate for the therapy with small molecule inhibitors, but others as mTOR, Aurora, and TRK, are suitable targets for subgroups of high risk patients. The huge amount of clinical and biological information collected in the last 20 years suggests that it is time to turn on for new and more personalized therapies of neuroblastoma.

Related: Neuroblastoma

Makino K, Kawamura K, Sato W, et al.
Inhibition of uterine sarcoma cell growth through suppression of endogenous tyrosine kinase B signaling.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(7):e41049 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 21/03/2015 Related Publications
Uterine leiomyosarcoma is an aggressive tumor typically found at advanced stages due to difficulties with early diagnosis. Because uterine leiomyosarcoma is resistant to conventional radiation and chemotherapy, the development of more potent medical therapeutics is anticipated. Using quantitative real-time RT-PCR and immunostaining, we found the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotropin-4/5, together with their receptor, tyrosine kinase B (TrkB), in different uterine sarcoma cell lines and primary tumor samples from uterine leiomyosarcoma patients. We noted that levels of BDNF were more abundant than those of neurotropin-4/5. Moreover, the expression of TrkB and its ligands was elevated in a multidrug-resistant cell line and samples obtained from patients with leiomyosarcoma. In cultured uterine sarcoma cells, inhibition of endogenous TrkB signaling by treatment with either the soluble TrkB ectodomain or the Trk receptor inhibitor, K252a, suppressed cell proliferation and increased apoptosis based on cell viability and proliferation, in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated 2'-deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate nick end-labeling and caspase-3/7 assays, whereas an inactive plasma membrane nonpermeable K252b was ineffective. Correspondingly, treatment with exogenous BDNF increased cell proliferation. In in vivo studies in athymic nude mice bearing multidrug-resistant uterine sarcoma cell tumors, we demonstrate suppression of tumor growth by treatment with K252a, but not K252b, as reflected by decreased cell proliferation and increased levels of apoptosis and caspase-3/7 activities without obvious side effects. Our findings indicated that endogenous signaling of the TrkB pathway contributed to uterine sarcoma cell growth, and inhibition of TrkB signaling in these tumors could provide a novel medical therapy for patients with uterine sarcomas.

Related: NTRK2 Soft Tissue Sarcomas Signal Transduction Uterine Sarcoma

Sasahira T, Ueda N, Yamamoto K, et al.
Trks are novel oncogenes involved in the induction of neovascularization, tumor progression, and nodal metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Clin Exp Metastasis. 2013; 30(2):165-76 [PubMed] Related Publications
The function of tropomyosin receptor kinase (Trk) family including TrkA, TrkB, and TrkC in cancer remains unknown. The role of Trks in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) was examined. Knockdown of Trks provided inhibition of growth or invasion and decrease of apoptosis in OSCC cells, which expressed Trks at high levels. VEGF expression was associated with TrkA and TrkB expression; a decrease of VEGF-C and VEGF-D was observed in OSCC cells with TrkB knockdown. TrkC did not affect the expression of VEGF family. An immunohistochemical analysis of 102 OSCCs showed that TrkB expression was related to microvessel density (MVD), lymph vessel density (LVD), and poor prognosis. TrkC expression was correlated with clinical stage, lymph node metastasis, MVD, LVD, and poor prognosis. TrkA expression was associated with VEGF expression, whereas TrkB expression was associated with the expressions of VEGF, VEGF-C and VEGF-D. No significant association was found between the expression of TrkC and genes of the VEGF family. Expression of Trks was not associated with RUNX3 silencing by methylation in OSCC cells. Trks expression was inversely correlated with RUNX3 expression in the OSCC cases. These results suggested that Trks enhances progression of OSCC through angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis.

Related: Apoptosis RUNX3 Oral Cancer Angiogenesis and Cancer NTRK1 gene


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Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. TPM3 gene, Cancer Genetics Web: http://www.cancerindex.org/geneweb/TPM3.htm Accessed: date

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