Gene Summary

Gene:TUBB3; tubulin beta 3 class III
Aliases: CDCBM, FEOM3, TUBB4, CDCBM1, CFEOM3, beta-4, CFEOM3A
Summary:This gene encodes a class III member of the beta tubulin protein family. Beta tubulins are one of two core protein families (alpha and beta tubulins) that heterodimerize and assemble to form microtubules. This protein is primarily expressed in neurons and may be involved in neurogenesis and axon guidance and maintenance. Mutations in this gene are the cause of congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles type 3. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants. A pseudogene of this gene is found on chromosome 6. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2010]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:tubulin beta-3 chain
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: TUBB3 (cancer-related)

Öztop S, Işik A, Güner G, et al.
Class III β-tubulin Expression in Colorectal Neoplasms Is a Potential Predictive Biomarker for Paclitaxel Response.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(2):655-662 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: The challenges of cololorectal cancer (CRC) management include prediction of outcome and drug response or chemoresistance. This study aimed at examining whether βIII-tubulin (TUBB3), present in various types of normal tissues and cancer, is a biomarker for the response of colorectal neoplasms to paclitaxel.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six tissue microarrays (TMAs) including 14 colon mucosa, 78 polyps and 202 CRCs were constructed. Assessment of TUBB3 expression was performed by immunohistochemistry, and it was scored as negative, focal and positive. In the HCT116 cell line, TUBB3 expression was silenced with siRNA. Paclitaxel toxicity was evaluated in TUBB3-silenced and control HCT116 cell lines.
RESULTS: The non-neoplastic colon mucosa was negative for TUBB3, while some of colon adenomas and CRCs expressed TUBB3 in various levels from focal to diffuse. TUBB3-expressing CRCs tended to have poor prognosis and silencing of TUBB3 sensitized the cells to paclitaxel.
CONCLUSION: TUBB3 was expressed in a subgroup of colorectal neoplasms. Suppression of TUBB3 potentialy sensitizes neoplastic cells to taxanes.

Li S, Zhao X, Chang S, et al.
ERp57‑small interfering RNA silencing can enhance the sensitivity of drug‑resistant human ovarian cancer cells to paclitaxel.
Int J Oncol. 2019; 54(1):249-260 [PubMed] Related Publications
ERp57 has been identified to be associated with the chemoresistance of human ovarian cancer. However, its biological roles in the chemoresistance phenotype remain unclear. In the present study, the association of ERp57 with paclitaxel‑resistant cellular behavior was investigated and the sensitivity enhancement of chemoresistant human ovarian cancer cells to paclitaxel was examined using ERp57‑small interfering (si)RNA silencing. Cell viability, cell proliferation, cell apoptosis and cell migration were detected using an MTT assay, clonogenic assay, flow cytometry analysis and transwell assay. Furthermore, mRNA expression levels of ERp57 and protein expression levels of ERp57, STAT3, phosphorylated STAT3, PCNA, nucelolin, TUBB3, P-gp, vimentin, Bcl-2, Bax, Bcl-xl, p53, MMP1, MMP2 and MMP9 of paclitaxel-sensitive human SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells were compared with paclitaxel-resistant counterpart SKOV3/tax using the real-time PCR and western blot analysis. ERp57 was highly expressed in the paclitaxel‑resistant SKOV3/tax cells, and experimental results concluded that the paclitaxel‑resistance phenotype was due primarily to the activation of the STAT3 signaling pathway. ERp57 overexpression by lentiviral particle infection decreased the sensitivity of SKOV3 cells to paclitaxel. Furthermore, ERp57‑siRNA silencing restored paclitaxel sensitivity of SKOV3/tax cells. Notably, the IC50 value of ERp57‑siRNA silenced SKOV3/tax cells was reduced to the original level and colony survival was significantly decreased in comparison with that of SKOV3/tax cells. Additionally, co‑treatment of ERp57‑siRNA silencing and paclitaxel could inhibit the STAT3 signaling pathway and downregulate the expression levels of downstream proteins. Notably, ERp57‑siRNA and 100 nM paclitaxel co‑treatment downregulated Bcl‑2, Bcl‑xl, MMP2, MMP9, TUBB3 and P‑gp expression levels and upregulated the expression of Bax protein. Furthermore, co‑treatment promoted change of the isoform of p53 to p53/p47. Bioinformatics analyses supported the experimental observations that ERp57 was associated with drug resistance in ovarian cancer. The present study implies that ERp57 is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of paclitaxel‑resistant human ovarian cancer.

Gerashchenko TS, Denisov EV, Novikov NM, et al.
Different morphological structures of breast tumors demonstrate individual drug resistance gene expression profiles.
Exp Oncol. 2018; 40(3):228-234 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To identify gene expression profiles involved in drug resistance of different morphological structures (tubular, alveolar, solid, trabecular, and discrete) presented in breast cancer.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten patients with luminal breast cancer have been included. A laser microdissection-assisted microarrays and qRT-PCR were used to perform whole-transcriptome profiling of different morphological structures, to select differentially expressed drug response genes, and to validate their expression.
RESULTS: We found 27 differentially expressed genes (p < 0.05) encoding drug uptake (SLC1A3, SLC23A2, etc.) and efflux (ABCC1, ABCG1, etc.) transporters, drug targets (TOP2A, TYMS, and Tubb3), and proteins that are involved in drug detoxification (NAT1 and ALDH1B1), cell cycle progression (CCND1, AKT1, etc.), apoptosis (CASP3, TXN2, etc.), and DNA repair (BRCA1 and USP11). Each type of structures showed an individual gene expression profile related to resistance and sensitivity to anticancer drugs. However, most of the genes (19/27; p < 0.05) were expressed in alveolar structures. Functional enrichment analysis showed that drug resistance is significantly associated with alveolar structures. Other structures demonstrated the similar number (10-13 out of 27) of expressed genes; however, the spectrum of resistance and sensitivity to different anticancer drugs varied.
CONCLUSION: Different morphological structures of breast cancer show individual expression of drug resistance genes.

Wang B, Li D, Rodriguez-Juarez R, et al.
A suppressive role of guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit beta-4 inhibited by DNA methylation in the growth of anti-estrogen resistant breast cancer cells.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):817 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women worldwide. Although the endocrine therapy that targets estrogen receptor α (ERα) signaling has been well established as an effective adjuvant treatment for patients with ERα-positive breast cancers, long-term exposure may eventually lead to the development of acquired resistance to the anti-estrogen drugs, such as fulvestrant and tamoxifen. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying antiestrogen resistance and identification of the key molecules involved may help in overcoming antiestrogen resistance in breast cancer.
METHODS: The whole-genome gene expression and DNA methylation profilings were performed using fulvestrant-resistant cell line 182
RESULTS: Among 9 candidate genes, GNB4 was identified and validated by qRT-PCR as a potential target silenced by DNA methylation via DNA methyltransferase 3B (DNMT3B). We generated stable 182
CONCLUSION: GNB4 is important for growth of breast cancer cells and a potential target for treatment.

Meagher NS, Schuster K, Voss A, et al.
Does the primary site really matter? Profiling mucinous ovarian cancers of uncertain primary origin (MO-CUP) to personalise treatment and inform the design of clinical trials.
Gynecol Oncol. 2018; 150(3):527-533 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Advanced stage mucinous ovarian cancers are diagnostically and therapeutically challenging. Histotype specific trials have failed due to low recruitment after excluding non-ovarian primaries. Mucinous ovarian cancers are commonly metastatic from other sites however lack definitive diagnostic markers. We suggest a classification of mucinous ovarian cancers of uncertain primary origin 'MO-CUPs' in clinical trials. This study aims to identify drug targets to guide treatment and future trials.
METHODS: We analyzed a large de-identified, multi-platform tumor profiling dataset of MO-CUPs enriched for advanced stage and recurrent cases submitted to Caris Life Sciences. Available data included a 45-gene next-generation sequencing (NGS) panel, gene amplification of HER2 and cMET and 18 immunohistochemical (IHC) markers of drug sensitivity/resistance.
RESULTS: Mucinous tumors from 333 patients were analyzed, including 38 borderline tumors and 295 invasive cancers. The most common mutations in a subset (n = 128) of invasive cancers were KRAS (60%), TP53 (38%), PIK3CA (13%) and PTEN (9%). Borderline tumors had higher rates of BRAF mutations, and PGP and TOP2A overexpression than invasive cases. KRAS mutant invasive cancers had lower expression of thymidylate synthase (p = 0.01) and higher expression of TUBB3 (p = 0.01) than KRAS wildtype tumors.
CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the largest series profiling mucinous ovarian cancers and almost certainly includes cases of ovarian and non-ovarian origin. Given the difficulty recruiting patients to histotype-specific trials in rare subsets of ovarian cancer, it may be more important to focus on identifying potential treatment targets and to personalise treatment and design clinical trials in MO-CUPS agnostic of primary site to overcome these issues.

Tsai YJ, Huang SC, Lin HH, et al.
Differences in gene mutations according to gender among patients with colorectal cancer.
World J Surg Oncol. 2018; 16(1):128 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The incidence, site distribution, and mortality rates of patients with colorectal cancer differ according to gender. We investigated gene mutations in colorectal patients and wanted to examine gender-specific differences.
METHODS: A total of 1505 patients who underwent surgical intervention for colorectal cancer were recruited from March 2000 to January 2010 at Taipei Veterans' General Hospital and investigated for gene mutations in K-ras, N-ras, H-ras, BRAF, loss of 18q, APC, p53, SMAD4, TGF-β, PIK3CA, PTEN, FBXW7, AKT1, and MSI.
RESULTS: There were significant differences between male and female patients in terms of tumor location (p < 0.0001) and pathological stage (p = 0.011). The female patients had significantly more gene mutations in BRAF (6.4 vs. 3.3%, OR 1.985, p = 0.006), TGF-β (4.7 vs. 2.5%, OR 1.887, p = 0.027), and revealed a MSI-high status (14.0 vs. 8.3%, OR 1.800, p = 0.001) than male patients. Male patients had significantly more gene mutations in N-ras (5.1 vs. 2.3%, OR 2.227, p = 0.012); however, the significance was maintained only for mutations in BRAF (OR 2.104, p = 0.038), MSI-high status (OR 2.003 p = 0.001), and N-ras (OR 3.000, p = 0.010) after the groups were divided by tumor site.
CONCLUSION: Gene mutations in BRAF, MSI-high status, and N-ras differ according to gender among patients with colorectal cancer.

Yang Z, Zhang R, Ge Y, et al.
Somatic FGFR3 Mutations Distinguish a Subgroup of Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancers with Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy.
EBioMedicine. 2018; 35:198-203 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The administration of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) preceding radical cystectomy benefits overall survival for patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). However, the relationship between the genetic profiling of MIBC and NAC response remains unclear. Here, a mutation panel of six cancer-associated genes (TSC1, FGFR3, TERT, TP53, PIK3CA and ERBB2) and an immunohistochemistry (IHC) panel containing eight bladder cancer (BC) biomarkers (EGFR, RRM1, PD-L1, BRCA1, TUBB3, ERCC, ERCC1, aberrantly glycosylated integrin α3β1 (AG) and CK5/6) were developed. BC samples from patients who showed a pathologic response (n = 39) and non-response (n = 13) were applied to the panel analysis. ERBB2, FGFR3 and PIK3CA exclusively altered in the responders group (19/39, 48.7%), in which FGFR3 mutations were significantly enriched in patients with a response in the cohort (14/39, 35.9%; P = 0.01). Additionally, strong expression of ERCC1 was associated with a pathologic response (P = 0.01). However, positive lymph node metastasis (P < 0.01) and lymph-vascular invasion (LVI) (P = 0.03) were correlated with a non-response. Overall, the data show that FGFR3 mutations and elevated expression of ERCC1 in MIBCs are potential predictive biomarkers of the response to NAC.

Hashimoto Y, Penas-Prado M, Zhou S, et al.
Rethinking medulloblastoma from a targeted therapeutics perspective.
J Neurooncol. 2018; 139(3):713-720 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Medulloblastoma is an aggressive but potentially curable central nervous system tumor that remains a treatment challenge. Analysis of therapeutic targets can provide opportunities for the selection of agents.
METHODS: Using multiplatform analysis, 36 medulloblastomas were extensively profiled from 2009 to 2015. Immunohistochemistry, next generation sequencing, chromogenic in situ hybridization, and fluorescence in situ hybridization were used to identify overexpressed proteins, immune checkpoint expression, mutations, tumor mutational load, and gene amplifications.
RESULTS: High expression of MRP1 (89%, 8/9 tumors), TUBB3 (86%, 18/21 tumors), PTEN (85%, 28/33 tumors), TOP2A (84%, 26/31 tumors), thymidylate synthase (TS; 80%, 24/30 tumors), RRM1 (71%, 15/21 tumors), and TOP1 (63%, 19/30 tumors) were found in medulloblastoma. TOP1 was found to be enriched in metastatic tumors (90%; 9/10) relative to posterior fossa cases (50%; 10/20) (p = 0.0485, Fisher exact test), and there was a positive correlation between TOP2A and TOP1 expression (p = 0.0472). PD-1 + T cell tumor infiltration was rare, PD-L1 tumor expression was uncommon, and TML was low, indicating that immune checkpoint inhibitors as a monotherapy should not necessarily be prioritized for therapeutic consideration based on biomarker expression. Gene amplifications such as those of Her2 or EGFR were not found. Several unique mutations were identified, but their rarity indicates large-scale screening efforts would be necessary to identify sufficient patients for clinical trial inclusion.
CONCLUSIONS: Therapeutics are available for several of the frequently expressed targets, providing a justification for their consideration in the setting of medulloblastoma.

Courtoy GE, Donnez J, Ambroise J, et al.
Gene expression changes in uterine myomas in response to ulipristal acetate treatment.
Reprod Biomed Online. 2018; 37(2):224-233 [PubMed] Related Publications
RESEARCH QUESTION: Does ulipristal acetate (UPA) modify the expression of genes related to apoptosis or the extracellular matrix in uterine myomas and are any modifications associated with a clinical response?
DESIGN: Targeted analysis of 176 apoptosis- or extracellular-matrix-related genes was conducted using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) arrays. Relevant results were validated by quantitative PCR. Four groups were established: responsive short-term (one course, n = 9), responsive long-term (two to four courses, n = 9), non-responsive (n = 9), and the control group who was not given any hormone therapy (n = 9). The clinical response was monitored by medical imagery and considered significant when volume reduction was greater than 25%.
RESULTS: Compared with untreated myomas, significant changes in expression of four genes were found in UPA-treated myomas. Gene expression of integrin subunit beta 4 was repressed by UPA treatment (fold change [FC] = -12.50, P < 0.001, q < 0.001), tenascin-C expression was downregulated in UPA-responsive patients (FC = -2.50, P = 0.010, q = 0.090), survivin was repressed in short-term UPA-responsive tumours (FC = -7.69, P < 0.001, q = 0.010), and catenin delta 2 gene expression was upregulated in non-responsive myomas (FC = +7.36, P < 0.001, q = 0.010).
CONCLUSION: This characterization provides the first molecular distinction between myomas responsive or non-responsive to UPA treatment.

Li HP, Peng CC, Wu CC, et al.
Inactivation of the tight junction gene CLDN11 by aberrant hypermethylation modulates tubulins polymerization and promotes cell migration in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2018; 37(1):102 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Aberrant hypermethylation of cellular genes is a common phenomenon to inactivate genes and promote tumorigenesis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).
METHODS: Methyl binding domain (MBD)-ChIP sequencing of NPC cells, microarray data of NPC biopsies and gene ontology analysis were conducted to identify a potential tumor suppressor gene CLDN11 that was both hypermethylated and downregulated in NPC. Bisulfite sequencing, qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry staining of the NPC clinical samples and addition of methylation inhibitor, 5'azacytidine, in NPC cells were performed to verify the correlation between DNA hypermethylation and expression of CLDN11. Promoter reporter and EMSA assays were used to dissect the DNA region responsible for transcription activator binding and to confirm whether DNA methylation could affect activator's binding, respectively. CLDN11 was transiently overexpressed in NPC cells followed by cell proliferation, migration, invasion assays to characterize its biological roles. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments and proteomic approach were carried out to identify novel interacting protein(s) and the binding domain of CLDN11. Anti-tumor activity of the CLDN11 was elucidated by in vitro functional assay.
RESULTS: A tight junction gene, CLDN11, was identified as differentially hypermethylated gene in NPC. High methylation percentage of CLDN11 promoter in paired NPC clinical samples was correlated with low mRNA expression level. Immunohistochemistry staining of NPC paired samples tissue array demonstrated that CLDN11 protein expression was relatively low in NPC tumors. Transcription activator GATA1 bound to CLDN11 promoter region - 62 to - 53 and its DNA binding activity was inhibited by DNA methylation. Re-expression of CLDN11 reduced cell migration and invasion abilities in NPC cells. By co-immunoprecipitation and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry LC-MS/MS, tubulin alpha-1b (TUBA1B) and beta-3 (TUBB3), were identified as the novel CLDN11-interacting proteins. CLDN11 interacted with these two tubulins through its intracellular loop and C-terminus. Furthermore, these domains were required for CLDN11-mediated cell migration inhibition. Treatment with a tubulin polymerization inhibitor, nocodazole, blocked NPC cell migration.
CONCLUSIONS: CLDN11 is a hypermethylated and downregulated gene in NPC. Through interacting with microtubules TUBA1B and TUBB3, CLDN11 blocks the polymerization of tubulins and cell migration activity. Thus, CLDN11 functions as a potential tumor suppressor gene and silencing of CLDN11 by DNA hypermethylation promotes NPC progression.

Schulze M, Hutterer M, Sabo A, et al.
Chronophin regulates active vitamin B6 levels and transcriptomic features of glioblastoma cell lines cultured under non-adherent, serum-free conditions.
BMC Cancer. 2018; 18(1):524 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The phosphatase chronophin (CIN/PDXP) has been shown to be an important regulator of glioma cell migration and invasion. It has two known substrates: p-Ser3-cofilin, the phosphorylated form of the actin binding protein cofilin, and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, the active form of vitamin B6. Phosphoregulation of cofilin, among other functions, plays an important role in cell migration, whereas active vitamin B6 is a cofactor for more than one hundred enzymatic reactions. The role of CIN has yet only been examined in glioblastoma cell line models derived under serum culture conditions.
RESULTS: We found that CIN is highly expressed in cells cultured under non-adherent, serum-free conditions that are thought to better mimic the in vivo situation. Furthermore, the substrates of CIN, p-Ser3-cofilin and active vitamin B6, were significantly reduced as compared to cell lines cultured in serum-containing medium. To further examine its molecular role we stably knocked down the CIN protein with two different shRNA hairpins in the glioblastoma cell lines NCH421k and NCH644. Both cell lines did not show any significant alterations in proliferation but expression of differentiation markers (such as GFAP or TUBB3) was increased in the knockdown cell lines. In addition, colony formation was significantly impaired in NCH644. Of note, in both cell lines CIN knockdown increased active vitamin B6 levels with vitamin B6 being known to be important for S-adenosylmethionine biosynthesis. Nevertheless, global histone and DNA methylation remained unaltered as was chemoresistance towards temozolomide. To further elucidate the role of phosphocofilin in glioblastoma cells we applied inhibitors for ROCK1/2 and LIMK1/2 to our model. LIMK- and ROCK-inhibitor treatment alone was not toxic for glioblastoma cells. However, it had profound, but antagonistic effects in NCH421k and NCH644 under chemotherapy.
CONCLUSION: In non-adherent glioblastoma cell lines cultured in serum-free medium, chronophin knockdown induces phenotypic changes, e.g. in colony formation and transcription, but these are highly dependent on the cellular background. The same is true for phenotypes observed after treatment with inhibitors for kinases regulating cofilin phosphorylation (ROCKs and LIMKs). Targeting the cofilin phosphorylation pathway might therefore not be a straightforward therapeutic option in glioblastoma.

Gong Y, Yang J, Wu W, et al.
Preserved SCN4B expression is an independent indicator of favorable recurrence-free survival in classical papillary thyroid cancer.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(5):e0197007 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Voltage-gated sodium channel β subunits (encoded by SCN1B to SCN4B genes) have been demonstrated as important multifunctional signaling molecules modulating cellular processes such as cell adhesion and cell migration. In this study, we aimed to explore the expression profiles of SCN4B in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and its prognostic value in terms of recurrence-free survival (RFS) in classical PTC. In addition, we also examined the potential effect of DNA methylation on its expression. A retrospective study was performed by using data from available large databases, including the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) datasets and the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA)-Thyroid Cancer (THCA). Results showed that SCN4B is downregulated at both RNA and protein level in PTC compared with normal thyroid tissues. Preserved SCN4B expression was an independent indicator of favorable RFS in patients with classical PTC, no matter as categorical variables (HR: 0.243, 95%CI: 0.107-0.551, p = 0.001) or as a continuous variable (HR: 0.684, 95%CI: 0.520-0.899, p = 0.007). The methylation status of one CpG site (Chr11: 118,022,316-318) in SCN4B DNA had a moderately negative correlation with SCN4B expression in all PTC cases (Pearson's r = -0.48) and in classical PTC cases (Pearson's r = -0.41). In comparison, SCN4B DNA copy number alterations (CNAs) were not frequent and might not influence its mRNA expression. In addition, no somatic mutation was found in SCN4B DNA. Based on these findings, we infer that preserved SCN4B expression might independently predict favorable RFS in classical PTC. Its expression might be suppressed by DNA hypermethylation, but is less likely to be influenced by DNA CNAs/mutations.

Li R, Dou S, Ruan M, et al.
A feasibility and safety study of concurrent chemotherapy based on genetic testing in patients with high-risk salivary gland tumors: Preliminary results.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2018; 97(17):e0564 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: This prospective study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility and safety of customized chemotherapy regimens based on the gene characteristics of salivary gland tumors.
METHODS: Patients were enrolled with histologically confirmed intermediate or high grade, stage T3-4, N1-3 disease, and T1-2, N0 patients with a close (≤1 mm) or microscopically positive surgical margin were also enrolled in the study. All patients received radical surgery and postoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy. To evaluate the responsiveness of therapies, the chemotherapy regimen was based on gene targets, β-tubulin III, ABCB1, STMN1, and CYP1B1 (for docetaxel) and TYMS (for pemetrexed). The primary endpoints were treatment compliance and acute toxicities.
RESULTS: A total of 20 patients were enrolled between September 2013 and January 2016. The median age was 46 years (range: 23-70 years). Genetic testing showed that 8 patients may have been sensitive to docetaxel, 5 patients may have been sensitive to pemetrexed, and 7 patients sensitive to either docetaxel or pemetrexed. All patients received the full dose of radiation. A total of 19 patients (95%) completed 2 cycles of concurrent chemotherapy (CCT). One patient treated concurrently with pemetrexed experienced grade 3 neutropenia. Three patients experienced grade 3 oral mucositis, and 2 patients experienced grade 3 dermatitis.
CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that a CCT selecting method based on the gene targets associated with drug sensitivity was clinically feasible and safe. Further studies enrolled more patients with longer follow-up times are needed to confirm the clinical efficacy of this CCT selecting method.

Şeker S, Güven C, Akçakaya H, et al.
Evidence that Extreme Dilutions of Paclitaxel and Docetaxel Alter Gene Expression of In Vitro Breast Cancer Cells.
Homeopathy. 2018; 107(1):32-39 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Gene expression analysis of cells treated with extreme dilutions or micro amounts of drugs has been used to provide useful suggestions about biological responses. However, most of the previous studies were performed on medicines being prepared from a variety of herbal and metal sources. This study investigated the effects of ultramolecular dilution of the taxane anti-cancer drugs, which are not commonly used in homeopathic medicines, on mRNA expression profiles of five key genes (
METHOD: MCF-7 cells were exposed to paclitaxel (Taxol) or docetaxel (Taxotere) preparations (6X, 5C and 15C dilutions prepared from pharmacological concentration of 25 nmol/L) for 72 hours. The cell culture groups were evaluated with the trypan blue dye exclusion method for the proliferation/cytotoxicity rates, immuno-staining β-tubulin for microtubule organization, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for gene expression levels.Fold-change in gene expression was determined by the ΔΔCt method.
RESULTS: The administration of diluted preparations had little or no cytotoxic effect on MCF-7 cells, but altered the expression of genes analyzed with a complex effect. According to the ΔΔCt method with a five-fold expression difference (
CONCLUSION: Despite some limitations, our findings demonstrate that gene expression alterations also occur with ultra-high dilutions of taxane drugs.

Morita T, Hayashi K
Tumor Progression Is Mediated by Thymosin-β4 through a TGFβ/MRTF Signaling Axis.
Mol Cancer Res. 2018; 16(5):880-893 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although enhanced thymosin β4 (TMSB4X/Tβ4) expression is associated with tumor progression and metastasis, its tumor-promoting functions remain largely unknown. Here, it is demonstrated that TGFβ facilitates Tβ4 expression and leads to the activation of myocardin-related transcription factors (MRTF), which are coactivators of serum response factor (SRF) and regulate the expression of genes critical for the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and tumor metastasis. In murine mammary gland cells (NMuMG), Tβ4 upregulation is required for full induction of a MRTF-regulated EMT gene expression program after TGFβ stimulation. Tβ4 levels are transcriptionally regulated via the novel

Topcagic J, Feldman R, Ghazalpour A, et al.
Comprehensive molecular profiling of advanced/metastatic olfactory neuroblastomas.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(1):e0191244 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB) is a rare, locally aggressive, malignant neoplasm originating in the olfactory epithelium in the nasal vault. The recurrence rate of ONB remains high and there are no specific treatment guidelines for recurrent/metastatic ONBs. This study retrospectively evaluated 23 ONB samples profiled at Caris Life Sciences (Phoenix, Arizona) using DNA sequencing (Sanger/NGS [Illumina], n = 15) and gene fusions (Archer FusionPlex, n = 6), whole genome RNA microarray (HumanHT-12 v4 beadChip, Illumina, n = 4), gene copy number assays (chromogenic and fluorescent in situ hybridization), and immunohistochemistry. Mutations were detected in 63% ONBs including TP53, CTNNB1, EGFR, APC, cKIT, cMET, PDGFRA, CDH1, FH, and SMAD4 genes. Twenty-one genes were over-expressed and 19 genes under-expressed by microarray assay. Some of the upregulated genes included CD24, SCG2, and IGFBP-2. None of the cases harbored copy number variations of EGFR, HER2 and cMET genes, and no gene fusions were identified. Multiple protein biomarkers of potential response or resistance to classic chemotherapy drugs were identified, such as low ERCC1 [cisplatin sensitivity in 10/12], high TOPO1 [irinotecan sensitivity in 12/19], high TUBB3 [vincristine resistance in 13/14], and high MRP1 [multidrug resistance in 6/6 cases]. None of the cases (0/10) were positive for PD-L1 in tumor cells. Overexpression of pNTRK was observed in 67% (4/6) of the cases without underlying genetic alterations. Molecular alterations detected in our study (e.g., Wnt and cKIT/PDGFRA pathways) are potentially treatable using novel therapeutic approaches. Identified protein biomarkers of response or resistance to classic chemotherapy could be useful in optimizing existing chemotherapy treatment(s) in ONBs.

Wang YK, Wang SN, Li YY, et al.
Methods and significance of the combined detection of HER2 gene amplification and chemosensitivity in gastric cancer.
Cancer Biomark. 2018; 21(2):439-447 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the significance of combined detection of HER2 gene amplification and chemosensitivity in gastric cancer.
METHODS: Immunohistochemistry (IHC), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and fluorescence reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to analyze the expression of HER2 protein, HER2 gene amplification and the mRNA expression of ERCC1, TUBB3 and TYMS genes in 135 cases of gastric carcinoma.
RESULTS: The expression rate of HER2 protein was 39.3% (53/135). Among these positive cases, patients with HER2 protein (3+) accounted for 9.6% (13/135), patients with HER2 protein (2+) accounted for 13.3% (18/135), and patients with HER2 protein (1+) accounted for 16.3% (22/135). The amplification rate of the HER2 gene was 35.8% (19/53). In the detection of the mRNA expression of ERCC1, TUBB3 and TYMS, 45 patients had low and moderate single gene expression, 50 patients had low and moderate double gene expression, 22 patients had low and moderate mRNA expression for ERCC1, TUBB3 and TYMS, and 18 patients had no low and moderate expression. Among the 53 patients with HER2 protein expression and 22 patients with low and moderate mRNA expression of ERCC1, TUBB3 and TYMS, 12 patients received chemotherapy and trastuzumab. Follow-up results revealed that HER2 gene status was positively correlated with the therapeutic effect of the combined treatment in patients with low mRNA expression of ERCC1, TUBB3 and TYMS. Among these patients, five patients with extensive HER2 (3+), HER2 cluster-specific amplification, and low mRNA expression of ERCC1, TUBB3 and TYMS had a total survival of up to 19.1 months.
CONCLUSIONS: The detection of HER2 in gastric cancer is highly heterogeneity, and the combined detection of HER2 protein expression, HER2 gene amplification and chemosensitivity can provide important reference markers for the benefit of antitumor drugs.

Person F, Wilczak W, Hube-Magg C, et al.
Prevalence of βIII-tubulin (TUBB3) expression in human normal tissues and cancers.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(10):1010428317712166 [PubMed] Related Publications
Microtubules are multifunctional cytoskeletal proteins that are involved in crucial cellular roles including maintenance of cell shape, intracellular transport, meiosis, and mitosis. Class III beta-tubulin (βIII-tubulin, also known as TUBB3) is a microtubule protein, normally expressed in cells of neuronal origin. Its expression was also reported in various other tumor types, such as several types of lung cancer, ovarian cancer, and esophageal cancer. TUBB3 is of clinical relevance as overexpression has been linked to poor response to microtubule-targeting anti-cancer drugs such as taxanes. To systematically investigate the epidemiology of TUBB3 expression in normal and neoplastic tissues, we used tissue microarrays for analyzing the immunohistochemically detectable expression of TUBB3 in 3911 tissue samples from 100 different tumor categories and 76 different normal tissue types. At least 1 tumor with weak expression could be found in 93 of 100 (93%) different tumor types, and all these 93 entities also had at least 1 tumor with strong positivity. In normal tissues, a particularly strong expression was found in neurons of the brain, endothelium of blood vessels, fibroblasts, spermatogenic cells, stroma cells, endocrine cells, and acidophilic cells of the pituitary gland. In tumors, strong TUBB3 expression was most frequently found in various brain tumors (85%-100%), lung cancer (35%-80%), pancreatic adenocarcinoma (50%), renal cell carcinoma (15%-80%), and malignant melanoma (77%). In summary, these results identify a broad spectrum of cancers that can at least sporadically express TUBB3. Testing of TUBB3 in cancer types eligible for taxane-based therapies could be helpful to identify patients who might best benefit from this treatment.

Tóth C, Sükösd F, Valicsek E, et al.
Expression of ERCC1, RRM1, TUBB3 in correlation with apoptosis repressor ARC, DNA mismatch repair proteins and p53 in liver metastasis of colorectal cancer.
Int J Mol Med. 2017; 40(5):1457-1465 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Liver metastasis in colorectal cancer is common and the primary treatment is chemotherapy. To date, there is no routinely used test in clinical practice to predict the effectiveness of conventional chemotherapy. Therefore, biomarkers with predictive value for conventional chemotherapy would be of considerable benefit in treatment planning. We analysed three proteins [excision repair cross-complementing 1 (ERCC1), ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase 1 (RRM1) and class III β-tubulin (TUBB3)] in colorectal cancer liver metastasis. We used tissue microarray slides with 101 liver metastasis samples, stained for ERCC1, RRM1 and TUBB3 and established scoring systems (fitted for tissue microarray) for each protein. In statistical analysis, we compared the expression of ERCC1, RRM1 and TUBB3 to mismatch proteins (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2), p53 and to apoptosis repressor protein (ARC). Statistically significant correlations were found between ERCC1, TUBB3 and MLH1, MSH2 and RRM1 and MSH2, MSH6. Noteworthy, our analysis revealed a strong significant correlation between cytoplasmic ARC expression and RRM1, TUBB3 (p=0.000 and p=0.001, respectively), implying an additional role of TUBB3 and RRM1 not only in therapy resistance, but also in the apoptotic machinery. Our data strengthens the importance of ERCC1, TUBB3 and RRM1 in the prediction of chemotherapy effectiveness and suggest new functional connections in DNA repair, microtubule network and apoptotic signaling (i.e. ARC protein). In conclusion, we showed the importance and need of predictive biomarkers in metastasized colorectal cancer and pointed out the relevance not only of single predictive markers but also of their interactions with other known and newly explored relations between different signaling pathways.

Chi LH, Chang WM, Chang YC, et al.
Global Proteomics-based Identification and Validation of Thymosin Beta-4 X-Linked as a Prognostic Marker for Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):9031 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) represents a major health concern worldwide. We applied the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) to analyze paired normal (N) and tumor (T) samples from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma as well as liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis in HNSCC cell lines to identify tumor-associated biomarkers. Our results showed a number of proteins found to be over-expressed in HNSCC. We identified thymosin beta-4 X-linked (TMSB4X) is one of the most significant candidate biomarkers. Higher TMSB4X expression in the tumor was found by N/T-paired HNSCC samples at both RNA and protein level. Overexpression of TMSB4X was found significantly associated with poor prognosis of overall survival (OS, P = 0.006) and recurrence-free survival (RFS, P = 0.013) in HNSCC patients. Silencing of TMSB4X expression in HNSCC cell line reduced the proliferation and invasion ability in vitro, as well as inhibited the cervical lymph node metastasis in vivo. Altogether, our global proteomics analysis identified that TMSB4X is a newly discovered biomarker in HNSCC whose functions resulted in enhanced proliferation and metastasis in vitro and in vivo. TMSB4X may be a potential therapeutic target for treating HNSCC patients.

Chonan Y, Taki S, Sampetrean O, et al.
Endothelium-induced three-dimensional invasion of heterogeneous glioma initiating cells in a microfluidic coculture platform.
Integr Biol (Camb). 2017; 9(9):762-773 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly invasive primary brain tumor that displays cellular heterogeneity, which is composed of glioma initiating cells (GICs) and their differentiated progeny. GICs play an important role in driving aggressive invasion. In particular, the interaction between GICs and blood vessels is critical because blood vessels are known to serve as routes for the invasion of GICs. However, the effect of endothelial cells on the three-dimensional (3D) invasion process of GICs as well as the spatial relationship between GICs and their differentiated progeny remains unclear. Here, we utilized a microfluidic device to recapitulate the 3D brain tumor microenvironments constituted by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and type I collagen. Using the device, we found that HUVECs promoted the 3D invasion of heterogeneous glioma cell populations into type I collagen gel. The invasion induced by HUVECs was predominantly preceded by cells positive for nestin, a neural stem cell marker. In contrast, cells positive for tubulin β3 (TUBB3), a differentiated cell marker, rarely preceded invasion. In addition, HUVECs induced the upregulation of TUBB3 in GICs. Finally, we found that the genes associated with invasion, such as integrins α2 and β3, were significantly upregulated in the presence of HUVECs. These results as well as the experimental approach provide valuable knowledge for the development of effective therapeutic strategies targeting the aggressive invasion of GBM.

Zhang X, Lin D, Lin Y, et al.
Proteasome beta-4 subunit contributes to the development of melanoma and is regulated by miR-148b.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(6):1010428317705767 [PubMed] Related Publications
The proteasome beta-4 subunit is required for the assembly of 20S proteasome complex, forming a pivotal component for the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Emerging evidence indicates that proteasome beta-4 subunit may be involved in underlying progression and mechanisms of malignancies. However, the role of proteasome beta-4 subunit in melanoma is currently unknown. Here, we reported that proteasome beta-4 subunit was markedly upregulated in human melanoma tissues and cells, compared with normal skin samples. High proteasome beta-4 subunit levels were significantly associated with poor overall survival in patients with melanoma. Proteasome beta-4 subunit knockdown strongly decreased melanoma cell growth in vitro and in vivo. We further identified miR-148b as a negative regulator of proteasome beta-4 subunit. Enforced expression of miR-148b resulted in vitro growth inhibition of melanoma cells, whereas this inhibition was further abolished by enforced expression of proteasome beta-4 subunit. Our findings, for the first time, indicated that the miR-148b/proteasome beta-4 subunit axis contributed to the development of melanoma, revealing novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of melanoma.

Nienstedt JC, Gröbe A, Clauditz T, et al.
High-level βIII-tubulin overexpression occurs in most head and neck cancers but is unrelated to clinical outcome.
J Oral Pathol Med. 2017; 46(10):986-990 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: βIII-tubulin (TUBB3) is an isotype of microtubules, which are involved in crucial cellular roles including maintenance of cell shape, intracellular transport, and mitosis. Overexpression of TUBB3 was found to be associated with poor prognosis and resistance to tubulin-binding drugs and in several solid tumors including head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). Considering the potential high importance of a prognostic biomarker in these cancers, this study aimed to investigate the clinical relevance of immunohistochemical TUBB3 expression in HNSCC.
METHODS: Tissue microarray (TMA) sections containing samples from 667 cancers of oral cavity, oro- and hypopharynx, and larynx for which follow-up data were available were analyzed for TUBB3 expression by immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: Over 90% of our analyzed cancers showed unequivocal cytoplasmic TUBB3 expression. Staining was considered weak in 69 (15.5%), moderate in 149 (33.5%), and strong in 188 (42.2%) of cancers. The frequent TUBB3 overexpression showed no significant correlation with pathological grading, tumor stage, nodal status, or surgical margin and had no impact on patient outcomes.
CONCLUSION: Despite lacking prognostic utility in HNSCC, the remarkable high prevalence of TUBB3 expression in HNSCC emphasizes its putative relevance as a target for future drugs targeting TUBB3.

Li L, Duan W, Zhang L, et al.
The efficacy and safety of gemcitabine, cisplatin, prednisone, thalidomide versus CHOP in patients with newly diagnosed peripheral T-cell lymphoma with analysis of biomarkers.
Br J Haematol. 2017; 178(5):772-780 [PubMed] Related Publications
We compared the efficacy and safety of gemcitabine, cisplatin, prednisone and thalidomide (GDPT) with standard CHOP regimen (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone) for patients with newly diagnosed peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) in a prospective randomized controlled and open-label clinical trial. Between July 2010 and June 2016, 103 patients were randomly allocated into two groups, of whom 52 were treated with GDPT therapy and 51 with CHOP therapy. The 2-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were better in the GDPT group than in the CHOP group (57% vs. 35% for 2-year PFS, P = 0·0035; 71% vs 50% for 2-year OS, P = 0·0001). The complete remission rate (CRR) and the overall response rate (ORR) in the GDPT group were higher than in the CHOP group (52% vs. 33%, P = 0·044 for CRR; 67% vs. 49%, P = 0·046 for ORR). Haemocytopenia was the predominant adverse effect, and acute toxicity was moderate, tolerable and well managed in both arms. mRNA expression of ERCC1, RRM1, TUBB3 and TOP2A genes varied among patients but the difference did not reach statistical significance, mainly due to the relatively small sample size. The precise characters of these biomarkers remain to be identified. In conclusion, GDPT is a promising new regimen as potential first-line therapy against PTCL. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01664975.

Smiyun G, Azarenko O, Miller H, et al.
βIII-tubulin enhances efficacy of cabazitaxel as compared with docetaxel.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2017; 80(1):151-164 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cabazitaxel is a novel taxane approved for treatment of metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer in patients pretreated with docetaxel. Cabazitaxel, docetaxel, and paclitaxel bind specifically to tubulin in microtubules, disrupting functions essential to tumor growth. High levels of βIII-tubulin isotype expression are associated with tumor aggressivity and drug resistance. To understand cabazitaxel's increased efficacy, we examined binding of radio-labeled cabazitaxel and docetaxel to microtubules and the drugs' suppression of microtubule dynamic instability in vitro in microtubules assembled from purified bovine brain tubulin containing or devoid of βIII-tubulin. We found that cabazitaxel suppresses microtubule dynamic instability significantly more potently in the presence of βIII-tubulin than in its absence. In contrast, docetaxel showed no βIII-tubulin-enhanced microtubule stabilization. We also asked if the selective potency of cabazitaxel on βIII-tubulin-containing purified microtubules in vitro extends to cabazitaxel's effects in human tumor cells. Using MCF7 human breast adenocarcinoma cells, we found that cabazitaxel also suppressed microtubule shortening rates, shortening lengths, and dynamicity significantly more strongly in cells with normal levels of βIII-tubulin than after 50% reduction of βIII-tubulin expression by siRNA knockdown. Cabazitaxel also more strongly induced mitotic arrest in MCF7 cells with normal βIII-tubulin levels than after βIII-tubulin reduction. In contrast, docetaxel had little or no βIII-tubulin-dependent selective effect on microtubule dynamics or mitotic arrest. The selective potency of cabazitaxel on purified βIII-tubulin-containing microtubules and in cells expressing βIII-tubulin suggests that cabazitaxel may be unusual among microtubule-targeted drugs in its superior anti-tumor efficacy in tumors overexpressing βIII-tubulin.

Gollapalli K, Ghantasala S, Atak A, et al.
Tissue Proteome Analysis of Different Grades of Human Gliomas Provides Major Cues for Glioma Pathogenesis.
OMICS. 2017; 21(5):275-284 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gliomas are heterogeneous and most commonly occurring brain tumors. Blood-brain barrier restricts the entry of brain tumor proteins into blood stream thus limiting the usage of serum or plasma for proteomic analysis. Our study aimed at understanding the molecular basis of aggressiveness of various grades of brain tumors using isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) based mass spectrometry. Tissue proteomic analysis of various grades of gliomas was performed using four-plex iTRAQ. We labeled five sets (each set consists of control, grade-II, III, and IV tumor samples) of individual glioma patients using iTRAQ reagents. Significantly altered proteins were subjected to bioinformatics analysis using Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID). Various metabolic pathways like glycolysis, TCA-cycle, electron transport chain, lactate metabolism, and blood coagulation pathways were majorly observed to be perturbed in gliomas. Most of the identified proteins involved in redox reactions, protein folding, pre-messenger RNA (mRNA) processing, antiapoptosis, and blood coagulation were found to be upregulated in gliomas. Transcriptomics data of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), low-grade gliomas (LGGs), and controls were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data portal and further analyzed using BRB-Array tools. Expression levels of a few significantly altered proteins like lactate dehydrogenase, alpha-1 antitrypsin, fibrinogen alpha chain, nucleophosmin, annexin A5, thioredoxin, ferritin light chain, thymosin beta-4-like protein 3, superoxide dismutase-2, and peroxiredoxin-1 and 6 showed a positive correlation with increasing grade of gliomas thereby offering an insight into molecular basis behind their aggressive nature. Several proteins identified in different grades of gliomas are potential grade-specific markers, and perturbed pathways provide comprehensive overview of molecular cues involved in glioma pathogenesis.

Duran GE, Wang YC, Moisan F, et al.
Decreased levels of baseline and drug-induced tubulin polymerisation are hallmarks of resistance to taxanes in ovarian cancer cells and are associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.
Br J Cancer. 2017; 116(10):1318-1328 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: ABCB1 expression is uncommon in ovarian cancers in the clinical setting so we investigated non-MDR mechanisms of resistance to taxanes.
METHODS: We established eight taxane-resistant variants from the human ovarian carcinoma cell lines A2780/1A9, ES-2, MES-OV and OVCAR-3 by selection with paclitaxel or docetaxel, with counter-selection by the transport inhibitor valspodar.
RESULTS: Non-MDR taxane resistance was associated with reduced intracellular taxane content compared to parental controls, and cross-resistance to other microtubule stabilising drugs. Collateral sensitivity to depolymerising agents (vinca alkaloids and colchicine) was observed with increased intracellular vinblastine. These variants exhibited marked decreases in basal tubulin polymer and in tubulin polymerisation in response to taxane exposure. TUBB3 content was increased in 6 of the 8 variants. We profiled gene expression of the parental lines and resistant variants, and identified a transcriptomic signature with two highly significant networks built around FN1 and CDKN1A that are associated with cell adhesion, cell-to-cell signalling, and cell cycle regulation. miR-200 family members miR-200b and miR-200c were downregulated in resistant cells, associated with epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), with increased VIM, FN1, MMP2 and/or MMP9.
CONCLUSIONS: These alterations may serve as biomarkers for predicting taxane effectiveness in ovarian cancer and should be considered as therapeutic targets.

Vetter NS, Kolb EA, Mills CC, Sampson VB
The Microtubule Network and Cell Death Are Regulated by an miR-34a/Stathmin 1/βIII-Tubulin Axis.
Mol Cancer Res. 2017; 15(7):953-964 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MicroRNA-34a (miR-34a) is a master regulator of signaling networks that maintains normal physiology and disease and is currently in development as a miRNA-based therapy for cancer. Prior studies have reported low miR-34a expression in osteosarcoma; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying miR-34a activity in osteosarcoma are not well-defined. Therefore, this study evaluated the role of miR-34a in regulating signal transduction pathways that influence cell death in osteosarcoma. Levels of miR-34a were attenuated in human osteosarcoma cells and xenografts of the Pediatric Preclinical Testing Consortium (PPTC). Bioinformatics predictions identified stathmin 1 (STMN1) as a potential miR-34a target. Biotin pull-down assay and luciferase reporter analysis confirmed miR-34a target interactions within the STMN1 mRNA 3'-untranslated region. Overexpression of miR-34a in osteosarcoma cells suppressed STMN1 expression and reduced cell growth

Ohata Y, Shimada S, Akiyama Y, et al.
Acquired Resistance with Epigenetic Alterations Under Long-Term Antiangiogenic Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2017; 16(6):1155-1165 [PubMed] Related Publications
Antiangiogenic therapy is initially effective for several solid tumors including hepatocellular carcinoma; however, they finally relapse and progress, resulting in poor prognosis. We here established

Liu C, Zhang S, Wang Q, Zhang X
Tumor suppressor miR-1 inhibits tumor growth and metastasis by simultaneously targeting multiple genes.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(26):42043-42060 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cancer progression depends on tumor growth and metastasis, which are activated or suppressed by multiple genes. An individual microRNA may target multiple genes, suggesting that a miRNA may suppress tumor growth and metastasis via simultaneously targeting different genes. However, thus far, this issue has not been explored. In the present study, the findings showed that miR-1 could simultaneously inhibit tumor growth and metastasis of gastric and breast cancers by targeting multiple genes. The results indicated that miR-1 was significantly downregulated in cancer tissues compared with normal tissues. The miR-1 overexpression led to cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase in gastric and breast cancer cells but not in normal cells. Furthermore, the miR-1 overexpression significantly inhibited the metastasis of gastric and breast cancer cells. An analysis of the underlying mechanism revealed that the simultaneous inhibition of tumor growth and metastasis mediated by miR-1 was due to the synchronous targeting of 6 miR-1 target genes encoding cyclin dependent kinase 4, twinfilin actin binding protein 1, calponin 3, coronin 1C, WAS protein family member 2 and thymosin beta 4, X-linked. In vivo assays demonstrated that miR-1 efficiently inhibited tumor growth and metastasis of gastric and breast cancers in nude mice. Therefore, our study contributed novel insights into the miR-1's roles in tumorigenesis of gastric and breast cancers.

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