Gene Summary

Gene:BIRC7; baculoviral IAP repeat containing 7
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family, and contains a single copy of a baculovirus IAP repeat (BIR) as well as a RING-type zinc finger domain. The BIR domain is essential for inhibitory activity and interacts with caspases, while the RING finger domain sometimes enhances antiapoptotic activity but does not inhibit apoptosis alone. Elevated levels of the encoded protein may be associated with cancer progression and play a role in chemotherapy sensitivity. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:baculoviral IAP repeat-containing protein 7
Source:NCBIAccessed: 29 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 29 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 29 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (8)

Latest Publications: BIRC7 (cancer-related)

Yang Y, Sun P, Xu W, Xia W
High BIRC7 Expression Might Be an Independent Prognostic Indicator of Poor Recurrence-Free Survival in Patients With Prostate Cancer.
Technol Cancer Res Treat. 2018; 17:1533033818809694 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: BIRC7, which encodes Baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) repeat-containing protein 7, is an oncogene in multiple types of cancer. In this study, we examined the association between BIRC7 expression and the clinicopathological characteristics of prostate cancer, the independent prognostic value of BIRC7 in terms of recurrence-free survival, and the molecular mechanisms of its dysregulation.
METHODS: Data mining was performed using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas. The patients were divided into high and low BIRC7 expression groups according to the Youden index determined by receiver operating characteristic curves for recurrence. Subgroup analysis was performed according to T stages and Gleason score.
RESULTS: BIRC7 was significantly upregulated in prostate cancer tissues (N = 497) than in normal prostate tissues (N = 52). High BIRC7 expression group had lower ratios of overall response rate and medium-grade (Gleason score 6-7) tumors and higher proportions of nodal invasion and recurrence after surgery. Although Kaplan-Meier curves showed that high BIRC7 expression was generally associated with poor recurrence-free survival, the following subgroup analysis only confirmed the association in T3/T4 and medium-grade tumors. Multivariate analysis showed that BIRC7 expression was not an independent indicator of recurrence-free survival in T2 or high-grade tumors, but was independently associated with poor recurrence-free survival in T3/T4 tumors (hazard ratio: 4.249, 95% confidence interval: 1.563-11.546, P = .005) and in medium-grade tumors (hazard ratio: 6.041, 95% confidence interval: 1.763-20.703, P = .004). DNA amplification was associated with significantly upregulated BIRC7 expression. There was also a weak negative correlation between BIRC7 expression and its DNA methylation (Pearson r = -0.23).
CONCLUSION: Based on these findings, we infer that BIRC7 upregulation might serve as a valuable biomarker of increased recurrence risk in advanced T stages and medium-grade prostate cancer. Its expression is at least regulated by both copy number alteration and DNA methylation.

Lin M, Zhou C, Huang J, et al.
The Possible Mechanisms of HSV-TK/Hyperthermia Combined with 131I-antiAFPMcAb-GCV Nanospheres to Treat Hepatoma.
Anal Cell Pathol (Amst). 2018; 2018:8941908 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Our previous findings showed a good therapeutic effect of the combination of suicide gene HSV-TK, nuclide 131I, and magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) on hepatoma by using magnetic nanoparticles as linkers, far better than any monotherapy involved, with no adverse effects. This combination therapy might be an eligible strategy to treat hepatic cancer. However, it is not clear how the combination regimen took the therapeutic effects. In the current study, to explore the possible mechanisms of radionuclide-gene therapy combined with MFH to treat hepatoma at tissue, cellular, and molecular levels and to provide theoretical and experimental data for its clinical application, we examined the apoptosis induction of the combination therapy and investigated the expression of the proteins related to apoptosis such as survivin, livin, bcl-2, p53, and nucleus protein Ki67 involved in cell proliferation, detected VEGF, and MVD involved in angiogenesis of tumor tissues and analyzed the pathologic changes after treatment. The results showed that the combination therapy significantly induced the hepatoma cell apoptosis. The expression of survivin, VEGF, bcl-2, p53, livin, Ki67, and VEGF proteins and microvascular density (MVD) were all decreased after treatment. The therapeutic mechanisms may be involved in the downregulation of Ki67 expression leading to tumor cell proliferation repression and inhibition of survivin, bcl-2, p53, and livin protein expression inducing tumor cell apoptosis, negatively regulating VEGF protein expression, and reducing vascular endothelial cells, which results in tumor angiogenesis inhibition and microvascular density decrease and tumor cell necrosis. These findings offer another basic data support and theoretical foundation for the clinical application of the combination therapy.

Filippi I, Saltarella I, Aldinucci C, et al.
Different Adaptive Responses to Hypoxia in Normal and Multiple Myeloma Endothelial Cells.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 46(1):203-212 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hypoxia is a powerful stimulator of angiogenesis under physiological as well as pathological conditions. Normal endothelial cells (EC), such as human umbilical vein EC (HUVEC), are relatively affected by hypoxic insult in terms of cell survival. In contrast, EC from tumors are particularly resistant to hypoxia-induced cell death. Previous reports have shown that EC in bone marrow from multiple myeloma (MM) patients had a hypoxic phenotype, even under normoxic conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether HUVEC and MMEC adapt differently to hypoxia.
METHODS: Cell proliferation was assessed by the CyQUANT assay. Cdc25A, p21, Bax, Bcl-xl, BNIP3, glucose transporter (GLUT)-1, monocarboxylate transporter (MCT)-4 and carbonic anhydrase (CA)IX mRNA expression was determined by qRT-PCR. HIF-1α, BNIP3, Beclin-1, LC3B, livin, Bax, Bcl-xl, p21, p62 and β-actin protein expression was analyzed by western blot. Apoptosis was determined by TUNEL assay. Silencing of BNIP3 was achieved by stealth RNA system technology.
RESULTS: While HUVEC survival was reduced after prolonged hypoxic exposure, MMEC were completely unaffected. This difference was also significant in terms of livin, cdc25A and p21 expression. Hypoxia induced apoptosis and inhibited autophagy in HUVEC, but not in MMEC, where hypoxic treatment resulted in a more sustained adaptive response. In fact, MMEC showed a more significant increase in the expression of genes regulated transcriptionally by hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α. Interestingly, they showed higher expression of BNIP3 than did HUVEC, indicating a more pronounced autophagic (and pro-survival) phenotype. The potential role of BNIP3 in EC survival was confirmed by BNIP3 siRNA experiments in HUVEC, where BNIP3 inhibition resulted in reduced cell survival and increased apoptosis.
CONCLUSION: These findings provide further information on how hypoxia may affect EC survival and could be important for a better understanding of EC physiology under normal and pathological conditions, such as in multiple myeloma.

Zhao CL, Han SN, Wang ZJ, et al.
Concomitant modulation of PTEN and Livin in gastric cancer treatment.
Int J Mol Med. 2018; 41(5):2901-2908 [PubMed] Related Publications
Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) and Livin are important in the development of gastric cancer (GC). PTEN and Livin are involved in the regulation of tumor cell proliferation, migration and apoptosis. The modulation of PTEN or Livin has been investigated extensively in various cancer models. However, no studies have been performed to evaluate the combined effect of concurrently modulating these two genes on the development of GC. In the present study, the BGC823 human gastric carcinoma cell line was transfected with a dual gene modified vector (pCL-neo-PTEN-siLivin) in parallel with single gene modified vectors (pCL‑neo‑PTEN or pRNAT‑U6.1‑siLivin), and an empty control vector. Dual gene modulation (pCL‑neo‑PTEN‑siLivin) had a more marked effect on the inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis, and reduction of cell penetration in Matrigel, compared with either single gene alone or empty vector transfection. In a xenograft nude mouse model, the inoculation of pCL‑neo‑PTEN‑siLivin‑transfected BGC823 cells led to a markedly reduced tumor burden, compared with that in all other inoculation groups. In conclusion, the overexpression of PTEN concomitant with Livin gene silencing was confirmed as a feasible and effective in vitro and in vivo gene modulation method, which may represent a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of GC.

Fan L, Tan B, Li Y, et al.
Upregulation of miR‑185 promotes apoptosis of the human gastric cancer cell line MGC803.
Mol Med Rep. 2018; 17(2):3115-3122 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNA (miR)-185, which has been reported to be abnormally expressed in some types of cancer, exerts significant effects on the proliferation, apoptosis, drug resistance and metastasis of cancer cells. The present study aimed to explore the effects and underlying molecular mechanisms of miR‑185 upregulation on the apoptosis of gastric cancer (GC) cells. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western blotting were used to detect the expression levels of miR‑185 in GC and adjacent normal tissues. In addition, miR‑185 expression was detected in the following GC cell lines: MKN74, SGC7901, BGC823, MGC803, as well as in the gastric epithelial cell line GES‑1. Subsequently, miR‑185 mimics were transfected into MGC803 cells. Post‑transfection, the following experiments were conducted: MTT assay was applied to test cell viability; flow cytometry (FCM) was used to determine the apoptotic rate of the cells; and qPCR and western blotting were conducted to detect the expression levels of the following apoptosis‑associated factors: B‑cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl‑2), Bcl‑2‑associated X protein (Bax), survivin, X‑linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), livin, caspase‑3 and caspase‑8. The results demonstrated that miR‑185 was downregulated in GC tissues compared with the adjacent tissues. In cell lines, miR‑185 expression was higher in GES‑1 cells compared with in the GC cell lines; in the 4 GC cell lines, the strongest miR‑185 expression was in MKN74 cells, followed by SGC7901 and BGC823 cells, and the weakest was in MGC803 cells (P<0.05). Expression of miR‑185 was associated with tumor size, differentiation and lymphatic metastasis. Post-transfection with miR‑185 mimics, miR‑185 expression was significantly increased in a time‑ and concentration‑dependent manner. MGC803 cell viability was significantly decreased following miR‑185 mimics transfection. The results of FCM demonstrated that post‑transfection with miR‑185 mimics, the apoptotic rate of MGC803 cells was significantly increased. Post‑transfection with miR‑185 mimics, the expression levels of Bcl‑2, survivin and XIAP were significantly decreased in MGC803 cells, whereas the expression levels of Bax and livin were not altered, and caspase‑3 and caspase‑8 expression was significantly increased. Spectrophotometry indicated that caspase‑3 and caspase‑8 activity was significantly increased in MGC803 cells following transfection with miR‑185 mimics. In conclusion, the present study suggested that miR‑185 upregulation in GC cells may promote apoptosis of tumor cells via gene expression regulation.

Han Y, Zhang L, Wang W, et al.
Livin promotes the progression and metastasis of breast cancer through the regulation of epithelial‑mesenchymal transition via the p38/GSK3β pathway.
Oncol Rep. 2017; 38(6):3574-3582 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a pivotal role in the invasion and metastasis of breast cancer. Livin is a recently identified member of the inhibitors of the apoptosis protein family, which has been revealed to facilitate the progression of several types of cancer. However, the role of Livin in EMT and metastasis of breast cancer and its underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated. In the present study, the levels of Livin mRNA and protein expression were found to be elevated in breast cancer tissues and cell lines. In addition, Livin expression was positively correlated with TNM stage and lymph node metastasis in total and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cases. Livin overexpression enhanced the migratory and invasive abilities of the MCF-7 cells, accompanied by increases in vimentin, N-cadherin, Snail, MMP-2 and MMP-7 and a decrease in E-cadherin. Conversely, the downregulation of Livin had the opposite effect in MDA-MB-231 cells. Furthermore, the upregulation of Livin expression markedly stimulated the activation of the p38/GSK3β pathway, while the downregulation of Livin expression clearly suppressed the activation of the p38/GSK3β pathway. In conclusion, our results revealed that Livin induced EMT through the activation of the p38/GSK3β pathway, which in turn promoted the progression and metastasis of breast cancer, especially for TNBC.

Huang Q, Zeng Y, Lin H, et al.
Transfection with Livin and Survivin shRNA inhibits the growth and proliferation of non‑small cell lung cancer cells.
Mol Med Rep. 2017; 16(5):7086-7091 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lung cancer is reported to be a major public health issue worldwide and the overall prognosis of patients remains poor. The expression levels of Livin and Survivin, of the inhibitors of apoptosis (IAP) family, are associated with prognostic significance in the majority of solid tumors. Therefore, in the presents study, short hairpin (sh)RNA expression vectors inhibiting the Livin and Survivin genes were constructed to examine the effects of the transfection of Livin shRNA and/or Survivin shRNA on the biological functions of tumor cells. The transfection efficiency was measured using fluorescence reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses. The cell growth inhibition ratio was measured using a CCK assay. Cell apoptosis following transfection and in tumor tissues were measured using a TUNEL assay, and a cancer xenograft model was used to investigate the effect of Livin shRNA and/or Survivin shRNA on tumor growth. The results indicated that the mRNA and protein expression levels were suppressed following the transfection of Livin and Survivin shRNA into tumor cells (P<0.05, compared with control group). The growth of tumor cells in vivo and in vitro was significantly inhibited following transfection with Livin and Survivin shRNA, compared with that in the other groups (P<0.05). Taken together, the transfection of cells with Livin and Survivin inhibited tumor growth in vivo and in vitro, with the co‑transfection of Livin and Survivin shRNA showing increased efficiency, compared with transfection of either the Livin vector or Survivin vector alone. The combined inhibition of Livin and Survivin may be a promising multitargeted gene therapeutic strategy in cancer treatment.

Etti IC, Abdullah R, Kadir A, et al.
The molecular mechanism of the anticancer effect of Artonin E in MDA-MB 231 triple negative breast cancer cells.
PLoS One. 2017; 12(8):e0182357 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Nature has provided us with a wide spectrum of disease healing phytochemicals like Artonin E, obtained from the root bark of Artocarpus elasticus. This molecule had been predicted to be drug-like, possessing unique medicinal properties. Despite strides made in chemotherapy, prognosis of the heterogenous aggressive triple negative breast cancer is still poor. This study was conducted to investigate the mechanism of inhibition of Artonin E, a prenylated flavonoid on MDA-MB 231 triple negative breast cancer cell, with a view of mitigating the hallmarks displayed by these tumors. The anti-proliferative effect, mode of cell death and the mechanism of apoptosis induction were investigated. Artonin E, was seen to effectively relinquish MDA-MB 231 breast cancer cells of their apoptosis evading capacity, causing a half-maximal growth inhibition at low concentrations (14.3, 13.9 and 9.8 μM) after the tested time points (24, 48 and 72 hours), respectively. The mode of cell death was observed to be apoptosis with defined characteristics. Artonin E was seen to induce the activation of both extrinsic and intrinsic caspases initiators of apoptosis. It also enhanced the release of total reactive oxygen species which polarized the mitochondrial membrane, compounding the release of cytochrome c. Gene expression studies revealed the upregulation of TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand and proapoptotic genes with down regulation of anti-apoptotic genes and proteins. A G2/M cell cycle arrest was also observed and was attributed to the observed upregulation of p21 independent of the p53 status. Interestingly, livin, a new member of the inhibitors of apoptosis was confirmed to be significantly repressed. In all, Artonin E showed the potential as a promising candidate to combat the aggressive triple negative breast cancer.

Liang Y, Wang H, Sun Y, et al.
miR-198-induced upregulation of Livin may be associated with the prognosis and contribute to the oncogenesis of lung adenocarcinoma.
Oncol Rep. 2017; 38(4):2096-2104 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Livin, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family, is expressed at a high level in lung adenocarcinoma and influences the progression of cancer, and its response to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Aberrant microRNA (miRNA) expression has also been associated with cancer initiation and development. However, the clinical significance of Livin and its relationship with miRNAs in lung adenocarcinoma are still unclear. In the present study, the expression level of Livin in 90 pairs of lung adenocarcinoma and their adjacent tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry staining. Spearman correlation and Kaplan-Meier, univariate and multivariate analyses were applied to evaluate the correlation between the expression of Livin and clinical characteristics. With the integration of bioinformatics analysis and dual-luciferase reporter gene assays, we identified the miRNA that can target Livin mRNA. The functional effects of miRNA-mediated Livin knockdown were assessed by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) and apoptosis assays, and cell cycle analysis. The present study revealed that Livin was upregulated in lung adenocarcinoma tissues and may be associated with the poor prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma patients. The overexpression of Livin is partly caused by the downregulation of miR-198. Further exploration revealed that miRNA-198-mediated silencing of Livin significantly inhibited cell growth and enhanced apoptosis of A549 cells, accompanied by marked upregulation of caspase-3. Finally, we observed that the miR-198 overexpression and Livin neutralization had similar effects on improving cisplatin chemosensitivity in A549 cells. Overall, these findings suggest that Livin has the potential to become a biomarker for predicting the prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma and may provide a promising strategy for assisting chemotherapy of lung adenocarcinoma through the miR-198/Livin/caspase-3 regulatory network.

Gelaleti GB, Borin TF, Maschio-Signorini LB, et al.
Efficacy of melatonin, IL-25 and siIL-17B in tumorigenesis-associated properties of breast cancer cell lines.
Life Sci. 2017; 183:98-109 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mammary tumorigenesis can be modulated by melatonin, which has oncostatic action mediated by multiple mechanisms, including the inhibition of the activity of transcription factors such as NF-κB and modulation of interleukins (ILs) expression. IL-25 is an active cytokine that induces apoptosis in tumor cells due to differential expression of its receptor (IL-17RB). IL-17B competes with IL-25 for binding to IL-17RB in tumor cells, promoting tumorigenesis. This study purpose is to address the possibility of engaging IL-25/IL-17RB signaling to enhance the effect of melatonin on breast cancer cells. Breast cancer cell lines were cultured monolayers and 3D structures and treated with melatonin, IL-25, siIL-17B, each alone or in combination. Cell viability, gene and protein expression of caspase-3, cleaved caspase-3 and VEGF-A were performed by qPCR and immunofluorescence. In addition, an apoptosis membrane array was performed in metastatic cells. Treatments with melatonin and IL-25 significantly reduced tumor cells viability at 1mM and 1ng/mL, respectively, but did not alter cell viability of a non-tumorigenic epithelial cell line (MCF-10A). All treatments, alone and combined, significantly increased cleaved caspase-3 in tumor cells grown as monolayers and 3D structures (p<0.05). Semi-quantitative analysis of apoptosis pathway proteins showed an increase of CYTO-C, DR6, IGFBP-3, IGFBP-5, IGFPB-6, IGF-1, IGF-1R, Livin, P21, P53, TNFRII, XIAP and hTRA proteins and reduction of caspase-3 (p<0.05) after melatonin treatment. All treatments reduced VEGF-A protein expression in tumor cells (p<0.05). Our results suggest therapeutic potential, with oncostatic effectiveness, pro-apoptotic and anti-angiogenic properties for melatonin and IL-25-driven signaling in breast cancer cells.

Kuang CM, Fu X, Hua YJ, et al.
BST2 confers cisplatin resistance via NF-κB signaling in nasopharyngeal cancer.
Cell Death Dis. 2017; 8(6):e2874 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Concurrent/adjuvant cisplatin-based chemoradiotherapy is regarded as the standard of treatment for locoregionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, patients who do not respond to cisplatin suffer, rather than benefit, from chemotherapy treatment. The goal of this study was to identify molecules involved in cisplatin resistance and to clarify their molecular mechanisms, which would help in the discovery of potential therapeutic targets and in developing a personalized and precise treatment approach for NPC patients. We previously generated a cisplatin-sensitive NPC cell line, S16, from CNE2 cells and found that eIF3a, ASNS and MMP19 are upregulated in S16 cells, which contributes to their cisplatin sensitivity. In this study, we found that BST2 is downregulated in cisplatin-sensitive S16 cells compared with CNE2 cells. Knockdown of BST2 in NPC cells sensitized their response to cisplatin and promoted cisplatin-induced apoptosis, whereas exogenous overexpression of BST2 increased their cisplatin resistance and inhibited cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Further investigation demonstrated that BST2-mediated cisplatin resistance depended on the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway and consequent upregulation of anti-apoptotic genes, such as Bcl-X

Wang H, Yang Y, Wang W, et al.
Single-chain antibody-delivered Livin siRNA inhibits human malignant melanoma growth in vitro and in vivo.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(5):1010428317701645 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although gene therapy has brought new insights into the treatment of malignant melanoma, targeting delivery of nucleic acid which targets critical oncogene/anti-oncogene in vivo is still a bottleneck in the therapeutic application. Our previous in vitro studies have found that the oncogene Livin could serve as a potential molecular target by small interfering RNA for gene therapy of malignant melanoma. However, how to transport Livin small interfering RNA into malignant melanoma cells specifically and efficiently in vivo needs further investigation. Cumulative evidence has suggested that single-chain antibody-mediated small interfering RNA targeted delivery is an effective way to silence specific genes in human cancer cells. Indeed, this study designed a protamine-single-chain antibody fusion protein, anti-MM scFv-tP, to deliver Livin small interfering RNA into LiBr cells. Further experiments confirmed the induction of cell apoptosis and suppression of cell proliferation by anti-MM scFv-tP in LiBr cells, along with efficient silence of Livin gene both in vitro and in vivo. Altogether, our findings provide a feasible approach to transport Livin small interfering RNA to malignant melanoma cells which would be a new therapeutic strategy for combating malignant melanoma.

Yoon TM, Kim SA, Lee DH, et al.
Livin enhances chemoresistance in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Oncol Rep. 2017; 37(6):3667-3673 [PubMed] Related Publications
The responsiveness of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) to chemotherapy widely affects prognosis. Overcoming chemoresistance is necessary to improve prognoses in patients with advanced HNSCC. Evasion of apoptosis by cancer cells is a major cause of chemoresistance. Livin, a member of the human inhibitors of apoptosis protein family, is highly expressed in various human cancer tissues and is associated with tumor progression and poor prognosis in human cancers. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of Livin in the susceptibility to popularly used chemotherapeutic drugs such as cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil (FU) and docetaxel in human HNSCC cell lines (SNU1041, PCI1 and PCI50 cells). Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were performed to determine mRNA and protein expression levels. Cell viability and apoptosis assays were used to assess the functional effects of small-interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of Livin. Each HNSCC cell line had different sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drugs. Livin knockdown significantly enhanced cytotoxicity to cisplatin, 5-FU and docetaxel in human HNSCC cells. Livin knockdown induced apoptosis and enhanced chemotherapy-induced apoptosis to cisplatin, 5-FU and docetaxel. Consistent with this, Livin-knockdown cells showed greater expression of cleaved caspases-3 and -7 and poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase compared with that in control cells after cisplatin, 5-FU, or docetaxel treatment. In conclusion, our results suggest that siRNA-mediated Livin knockdown enhanced the chemosensitivity of the three HNSCC cell lines to cisplatin, 5-FU and docetaxel. Although further investigations are required to support these findings, our results demonstrated that novel therapeutic strategies with combined use of siRNA targeting Livin and chemotherapeutic agents may have applications in the treatment of advanced HNSCC.

Altieri B, Sbiera S, Della Casa S, et al.
Livin/BIRC7 expression as malignancy marker in adrenocortical tumors.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(6):9323-9338 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Livin/BIRC7 is a member of the inhibitors of apoptosis proteins family, which are involved in tumor development through the inhibition of caspases. Aim was to investigate the expression of livin and other members of its pathway in adrenocortical tumors and in the adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) cell line NCI-H295R.The mRNA expression of livin, its isoforms α and β, XIAP, CASP3 and DIABLO was evaluated by qRT-PCR in 82 fresh-frozen adrenal tissues (34 ACC, 25 adenomas = ACA, 23 normal adrenal glands = NAG). Livin protein expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in 270 paraffin-embedded tissues (192 ACC, 58 ACA, 20 NAG). Livin, CASP3 and cleaved caspase-3 were evaluated in NCI-H295R after induction of livin overexpression.Relative livin mRNA expression was significantly higher in ACC than in ACA and NAG (0.060 ± 0.116 vs 0.004 ± 0.014 and 0.002 ± 0.009, respectively, p < 0.01), being consistently higher in tumors than in adjacent NAG and isoform β more expressed than α. No significant differences in CASP3, XIAP and DIABLO levels were found among these groups. In immunohistochemistry, livin was localized in both cytoplasm and nuclei. The ratio between cytoplasmic and nuclear staining was significantly higher in ACC (1.51 ± 0.66) than in ACA (0.80 ± 0.35) and NAG (0.88 ± 0.27; p < 0.0001). No significant correlations were observed between livin expression and histopathological parameters or clinical outcome. In NCI-H295R cells, the livin overexpression slightly reduced the activation of CASP3, but did not correlate with cell viability.In conclusion, livin is specifically over-expressed in ACC, suggesting that it might be involved in adrenocortical tumorigenesis and represent a new molecular marker of malignancy.

Yin L, Liu S, Li C, et al.
CYLD downregulates Livin and synergistically improves gemcitabine chemosensitivity and decreases migratory/invasive potential in bladder cancer: the effect is autophagy-associated.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(9):12731-12742 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although GC (gemcitabine and cisplatin) chemotherapy remains an effective method for treating bladder cancer (BCa), chemoresistance is a major obstacle in chemotherapy. In this study, we determined whether gemcitabine resistance correlates with migratory/invasive potential in BCa and whether this relationship is regulated by the cylindromatosis (CYLD)-Livin module. First, we independently investigated the correlation of CYLD/Livin and gemcitabine resistance with the potential for tumor migration and invasiveness. Second, we found that co-transfected CYLD and Livin dramatically improved sensitivity to gemcitabine chemotherapy and decreased migration/invasion potential. Next, we determined that CYLD may regulate Livin by the NF-κB-dependent pathway. We also found that CYLD overexpression and Livin knockdown might improve gemcitabine chemosensitivity by decreasing autophagy and increasing apoptosis in BCa cells. Finally, the effects of CYLD-Livin on tumor growth in vivo were evaluated. Our study demonstrates that CYLD-Livin might represent a potential therapeutic for chemoresistant BCa.

Wang Z, Liu S, Ding K, et al.
Silencing Livin induces apoptotic and autophagic cell death, increasing chemotherapeutic sensitivity to cisplatin of renal carcinoma cells.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(11):15133-15143 [PubMed] Related Publications
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for 3 % of all adult malignancies and is the most lethal urological cancer. Livin is a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family, which is associated with tumor resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Clinical data also showed that patients with high tumor grades and stages have higher expression levels of Livin in RCC cells. Autophagy is a survival mechanism activated in response to nutrient deprivation. A possible role of Livin in the autophagy of RCC cells has not been investigated; therefore, this pioneer study was carried out. Livin was silenced in RCC cells (slow virus infection [SVI]-shLivin cells) by lentiviral transfection. Then, mRNA and protein expression levels in the transfected cells were assessed by quantitative fluorescence PCR and Western blotting, respectively. In addition, acridine orange staining and electron microscopy were used to assess autophagy in SVI-shLivin cells. The cisplatin IC50 values for RCC cells were measured by the CCK8 assay. Potent antitumor activities were observed in xenograft mouse models generated with Livin-silenced RCC cells in terms of delayed tumor onset and suppressed tumor growth. These results suggested that Livin silencing could increase the chemotherapeutic sensitivity of RCC cells to cisplatin and induce autophagic cell death. A possible mechanism of Bcl-2 and Akt pathway involvement was discussed specifically in this study. Overall, Livin silencing induces apoptotic and autophagic cell death and increases chemotherapeutic sensitivity of RCC cells to cisplatin.

Neveu B, Spinella JF, Richer C, et al.
CLIC5: a novel ETV6 target gene in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Haematologica. 2016; 101(12):1534-1543 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The most common rearrangement in childhood precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia is the t(12;21)(p13;q22) translocation resulting in the ETV6-AML1 fusion gene. A frequent concomitant event is the loss of the residual ETV6 allele suggesting a critical role for the ETV6 transcriptional repressor in the etiology of this cancer. However, the precise mechanism through which loss of functional ETV6 contributes to disease pathogenesis is still unclear. To investigate the impact of ETV6 loss on the transcriptional network and to identify new transcriptional targets of ETV6, we used whole transcriptome analysis of both pre-B leukemic cell lines and patients combined with chromatin immunoprecipitation. Using this integrative approach, we identified 4 novel direct ETV6 target genes: CLIC5, BIRC7, ANGPTL2 and WBP1L To further evaluate the role of chloride intracellular channel protein CLIC5 in leukemogenesis, we generated cell lines overexpressing CLIC5 and demonstrated an increased resistance to hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis. We further described the implications of CLIC5's ion channel activity in lysosomal-mediated cell death, possibly by modulating the function of the transferrin receptor with which it colocalizes intracellularly. For the first time, we showed that loss of ETV6 leads to significant overexpression of CLIC5, which in turn leads to decreased lysosome-mediated apoptosis. Our data suggest that heightened CLIC5 activity could promote a permissive environment for oxidative stress-induced DNA damage accumulation, and thereby contribute to leukemogenesis.

Zhu M, Zhou X, Du Y, et al.
miR-20a induces cisplatin resistance of a human gastric cancer cell line via targeting CYLD.
Mol Med Rep. 2016; 14(2):1742-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
The dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been demonstrated to contribute to drug resistance of cancer cells, and sustained nuclear factor (NF)κB activation is also pivotal in tumor resistance to chemotherapy. In the present study, an essential role for miRNA (miR)-20a was identified in the regulation of gastric cancer (GC) chemoresistance. The expression level of miR‑20a was assayed by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Additionally, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2‑yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide was used to detect the drug‑resistance phenotype changes of cancer cells associated with upregulation or downregulation of miR‑20a. Protein expression levelss were measured by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Flow cytometry was used to detect cisplatin‑induced apoptosis. It was found that miR‑20a was markedly upregulated in GC plasma and tissue samples. Additionally, miR‑20a was upregulated in GC plasma and tissues from patients with cisplatin (DDP) resistance, and in the DPP‑resistant gastric cancer cell line (SGC7901/DDP). The expression of miR‑20a was inversely correlated with the expression of cylindromatosis (CYLD). Subsequently, the assessment of luciferase activity verified that CYLD was a direct target gene of miR‑20a. Treatment with miR‑20a inhibitor increased the protein expression of CYLD, downregulated the expression levels of p65, livin and survivin, and led to a higher proportion of apoptotic cells in the SGC7901/DDP cells. By contrast, ectopic expression of miR‑20a significantly repressed the expression of CYLD, upregulated the expression levels of p65, livin and survivin, and resulted in a decrease in the apoptosis induced by DDP in the SGC7901 cells. Taken together, the results of the present study suggested that miR‑20a directly repressed the expression of CYLD, leading to activation of the NFκB pathway and the downstream targets, livin and survivin, which potentially induced GC chemoresistance. Altering miR‑20a expression may be a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of chemoresistance in GC in the future.

Kim SA, Yoon TM, Lee DH, et al.
Livin enhances tumorigenesis by regulating the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway in human hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.
Mol Med Rep. 2016; 14(1):515-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
Livin, a member of the human inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family, is expressed at high levels in various human cancer tissues and may have prognostic significance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Livin on tumor cell behavior and oncogenic signaling pathways in human hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (HSCC). Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses were used to determine the mRNA and protein expression levels, respectively. A cell proliferation assay and cell cycle analysis were used to assess the functional effects of small interfering RNA‑mediated Livin knockdown. Livin was overexpressed in fresh HSCC tissues, compared with the adjacent normal mucosa. Livin knockdown led to significantly reduced cell proliferation and cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase of the human HSCC cells. The expression levels of c‑myc, cyclin D1, cyclin D3, cyclin‑dependent kinase (CDK)4 and CDK6 were decreased. The phosphorylation levels of extracellular signal‑regulated kinase 1/2, p38, c‑Jun N-terminal kinase and Akt were also decreased by Livin knockdown in the HSCC cells. Taken together, the results of the present study suggested that Livin may enhance tumorigenesis by modulating the mitogen‑activated/Akt signaling pathways in human HSCC.

Yang AQ, Wang PJ, Huang T, et al.
Effects of monomethoxypolyethylene glycol-chitosan nanoparticle-mediated dual silencing of livin and survivin genes in prostate cancer PC-3M cells.
Genet Mol Res. 2016; 15(2) [PubMed] Related Publications
Monomethoxypolyethylene glycol-chitosan (mPEG-CS) nanoparticles were used as interfering RNA carriers to transfect human prostate cancer PC-3M cells to evaluate the effects of livin and survivin gene silencing on the proliferation and apoptosis. mPEG-CS nanoparticles with sizes of approximately 60 nm were first synthesized by ionic crosslinking. Through electrostatic adsorption, mPEG-CS-livin short hairpin RNA (shRNA), mPEG-CS-survivin shRNA, and mPEG-CS-(livin shRNA + survivin shRNA) nanoparticles were then prepared to transfect PC-3M cells. The mRNA and protein expression levels of livin and survivin were measured by reverse transcription-PCR and western blotting, respectively. The inhibitory effects of down-regulated livin and survivin gene expression on the cell proliferation were evaluated by MTT assay. Cell apoptosis was assessed visually using Hoechst staining. Livin and survivin expression levels in all shRNA interference groups were effectively down-regulated at both the mRNA and protein levels. Dual silencing of livin and survivin genes markedly inhibited cell proliferation and facilitated apoptosis, with better outcomes than those of individual shRNA treatments. mPEG-CS nanoparticle-mediated dual shRNA interference of livin and survivin genes significantly reduced the expression levels in PC-3M cells, inhibited proliferation, and promoted apoptosis. As these effects were superior to single interference, this method may have synergistic effects.

Yan F
Effects of salvianolic acid B on growth inhibition and apoptosis induction of ovarian cancer SKOV3.
Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2016; 37(5):653-656 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To explore the influence of salvianolic acid B (Sal B) on cell proliferation and apoptosis of ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3, livin, and caspase-3 gene expression.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3 was cultured in vitro and the cell proliferation was detected by MTT method. Cell apoptosis and cell cycle were measured by Annexin V/PI flow cytometry. Karyon morphology was observed by Hoechst33258 fluorescence staining. Livin and caspase-3 expressions were assayed using western blot.
RESULTS: Sal B with different concentrations had an inhibition effect on growth of SKOV3 in vitro and the inhibitory effect was strengthened with the increase of Sal B concentration, which showed an obvious dose-effect relationship and the half inhibitory concentration (IC50) was 45.6 μmol/L. The proportion of GO/GI phase increased and that of S phase decreased after treatment with Sal B. In addition, the apoptosis rate increased significantly with the increasing of Sal B concentration. Results of Hoechst33258 fluorescence staining showed that cell apoptosis appeared after effect of Sal B with the characteristics of cell shrinkage, appearing vacuoles in cells, condensed chromatin and fracture, etc. Sal B had some inhibitory effects on livin expression in SKOV3 cell but promoted the expression of caspase-3. The corresponding effects were enhanced with the increase of drug dosage.
CONCLUSIONS: Sal B has obvious effects on inhibiting growth and promoting apoptosis of ovarian cancer SKOV3 cell, which may be realized by downregulating livin expression, upregulating caspase-3 expression, and blocking the cell cycle.

Guan HP, Sun JZ, Feng XL, et al.
Effects of RNA interference-mediated knockdown of livin and survivin using monomethoxypolyethylene glycol-chitosan nanoparticles in MG-63 osteosarcoma cells.
Mol Med Rep. 2016; 13(2):1821-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
MG-63 human osteosarcoma cells were transfected with short hairpin RNA (shRNA) against livin and survivin using monomethoxypolyethylene glycol‑chitosan (mPEG‑CS) nanoparticles (NPs) as carriers, with the aim of evaluating the effect on cell proliferation and apoptosis. mPEG‑CS NPs sized ~100 nm were prepared by ionic crosslinking. mPEG‑CS‑livin shRNA, mPEG‑CS‑survivin shRNA and mPEG‑CS‑(livin shRNA + survivin shRNA) NPs were constructed by electrostatic adsorption at NP suspension/gene solution ratios of 3:1 to transfect MG‑63 cells. The expression levels of livin and survivin mRNA and protein were measured by reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. The inhibitory effects of downregulated livin and survivin expression on cell proliferation were measured using an MTT assay. The apoptosis‑inducing effects of livin and surivin knockdown were investigated using a Hoechst staining kit. All shRNA groups resulted in reduced expression of livin and survivin mRNA and protein in MG‑63 cells. The MTT assay and Hoechst staining indicated that simultaneous knockdown of livin and survivin genes inhibited the proliferation of MG‑63 cells and promoted their apoptosis, to a greater extent than knocking down either gene individually. The simultaneous interference mediated by mPEG‑CS NPs significantly reduced livin and survivin expression in MG‑63 cells, suppressed proliferation and facilitated apoptosis, to a greater extent than knockdown of either livin or survivin alone were. Thus the results indicate a synergistic effect of livin and survivin.

Lv J, Qin ZP, Zheng MF, et al.
In vitro application of RNA interference to silence livin gene expression to induce apoptosis in leukemia cells.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2015; 19(22):4390-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To search for new targets and novel methods of anti-leukemia treatment and to discuss the mechanism of silencing the livin gene using small RNA interference technology to induce apoptosis in the K562 leukemia cell line.
METHODS: We designed and synthesized livin-specific small interference RNA (siRNA). Transfected K562 cells were cultured. Reverse-transcription polymer chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to detect livin mRNA expression. Protein expression for livin was detected using Western blotting. A non-transfected group was used as a control. Meanwhile, vectors carrying enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) were transfected as a positive control and flow cytometry was used to determine the transfection efficiency by detecting green fluorescence. The rate of apoptosis was determined using the annexin V and propidium iodide double-staining method. ELISA was used to determine the activity of Caspase-3.
RESULTS: The transfection efficiency of electroporation was as high as 50%. The siRNA sequences could knockdown livin gene expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. Apoptosis rate of the cells was 27.41 ± 2.30% 48 h after transfection with specific siRNA. This was significantly higher than that of the control group (9.63 ± 0.89%, p < 0.05). The 48-h apoptosis rate of the combined effect group VP-16 (5 µmol/L) and transfection rate was 45.1 ± 4.40%, which was significantly elevated (p < 0.05) compared with the groups treated with only VP-16 or by transfection.
CONCLUSIONS: Caspase-3 activity in cells transfected with siRNA was significantly elevated compared to the cells in the non-transfected groups (p < 0.05).

van Kessel KE, Zuiverloon TC, Alberts AR, et al.
Targeted therapies in bladder cancer: an overview of in vivo research.
Nat Rev Urol. 2015; 12(12):681-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
Survival of patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer is poor and new therapies are needed. Currently, none of the targeted agents that are approved for cancer therapy have been approved for the treatment of bladder cancer and the few clinical trials that have been performed had limited success, often owing to a lack of efficacy and toxic effects. However, many other novel targeted agents have been investigated in animal models of bladder cancer. EGFR, FGFR-3, VEGF, mTOR, STAT3, the androgen receptor and CD24 are molecular targets that could be efficiently inhibited, resulting in reduced tumour growth, and that have been investigated in multiple independent studies. Several other targets, for example COX-2, IL-12, Bcl-xL, livin and choline kinase α, have also been observed to inhibit tumour growth, but these findings have not been replicated to date. Limitations of several studies include the use of cell lines with mutations downstream of the target, providing resistance to the tested therapy. Furthermore, certain technologies, such as interfering RNAs, although effective in vitro, are not yet ready for clinical applications. Further preclinical research is needed to discover and evaluate other possible targets, but several validated targets are now available to be studied in clinical trials.

Du Y, Zhu M, Zhou X, et al.
miR-20a enhances cisplatin resistance of human gastric cancer cell line by targeting NFKBIB.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(1):1261-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Drug resistance of cancer cells can be regulated by the dysregulated miRNAs, and sustained NFκB activation also plays an important role in tumor resistance to chemotherapy. Here, we sought to investigate whether there was a correlation between miR-20a and the NFκB pathway to clarify the effects that miR-20a exerted on gastric cancer (GC) chemoresistance. We found that miR-20a was significantly upregulated in GC plasma and tissue samples. In addition, it was upregulated in GC plasma and tissues from patients with cisplatin-resistant gastric cancer cell line SGC7901/cisplatin (DDP). And the upregulation of miR-20a was concurrent with the downregulation of NFKBIB (also known as IκBβ) as well as upregulation of p65, livin, and survivin. The luciferase activity suggested that NFKBIB was the direct target gene of miR-20a. Transfection of miR-20a inhibitor could increase NFKBIB level; downregulate the expression of p65, livin, and survivin; and lead to a higher proportion of apoptotic cells in SGC7901/DDP cells. Conversely, ectopic expression of miR-20a dramatically decreased the expression of NFKBIB; increased the expression of p65, livin, and survivin; and resulted in a decrease in the apoptosis induced by DDP in SGC7901 cells. Taken together, our findings suggested that miR-20a could promote activation of the NFκB pathway and downstream targets livin and survivin by targeting NFKBIB, which potentially contributed to GC chemoresistance.

Xie J, Guo X, Liu F, et al.
In vitro antitumor immune response induced by dendritic cells transduced with human livin α recombinant adenovirus.
Cell Immunol. 2015; 297(1):46-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
Transduction with recombinant, replication-defective adenoviral (rAd) vectors encoding a transgene is an efficient method for gene transfer into human dendritic cells (DCs). Livin is a good candidate for cancer immunotherapy since it is overexpressed in most common human cancers, poorly expressed in most normal adult tissues. Two splicing variants of livin, designated livin α and livin β, have been identified. In this study, we used human livin α recombinant adenovirus (rAd-hlivin α) to transduced DCs. We found that DCs transduced with rAd-hlivin α (rAd-hlivin α DCs) could effectively induce human livin α specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) in vitro against various tumor cell lines.

Lin X, Li HR, Lin XF, et al.
Silencing of Livin inhibits tumorigenesis and metastasis via VEGF and MMPs pathway in lung cancer.
Int J Oncol. 2015; 47(2):657-67 [PubMed] Related Publications
Livin, an inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP), is overexpressed in various cancers and decreases tumor sensitivity to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. However, the effect of Livin on lung adenocarcinoma metastasis and the specific mechanism involved remain unclear. RNAi technology was used to stably silence Livin in A549 cells in the present study. The effect of Livin on tumor growth and invasion was investigated in lung cancer cells in vitro and animal models were established to determine the anti-metastasis ability of Livin silencing in vivo. The results indicated that Livin knock-down suppressed cell proliferation and inhibited cell invasion, accompanied by downregulation of VEGF and MMP-2/-9. Silencing of Livin resulted in the prevention of xenograft tumor formation. Seventy-five immunodeficient male BALB/C nude mice were randomly divided into three groups, the relative ratio of the areas with pulmonary nodules in the experimental group decreased from 46.71±7.27% to 11.07±2.94% compared with the negative control group (P<0.001), indicating the interaction between Livin, VEGF and MMPs. The xenograft tumor model of intravenous injection of tumor cells were successfully established and applied for the analysis of lung cancer tumorigenesis and metastasis in a time-dependent manner for the first time. Based on the reliable and reproducible animal model, our findings indicate that knock-down of Livin inhibits cell growth and invasion through blockade of the VEGF and MMPs pathways in lung cancer cells in vitro, and inhibits tumorigenesis and metastasis of lung cancer in vivo, suggesting that Livin is a promising antitumor target.

Xu P, Jiang YF, Wang JH
shRNA-mediated silencing of sorcin increases drug chemosensitivity in myeloma KM3/DDP and U266/ADM cell lines.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(3):2300-10 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Sorcin is a penta-EF hand calcium binding protein, which is involved in the resistance to chemotherapeutics in cancer cells, and is overexpressed in various cancer cells. However, tumor relapse combined with the development of drug resistance remains a significant problem. Here, we demonstrated that silencing of Sorcin in chemotherapy resistance myeloma U266/ADM and KM3/DDP cell lines resulted in reduced cell proliferation, cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis. Sorcin siRNA successfully silenced Sorcin mRNA and protein expression. Silencing of Sorcin also significantly reduced the mRNA and protein expression levels of MDR1, MRP1, GST-π, Survinvin, Livin, Bcl-2, Cyclin-D1, phospho-Src, C-myc, p21, NF-κB and phospho-AKT, while p53 expression and caspase-3 and caspase-8 activity significantly increased when compared with control group. Silencing of Sorcin significantly increased the sensitivity of KM3/DDP cells to cisplatin and the sensitivity of U266/ADM to adriamycin, compared to cells untransfected and transfected with negative control shRNA. In addition, intracellular accumulation of Rhodamine 123 significantly increased in KM3/DDP and U266/ADM cells. In summary, our studies indicate that drug resistance can be effectively reversed in cisplatin-resistance and adriamycin-resistant myeloma cells through delivery of siRNAs targeting Sorcin. Assessment of potential as a target for human myeloma treatment is clearly warranted.

Zhuang L, Shen LD, Li K, et al.
Inhibition of livin expression suppresses cell proliferation and enhances chemosensitivity to cisplatin in human lung adenocarcinoma cells.
Mol Med Rep. 2015; 12(1):547-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
Livin is a novel member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein family that has been reported to be overexpressed in various types of human malignancy. Although several studies have demonstrated that livin may be used as an effective target for tumor therapy, few studies have investigated its role in human lung adenocarcinoma. In the present study, two different methods were used in order to investigate the tumor‑suppressing effect of livin in human lung adenocarcinoma cells. Firstly, small interfering (si)RNA technology was used to down regulate livin expression; siRNA-mediated knockdown of livin was confirmed using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis, and cell proliferations was assessed using an MTT assay in vitro. Secondly, inhibition of livin expression was induced through the synergistic inhibitory effect between flavopiridol and tumor necrosis factor‑related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). Experimental results revealed that, following transfection of the livin gene-silencing vector, the gene expression of livin was markedly decreased, SPC-A1 cell proliferation was significantly reduced and the therapeutic effect of the chemotherapy drug cisplatin was markedly improved. This growth inhibitory effect was also observed in the flavopiridol and TRAIL combination treatment group. In the flavopiridol and TRAIL combination treatment group, the protein expression of livin was significantly reduced and the survival rate of SPC‑A1 cells was significantly lower than the flavopiridol and TRAIL single operation group. In conclusion, the RNA silencing and the synergistic inhibitory effect between flavopiridol with TRAIL was able to effectively inhibit the expression of livin, significantly decrease SPC-A1 tumor cell proliferation and significantly enhance sensitivity to the chemotherapy drug cisplatin. These findings suggest that livin may be used as a novel target for tumor gene therapy.

Durinck S, Stawiski EW, Pavía-Jiménez A, et al.
Spectrum of diverse genomic alterations define non-clear cell renal carcinoma subtypes.
Nat Genet. 2015; 47(1):13-21 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
To further understand the molecular distinctions between kidney cancer subtypes, we analyzed exome, transcriptome and copy number alteration data from 167 primary human tumors that included renal oncocytomas and non-clear cell renal cell carcinomas (nccRCCs), consisting of papillary (pRCC), chromophobe (chRCC) and translocation (tRCC) subtypes. We identified ten significantly mutated genes in pRCC, including MET, NF2, SLC5A3, PNKD and CPQ. MET mutations occurred in 15% (10/65) of pRCC samples and included previously unreported recurrent activating mutations. In chRCC, we found TP53, PTEN, FAAH2, PDHB, PDXDC1 and ZNF765 to be significantly mutated. Gene expression analysis identified a five-gene set that enabled the molecular classification of chRCC, renal oncocytoma and pRCC. Using RNA sequencing, we identified previously unreported gene fusions, including ACTG1-MITF fusion. Ectopic expression of the ACTG1-MITF fusion led to cellular transformation and induced the expression of downstream target genes. Finally, we observed upregulation of the anti-apoptotic factor BIRC7 in MiTF-high RCC tumors, suggesting a potential therapeutic role for BIRC7 inhibitors.

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