PDGFRB

Gene Summary

Gene:PDGFRB; platelet derived growth factor receptor beta
Aliases: IMF1, KOGS, IBGC4, JTK12, PDGFR, PENTT, CD140B, PDGFR1, PDGFR-1
Location:5q32
Summary:This gene encodes a cell surface tyrosine kinase receptor for members of the platelet-derived growth factor family. These growth factors are mitogens for cells of mesenchymal origin. The identity of the growth factor bound to a receptor monomer determines whether the functional receptor is a homodimer or a heterodimer, composed of both platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha and beta polypeptides. This gene is flanked on chromosome 5 by the genes for granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and macrophage-colony stimulating factor receptor; all three genes may be implicated in the 5-q syndrome. A translocation between chromosomes 5 and 12, that fuses this gene to that of the translocation, ETV6, leukemia gene, results in chronic myeloproliferative disorder with eosinophilia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta
Source:NCBIAccessed: 16 March, 2017

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
Show (67)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (7)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 16 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta3
  • Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor beta
  • Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization
  • p53 Protein
  • Stem Cell Factor
  • Brain Tumours
  • Kaposi Sarcoma
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Leukaemia
  • Pyrimidines
  • Soft Tissue Sarcoma
  • Imatinib Mesylate
  • Chromosome 5
  • Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
  • Piperazines
  • PDGFRB
  • Skin Cancer
  • Salivary Gland Cancer
  • Protein Kinase Inhibitors
  • PDGFRA
  • Tuberous Sclerosis
  • Vesicular Transport Proteins
  • mRNA Cleavage and Polyadenylation Factors
  • Cell Proliferation
  • ETV6
  • Stromal Cells
  • src-Family Kinases
  • X-Ray Computed Tomography
  • Mutation
  • Signal Transduction
  • Messenger RNA
  • Young Adult
  • Tropomyosin
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
  • Oncogene Fusion Proteins
  • Trans-Activators
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Receptors, Progesterone
  • Bladder Cancer
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Benzamides
  • fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3
  • Platelet-Derived Growth Factor
Tag cloud generated 16 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Entity Topic PubMed Papers
Brain Tumours, ChildhoodPDGFRB and Brain Tumours View Publications38
Bladder CancerPDGFRB and Bladder Cancer View Publications3
Leukaemiat(5;12)(q33;p13) in Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia
Chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia (CMML) is a myelodysplastic syndrome and is characterized dysplastic monocytosis, hypercellular bone marrow, splenomegaly, and progression to acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). A sub-set of CMMLs have a t(5;12)(q33;p13) balanced translocation involving the PDGFRB and ETV6 (TEL) genes.
View Publications1
Skin CancerPDGFRB and Skin Cancer View Publications13
Soft Tissue SarcomaPDGFRB and Soft Tissue Sarcoma View Publications46
Salivary Gland CancerPDGFRB and Salivary Gland Cancer View Publications2
Kaposi SarcomaPDGFRB and Kaposi Sarcoma View Publications3

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: PDGFRB (cancer-related)

Appiah-Kubi K, Lan T, Wang Y, et al.
Platelet-derived growth factor receptors (PDGFRs) fusion genes involvement in hematological malignancies.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2017; 109:20-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To investigate oncogenic platelet-derived growth factor receptor(PDGFR) fusion genes involvement in hematological malignancies, the advances in the PDGFR fusion genes diagnosis and development of PDGFR fusions inhibitors.
METHODS: Literature search was done using terms "PDGFR and Fusion" or "PDGFR and Myeloid neoplasm" or 'PDGFR and Lymphoid neoplasm' or "PDGFR Fusion Diagnosis" or "PDGFR Fusion Targets" in databases including PubMed, ASCO.org, and Medscape.
RESULTS: Out of the 36 fusions detected, ETV6(TEL)-PDGFRB and FIP1L1-PDGFRA fusions were frequently detected, 33 are as a result of chromosomal translocation, FIP1L1-PDGFRA and EBF1-PDGFRB are the result of chromosomal deletion and CDK5RAP2- PDGFRΑ is the result of chromosomal insertion. Seven of the 34 rare fusions have detectable reciprocals.
CONCLUSION: RNA aptamers are promising therapeutic target of PDGFRs and diagnostic tools of PDGFRs fusion genes. Also, PDGFRs have variable prospective therapeutic strategies including small molecules, RNA aptamers, and interference therapeutics as well as development of adaptor protein Lnk mimetic drugs.

Lin ZY, Chuang WL
Contrary influence of clinically applied sorafenib concentrations among hepatocellular carcinoma patients.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2017; 86:27-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
The treatment responses of sorafenib in hepatocellular carcinoma are modest which may be due to different characteristics of cancer cells or insufficient therapeutic concentrations. This study was to clarify this issue. The anti-proliferative effects and differential expressions of 8 genes related to sorafenib anti-cancer mechanisms (tyrosine kinase receptor genes: KDR, PDGFRB; RAF cascade: RAF1, BRAF, MAP2K1, MAP2K2, MAPK1, MAPK3) were investigated in primary cultured hepatocellular carcinoma cells collected from 8 patients using clinically applied sorafenib concentrations (5, 10μg/mL). The anti-proliferative effects of sorafenib at either 5 or 10μg/mL, which were related to down-regulations of KDR, PDGFRB and/or genes in the RAF cascade, were achieved only in one patient (HCC38/KMUH). However, either 5 or 10μg/mL sorafenib promoted proliferation in 4 patients (HCC29/KMUH, HCC62/KMUH, HCC87/KMUH, HCC98/KMUH). Among them, the RAF cascade, PDGFRB and/or KDR were up-regulated in 3 patients but no gene was differentially expressed in the remaining one patient (HCC87/KMUH). Increase the sorafenib concentration to 10μg/mL paradoxically up-regulated and/or obliterated the previously down-regulated genes in the RAF cascade and/or KDR in 4 patients (HCC29/KMUH, HCC76/KMUH, HCC87/KMUH, HCC98/KMUH). Significant down-regulations of the RAF cascade and PDGFRB by sorafenib but without anti-proliferative effects were detected in one patient (HCC54/KMUH). In conclusion, influence of sorafenib on proliferation is not simply through the RAF cascade. The responses of KDR, PDGFRB and the RAF cascade to sorafenib among patients are diverse or even contrary. Increase the sorafenib concentration has potential to up-regulate genes favored angiogenesis and proliferation.

Jasek K, Buzalkova V, Minarik G, et al.
Detection of mutations in the BRAF gene in patients with KIT and PDGFRA wild-type gastrointestinal stromal tumors.
Virchows Arch. 2017; 470(1):29-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are characterized by mutations in exons 9, 11, 13, and 17 of KIT or exons 12, 14, and 18 of PDGFRA gene. However, approximately 10 to 15 % of GISTs lack the mutations in KIT and PDGFRA, and these are referred to as wild-type GISTs which are less sensitive to tyrosine-kinase inhibitors. The aim of this study was to detect BRAF mutations in patients with wild-type GISTs. We applied a sensitive allele-specific PCR, which was optimized using the V600E mutation-harboring cell line RKO, followed by verification of the results by dideoxy sequencing. We selected 149 GIST patients without detectable mutations in KIT and PDGFRA genes from the Slovak national GIST register and analyzed biopsy specimens for the presence of BRAF mutations in exon 15. We identified nine patients with the V600E mutation. The BRAF-driven GISTs were primary gastric (n = 3), small intestinal (n = 3), colon (n = 1), and of uncertain origin (n = 1). We also included a liver metastasis of a patient with a simultaneous KIT exon 11-mutated intra-abdominal metastasis. We conclude that genome analysis of wild-type GISTs for mutations should include the BRAF gene, as its mutation status contributes to understanding of pathogenesis and might be important for decisions on therapy.

Lopez-Campistrous A, Adewuyi EE, Benesch MG, et al.
PDGFRα Regulates Follicular Cell Differentiation Driving Treatment Resistance and Disease Recurrence in Papillary Thyroid Cancer.
EBioMedicine. 2016; 12:86-97 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Dedifferentiation of follicular cells is a central event in resistance to radioactive iodine and patient mortality in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). We reveal that platelet derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRα) specifically drives dedifferentiation in PTC by disrupting the transcriptional activity of thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF1). PDGFRα activation dephosphorylates TTF1 consequently shifting the localization of this transcription factor from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. TTF1 is required for follicular cell development and disrupting its function abrogates thyroglobulin production and sodium iodide transport. PDGFRα also promotes a more invasive and migratory cell phenotype with a dramatic increase in xenograft tumor formation. In patient tumors we confirm that nuclear TTF1 expression is inversely proportional to PDGFRα levels. Patients exhibiting PDGFRα at time of diagnosis are three times more likely to exhibit nodal metastases and are 18 times more likely to recur within 5years than those patients lacking PDGFRα expression. Moreover, high levels of PDGFRα and low levels of nuclear TTF1 predict resistance to radioactive iodine therapy. We demonstrate in SCID xenografts that focused PDGFRα blockade restores iodide transport and decreases tumor burden by >50%. Focused PDGFRα inhibitors, combined with radioactive iodine, represent an additional avenue for treating patients with aggressive variants of PTC.

Gu ML, Wang YM, Zhou XX, et al.
An inhibitor of the acetyltransferases CBP/p300 exerts antineoplastic effects on gastrointestinal stromal tumor cells.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(5):2763-2770 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal neoplasm featured by activated mutations of KIT and PDGFRA. Although overall survival rates have greatly improved by the development of receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors, most patients ultimately acquire resistance due to secondary mutations of KIT or PDGFRA. Inhibition of the histone acetyltransferases (HATs) CREB‑binding protein (CBP) and p300 results in antineoplastic effects in various cancers. To determine whether CBP/p300 can serve as an antineoplastic target for GISTs, specific short interfering RNA sequences and the selective HAT inhibitor C646 were administered to GIST882 cells. Cell viability, apoptosis and the cell cycle were analysed using the Cell Counting Kit-8, a caspase-3/7 activity assay or Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide (PI) staining and PI staining. Gene and protein expression levels were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. Transcriptional blockage of CBP, rather than p300, resulted in suppression of cell proliferation. Interestingly, both CBP and p300 depletion enhanced caspase-3/7 activity. A lack of CBP and p300 caused ETS translocation variant 1 (ETV1) downregulation and KIT inhibition in GIST cells. Nevertheless, the absence of CBP, not p300, leads to extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 inactivation and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase activation, suggesting a more crucial role for CBP than p300 in cell proliferation and survival. Furthermore, proliferation of GIST cells was reduced by administration of C646, a selective HAT inhibitor for CBP/p300. Apoptosis induction and cell cycle arrest were detected after exposure to C646, indicating that its antitumor activities were supported by its antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects. Additionally, C646 treatment attenuated ETV1 protein expression and inactivated KIT-dependent pathways. Taken together, the present study suggests that CBP/p300 may serve as novel antineoplastic targets and that use of the selective HAT inhibitor C646 is a promising antitumor strategy for GISTs.

Rodriquenz MG, Rossi S, Ricci R, et al.
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) and second malignancies: A novel "sentinel tumor"? A monoinstitutional, STROBE-compliant observational analysis.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95(38):e4718 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Several evidences showed that patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) develop additional malignancies. However, thorough incidence of second tumors remains uncertain as the possibility of a common molecular pathogenesis.A retrospective series of 128 patients with histologically proven GIST treated at our institution was evaluated. Molecular analysis of KIT and PDGFR-α genes was performed in all patients. Following the involvement of KRAS mutation in many tumors' pathogenesis, analysis of KRAS was performed in patients with also second neoplasms.Forty-six out of 128 GIST patients (35.9%) had a second neoplasm. Most second tumors (52%) raised from gastrointestinal tract and 19.6% from genitourinary tract. Benign neoplasms were also included (21.7%). Molecular analysis was available for 29/46 patients with a second tumor: wild-type GISTs (n. 5), exon 11 (n. 16), exon 13 (n. 1), exon 9 (n. 1) KIT mutations, exon 14 PDGFR-α mutation (n. 2) and exon 18 PDGFR-α mutation (n. 4). KIT exon 11 mutations were more frequent between patients who developed a second tumor (P = 0.0003). Mutational analysis of KRAS showed a wild-type sequence in all cases. In metachronous cases, the median time interval between GIST and second tumor was 21.5 months.The high frequency of second tumors suggests that an unknown common molecular mechanism might play a role, but it is not likely that KRAS is involved in this common pathogenesis. The short interval between GIST diagnosis and the onset of second neoplasms asks for a careful follow-up, particularly in the first 3 years after diagnosis.

Majeed W, Iftikhar A, Khaliq T, et al.
Gastric Carcinoma: Recent Trends in Diagnostic Biomarkers and Molecular Targeted Therapies.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016; 17(7):3053-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastric cancer is generally associated with poor survival rates and accounts for a remarkable proportion of global cancer mortality. The prevalence of gastric carcinoma varies in different regions of world and across teh various ethnic groups. On the basis of pathological assessment, gastric cancer can be categorized as intestinal and diffuse carcinomas. The etiology is diverse, including chemical carcinogen exposure, and high salt intake Helicobacter pylori also plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of certain gastric carcinomas. The development of gastric cancer involves various alterations in mRNAs, genes (GOLPH3, MTA2) and proteins (Coronins). miRNAs, Hsamir135b, MiR21, miR106b, miR17, miR18a, MiR21, miR106b, miR17, miR18a and MiRNA375, miRNA1955p are the latest diagnostic biomarkers which can facilitate the early diagnosis of gastric carcinomas. Recent development in the treatment strategies for gastric carcinoma include the introduction of monoclonal antibodies, TKI inhibitors, inhibitors of PDGFR β, VEGFR1, VEGFR2, AntiEGFR and antiHER2 agents which can be applied along with conventional therapies.

Ciccarese C, Brunelli M, Montironi R, et al.
The prospect of precision therapy for renal cell carcinoma.
Cancer Treat Rev. 2016; 49:37-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
The therapeutic landscape of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has greatly expanded in the last decade. From being a malignancy orphan of effective therapies, kidney cancer has become today a tumor with several treatment options. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a metabolic disease, being characterized by the dysregulation of metabolic pathways involved in oxygen sensing (VHL/HIF pathway alterations and the subsequent up-regulation of HIF-responsive genes such as VEGF, PDGF, EGF, and glucose transporters GLUT1 and GLUT4, which justify the RCC reliance on aerobic glycolysis), energy sensing (fumarate hydratase-deficient, succinate dehydrogenase-deficient RCC, mutations of HGF/MET pathway resulting in the metabolic Warburg shift marked by RCC increased dependence on aerobic glycolysis and the pentose phosphate shunt, augmented lipogenesis, and reduced AMPK and Krebs cycle activity) and/or nutrient sensing cascade (deregulation of AMPK-TSC1/2-mTOR and PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathways). In this complex scenario it is important to find prognostic and predictive factors that can help in decision making in the treatment of mRCC.

Li Z, Guo X, Tang L, et al.
Methylation analysis of plasma cell-free DNA for breast cancer early detection using bisulfite next-generation sequencing.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(10):13111-13119 [PubMed] Related Publications
Circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) has been considered as a potential biomarker for non-invasive cancer detection. To evaluate the methylation levels of six candidate genes (EGFR, GREM1, PDGFRB, PPM1E, SOX17, and WRN) in plasma cfDNA as biomarkers for breast cancer early detection, quantitative analysis of the promoter methylation of these genes from 86 breast cancer patients and 67 healthy controls was performed by using microfluidic-PCR-based target enrichment and next-generation bisulfite sequencing technology. The predictive performance of different logistic models based on methylation status of candidate genes was investigated by means of the area under the ROC curve (AUC) and odds ratio (OR) analysis. Results revealed that EGFR, PPM1E, and 8 gene-specific CpG sites showed significantly hypermethylation in cancer patients' plasma and significantly associated with breast cancer (OR ranging from 2.51 to 9.88). The AUC values for these biomarkers were ranging from 0.66 to 0.75. Combinations of multiple hypermethylated genes or CpG sites substantially improved the predictive performance for breast cancer detection. Our study demonstrated the feasibility of quantitative measurement of candidate gene methylation in cfDNA by using microfluidic-PCR-based target enrichment and bisulfite next-generation sequencing, which is worthy of further validation and potentially benefits a broad range of applications in clinical oncology practice. Quantitative analysis of methylation pattern of plasma cfDNA by next-generation sequencing might be a valuable non-invasive tool for early detection of breast cancer.

Aras Y, Erguven M, Aktas E, et al.
Antagonist activity of the antipsychotic drug lithium chloride and the antileukemic drug imatinib mesylate during glioblastoma treatment in vitro.
Neurol Res. 2016; 38(9):766-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Glioblastoma (GBM), the most common primary tumour of the central nervous system, is characterised by a high malignancy and poor prognosis. The aims of this study were to investigate whether the combination of imatinib mesylate (IM) and lithium chloride (LiCl) exhibited a synergistic effect in treatment and to determine whether midkine (MK) affected the fate of this treatment in vitro.
METHODS: Monolayer and spheroid cultures of the T98G human GBM cell line were treated with an IM and LiCl combination for 72 h. The cell proliferation index, apoptotic index, cell cycle distribution, apoptotic and anti-apoptotic protein levels, and cAMP level as well as the cellular morphology and ultrastructure were evaluated.
RESULTS: All applications inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis. The most substantial decreases in cell proliferation and the caspase-3, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), platelet derived growth factor receptor-alpha (PDGFR-α), multidrug resistance protein-1 (MRP-1), aquaporin-4 (AQP-4) and cAMP levels were induced by the LiCl treatment, which exhibited more pronounced effects compared with the combination treatment. LiCl was less effective in decreasing the MK and B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) levels compared with the combination treatment. The most substantial decrease in the p170 levels was identified following the combination treatment, whereas IM induced the second greatest decrease. LiCl alone had no effect on the p170 levels. IM induced the most substantial decrease in the phospho-glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta (p-GSK-3β)/glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta (GSK-3β) ratio, and LiCl induced the second most substantial decrease. Both LiCl and the combination treatment induced G2 + M arrest, whereas IM induced G0 + G1 arrest after 72 h of exposure. An apoptotic appearance and autophagic vacuoles were commonly identified in the LiCl, combination and IM groups, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: The combination of IM and LiCl exhibited an antagonist effect, and MK had a role at this antagonism.

Chetty R, Serra S
Molecular and morphological correlation in gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs): an update and primer.
J Clin Pathol. 2016; 69(9):754-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are a commonly encountered tumour in routine practice. In the main, the morphology of spindle, epithelioid or mixed are well recognised along with mutations of c-kit However, there are other genes that are mutated resulting in characteristic clinicopathological correlations. GISTs harbouring platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRα) gene mutations lead to a typical morphological constellation of findings: gastric and omental location, gross tumour that is cystic and haemorrhagic, composed of epithelioid, plasmacytoid cells exhibiting pleomorphism, low mitotic count and containing characteristic giant cells with peripherally placed nuclei. These cells are set in a myxoid stroma containing several mast cells. In addition, perivascular/intratumoural hyalinisation is often seen. These tumours are CD117 and DOG-1 positive. GISTs with SDH mutations are multinodular/bilobed/dumb-bell shape tumour masses with mucosal ulceration and histologically characterised by fibrous bands around and within nodules of epithelioid or mixed epithelioid/spindle cells. Lymphovascular invasion with lymph node metastases are usual. Immunohistochemically, the GISTs are CD117, DOG-1 positive, SDHA negative (if SDHA mutated), SDHA positive (if SDHA intact) and SDHB negative. BRAF and NF-1 mutated GISTs do not have any characteristic morphological features.

Appiah-Kubi K, Wang Y, Qian H, et al.
Platelet-derived growth factor receptor/platelet-derived growth factor (PDGFR/PDGF) system is a prognostic and treatment response biomarker with multifarious therapeutic targets in cancers.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(8):10053-66 [PubMed] Related Publications
Progress in cancer biology has led to an increasing discovery of oncogenic alterations of the platelet-derived growth factor receptors (PDGFRs) in cancers. In addition, their overexpression in numerous cancers invariably makes PDGFRs and platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) prognostic and treatment markers in some cancers. The oncologic alterations of the PDGFR/PDGF system affect the extracellular, transmembrane and tyrosine kinase domains as well as the juxtamembrane segment of the receptor. The receptor is also involved in fusions with intracellular proteins and receptor tyrosine kinase. These discoveries undoubtedly make the system an attractive oncologic therapeutic target. This review covers elementary biology of PDGFR/PDGF system and its role as a prognostic and treatment marker in cancers. In addition, the multifarious therapeutic targets of PDGFR/PDGF system are discussed. Great potential exists in the role of PDGFR/PDGF system as a prognostic and treatment marker and for further exploration of its multifarious therapeutic targets in safe and efficacious management of cancer treatments.

Baskin Y, Kocal GC, Kucukzeybek BB, et al.
PDGFRA and KIT Mutation Status and Its Association With Clinicopathological Properties, Including DOG1.
Oncol Res. 2016; 24(1):41-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
Most of the gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) have gain-of-function mutations in the KIT gene, which can be used as a prognostic marker for the biological behavior of tumors, predictive marker for the response of tyrosine kinase inhibitors, and diagnostic marker. Researchers have focused on PDGFRA mutations because of both their prognostic and predictive potential and DOG1 positivity for diagnosis on GISTs. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect DOG1, PDGFRA, and KIT mutations on the prediction of the outcome for GIST management. Polymerase chain reaction was performed for KIT gene exons 9, 11, 13, and 17 and PDGFRA gene exons 12 and 18 with the genomic DNA of 46 GIST patients, and amplicons were sequenced in both directions. Immunocytochemical stainings were done by using primary antibodies. Molecular analysis revealed that the KIT mutation was observed in 63% of all cases, while the PDGFRA mutation was observed in 23.9% of cases. Significant relationships were found between age and KIT mutation, tumor location and KIT mutations, and tumor location and PDGFRA mutations (p ≤ 0.05). DOG1 positivity was detected in 65.2% of all GISTs and DOG1-positive cells had a higher KIT mutation ratio than DOG1-negative cells (p ≤ 0.05). KIT gene exon 11 mutations in DOG1-positive cells was higher than DOG1-negative cells (p ≤ 0.05). Conversely, KIT gene exon 13 mutations were higher in DOG1-negative cells than DOG1-positive cells (p ≤ 0.05). In this study, KIT mutation frequency was found similar with the European population; conversely, PDGFRA mutation frequency was similar with an Asian-Chinese-based study. KIT/PDGFRA mutations and tumor location can be used for the prediction of tumor behavior and the management of disease in GISTs. DOG1 positivity might be a candidate marker to support KIT and PDGFRA mutations, due to the higher DOG1 positivity in KIT exon 11 mutant and stomach- and small intestine-localized GISTs.

Liu YH, Jin JL, Wang YZ, et al.
Protrusion-localized STAT3 mRNA promotes metastasis of highly metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro.
Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2016; 37(6):805-13 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIM: Recent evidence shows that localization of mRNAs and their protein products at cellular protrusions plays a decisive function in the metastasis of cancer cells. The aim of this study was to identify the variety of proteins encoded by protrusion-localized mRNAs and their roles in the metastasis and invasion of liver cancer cells.
METHODS: Highly metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HCCLM3 and non-metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma cell line SMMC-7721 were examined. Cell protrusions (Ps) were separated from cell bodies (CB) using a Boyden chamber assay; total mRNA population in CB and Ps fractions was analyzed using high-throughput direct RNA sequencing. The localization of STAT3 mRNA and protein at Ps was confirmed using RT-qPCR, RNA FISH, and immunofluorescence assays. Cell migration capacity and invasiveness of HCCLM3 cells were evaluated using MTT, wound healing migration and in vitro invasion assays. The interaction between Stat3 and growth factor receptors was explored with co-immunoprecipitation assays.
RESULTS: In HCCLM3 cells, 793 mRNAs were identified as being localized in the Ps fraction according to a cut-off value (Ps/CB ratio) >1.6. The Ps-localized mRNAs could be divided into 4 functional groups, and were all closely related to the invasive and metastatic properties. STAT3 mRNA accumulated in the Ps of HCCLM3 cells compared with non-metastatic SMMC-7721 cells. Treatment of HCCLM3 cells with siRNAs against STAT3 mRNA drastically decreased the cell migration and invasion. Moreover, Ps-localized Stat3 was found to interact with pseudopod-enriched platelet-derived growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase (PDGFRTK) in a growth factor-dependent manner.
CONCLUSION: This study reveals STAT3 mRNA localization at the Ps of metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma HCCLM3 cells by combining application of genome-wide and gene specific description and functional analysis.

Schäfer N, Gielen GH, Kebir S, et al.
Phase I trial of dovitinib (TKI258) in recurrent glioblastoma.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2016; 142(7):1581-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Dovitinib (TKI258) is an oral multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitor of FGFR, VEGFR, PDGFR β, and c-Kit. Since dovitinib is able to cross the blood-brain barrier and targets brain tumor-relevant pathways, we conducted a phase I trial to demonstrate its safety in recurrent glioblastoma (GBM).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with first or second GBM recurrence started treatment with the maximal tolerated dose (MTD) previously established in systemic cancer patients (500 mg/d, 5 days on/2 days off). A modified 3 + 3 design in three cohorts (500, 400, 300 mg) was used.
RESULTS: Twelve patients were enrolled. Seventy-two adverse events (AEs) occurred and 16.7 % of AEs were classified as ≥CTC grade 3 toxicity, mainly including hepatotoxicity and hematotoxicity. Only one out of six patients of the 300-mg cohort showed grade 3 toxicity. The PFS-6 rate was 16.7 %, and it was not associated with detection of the FGFR-TACC gene fusion in the tumor.
CONCLUSION: Dovitinib is safe in patients with recurrent GBM and showed efficacy in only some patients unselected for target expression. The recommended phase II dose of 300 mg would be substantially lower than the recently established MTD in systemic cancer patients. Further personalized trials are recommended.

Moorman AV
New and emerging prognostic and predictive genetic biomarkers in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Haematologica. 2016; 101(4):407-16 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a heterogeneous disease at the genetic level. Chromosomal abnormalities are used as diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers to provide subtype, outcome and drug response information. t(12;21)/ETV6-RUNX1 and high hyper-diploidy are good-risk prognostic biomarkers whereas KMT2A(MLL) translocations, t(17;19)/TCF3-HLF, haploidy or low hypodiploidy are high-risk biomarkers. t(9;22)/BCR-ABL1 patients require targeted treatment (imatinib/dasatinib), whereas iAMP21 patients achieve better outcomes when treated intensively. High-risk genetic biomarkers are four times more prevalent in adults compared to children. The application of genomic technologies to cases without an established abnormality (B-other) reveals copy number alterations which can be used either individually or in combination as prognostic biomarkers. Transcriptome sequencing studies have identified a network of fusion genes involving kinase genes -ABL1,ABL2,PDGFRB,CSF1R,CRLF2,JAK2 and EPOR in-vitro and in-vivo studies along with emerging clinical observations indicate that patients with a kinase-activating aberration may respond to treatment with small molecular inhibitors like imatinib/dasatinib and ruxolitinib. Further work is required to determine the true frequency of these abnormalities across the age spectrum and the optimal way to incorporate such inhibitors into protocols. In conclusion, genetic biomarkers are playing an increasingly important role in the management of patients with ALL.

Majer A, Blanchard AA, Medina S, et al.
Claudin 1 Expression Levels Affect miRNA Dynamics in Human Basal-Like Breast Cancer Cells.
DNA Cell Biol. 2016; 35(7):328-39 [PubMed] Related Publications
Deemed a putative tumor suppressor in breast cancer, the tight junction protein claudin 1 has now been shown to be highly expressed in the basal-like molecular subtype. Moreover, recent in vitro studies show that claudin 1 can regulate breast cancer cell motility and proliferation. Herein, we investigated whether microRNA (miRNA) dysregulation is associated with alterations in the level of claudin 1. Using next-generation sequencing (NGS), we identified seven miRNAs (miR-9-5p, miR-9-3p, let-7c, miR-127-3p, miR-99a-5p, miR-129-5p, and miR-146a-5p) that were deregulated as a consequence of claudin 1 overexpression in the MDA-MB231 human breast cancer (HBC) cell line. Most of these miRNAs have been associated with tumor suppression in a variety of cancers, including breast cancer. Moreover, through gene expression profiling analysis, we identified epithelial-mesenchymal transition-related genes, including platelet-derived growth factor receptor-beta (PDGFRB) and cadherin 1 (CDH1, E cadherin), whose downregulation correlated with claudin 1 overexpression. Collectively, we show for the first time that in HBC, claudin 1 can alter the dynamics of a number of miRNAs involved in tumor progression. Our data suggest that the dysregulated expression of these miRNAs, in conjunction with the high claudin 1 levels, could serve as a useful biomarker that identifies a subset of tumors within the poorly characterized basal-like subtype of breast cancer. Further studies are warranted to determine the role of these miRNAs in facilitating the function of claudin 1 in breast cancer.

Weigand A, Boos AM, Tasbihi K, et al.
Selective isolation and characterization of primary cells from normal breast and tumors reveal plasticity of adipose derived stem cells.
Breast Cancer Res. 2016; 18(1):32 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: There is a need to establish more cell lines from breast tumors in contrast to immortalized cell lines from metastatic effusions in order to represent the primary tumor and not principally metastatic biology of breast cancer. This investigation describes the simultaneous isolation, characterization, growth and function of primary mammary epithelial cells (MEC), mesenchymal cells (MES) and adipose derived stem cells (ADSC) from four normal breasts, one inflammatory and one triple-negative ductal breast tumors.
METHODS: A total of 17 cell lines were established and gene expression was analyzed for MEC and MES (n = 42) and ADSC (n = 48) and MUC1, pan-KRT, CD90 and GATA-3 by immunofluorescence. DNA fingerprinting to track cell line identity was performed between original primary tissues and isolates. Functional studies included ADSC differentiation, tumor MES and MEC invasion co-cultured with ADSC-conditioned media (CM) and MES adhesion and growth on 3D-printed scaffolds.
RESULTS: Comparative analysis showed higher gene expression of EPCAM, CD49f, CDH1 and KRTs for normal MEC lines; MES lines e.g. Vimentin, CD10, ACTA2 and MMP9; and ADSC lines e.g. CD105, CD90, CDH2 and CDH11. Compared to the mean of all four normal breast cell lines, both breast tumor cell lines demonstrated significantly lower ADSC marker gene expression, but higher expression of mesenchymal and invasion gene markers like SNAI1 and MMP2. When compared with four normal ADSC differentiated lineages, both tumor ADSC showed impaired osteogenic and chondrogenic but enhanced adipogenic differentiation and endothelial-like structures, possibly due to high PDGFRB and CD34. Addressing a functional role for overproduction of adipocytes, we initiated 3D-invasion studies including different cell types from the same patient. CM from ADSC differentiating into adipocytes induced tumor MEC 3D-invasion via EMT and amoeboid phenotypes. Normal MES breast cells adhered and proliferated on 3D-printed scaffolds containing 20 fibers, but not on 2.5D-printed scaffolds with single fiber layers, important for tissue engineering.
CONCLUSION: Expression analyses confirmed successful simultaneous cell isolations of three different phenotypes from normal and tumor primary breast tissues. Our cell culture studies support that breast-tumor environment differentially regulates tumor ADSC plasticity as well as cell invasion and demonstrates applications for regenerative medicine.

Shi X, Su Z, Zhao C, Feng X
Transformation from atypical chronic myeloid leukemia to chronic myelomonocytic leukemia as progression of myeloid neoplasm with platelet-derived growth factor ß rearrangement.
J Cancer Res Ther. 2015 Oct-Dec; 11(4):914-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Myeloid neoplasms associated with platelet-derived growth factor b (PDGFRB) rearrangement usually keep only one morphologic type unless blast crisis. We describe a unique case of hematological features transformation from atypical chronic myeloid leukemia to chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, and imatinib showed no clinical therapeutic effects. The phenomenon indicates that different types of myeloid neoplasms associated with PDGFRB rearrangement can transform into one another with the progression of the disease, and to some extent, this transformation suggests the aggravation of disease.

Rizzo FM, Palmirotta R, Marzullo A, et al.
Parallelism of DOG1 expression with recurrence risk in gastrointestinal stromal tumors bearing KIT or PDGFRA mutations.
BMC Cancer. 2016; 16:87 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are characterized by mutations of KIT (v-kit Hardy-Zuckerman 4 feline sarcoma viral oncogene homolog) or PDGFRA (platelet-derived growth factor receptor α) that may be efficiently targeted by tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). Notwithstanding the early responsiveness to TKI, the majority of GISTs progress, imposing the need for alternative therapeutic strategies. DOG1 (discovered on GIST-1) shows a higher sensitivity as a diagnostic marker than KIT, however its prognostic role has been little investigated.
METHODS: We evaluated DOG1 expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in 59 patients with GISTs, and correlated its levels with clinical and pathological features as well as mutational status. Kaplan-Meier analysis was also applied to assess correlations of the staining score with patient recurrence-free survival (RFS).
RESULTS: DOG1 was expressed in 66% of CD117(+) GISTs and highly associated with tumor size and the rate of wild-type tumors. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that a strong DOG1 expression demonstrated by IHC correlated with a worse 2-year RFS rate, suggesting its potential ability to predict GISTs with poor prognosis.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest a prognostic role for DOG1, as well as its potential for inclusion in the criteria for risk stratification.

Triplett TA, Cardenas KT, Lancaster JN, et al.
Endogenous dendritic cells from the tumor microenvironment support T-ALL growth via IGF1R activation.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016; 113(8):E1016-25 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Primary T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cells require stromal-derived signals to survive. Although many studies have identified cell-intrinsic alterations in signaling pathways that promote T-ALL growth, the identity of endogenous stromal cells and their associated signals in the tumor microenvironment that support T-ALL remains unknown. By examining the thymic tumor microenvironments in multiple murine T-ALL models and primary patient samples, we discovered the emergence of prominent epithelial-free regions, enriched for proliferating tumor cells and dendritic cells (DCs). Systematic evaluation of the functional capacity of tumor-associated stromal cells revealed that myeloid cells, primarily DCs, are necessary and sufficient to support T-ALL survival ex vivo. DCs support T-ALL growth both in primary thymic tumors and at secondary tumor sites. To identify a molecular mechanism by which DCs support T-ALL growth, we first performed gene expression profiling, which revealed up-regulation of platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (Pdgfrb) and insulin-like growth factor I receptor (Igf1r) on T-ALL cells, with concomitant expression of their ligands by tumor-associated DCs. Both Pdgfrb and Igf1r were activated in ex vivo T-ALL cells, and coculture with tumor-associated, but not normal thymic DCs, sustained IGF1R activation. Furthermore, IGF1R signaling was necessary for DC-mediated T-ALL survival. Collectively, these studies provide the first evidence that endogenous tumor-associated DCs supply signals driving T-ALL growth, and implicate tumor-associated DCs and their mitogenic signals as auspicious therapeutic targets.

Xu G, Li JY
Differential expression of PDGFRB and EGFR in microvascular proliferation in glioblastoma.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(8):10577-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the highly malignant glioma and exhibits microvascular proliferation. PCR mRNA arrays and immunohistochemical stains on tissue microarray demonstrated that the expression level of PDGFRB in GBM microvascular proliferation was significantly higher than that in GBM tumor cells while the expression level of EGFR was lower in microvascular proliferation than in GBM tumor cells. PDGFRB protein was selectively expressed in pericytes in GBM microvascular proliferation. By analyzing The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) datasets for GBM, it was found that genomic DNA alterations were the main reason for the high expression of EGFR in GBM tumor cells. Our miRNA microarray data showed that microRNAs (miRNAs) (miR-193b-3p, miR-518b, miR-520f-3p, and miR-506-5p) targeting PDGFRB were downregulated in microvascular proliferation, which might be the most likely reason for the high expression of PDGFRB in GBM microvascular proliferation. The increase of several miRNAs (miR-133b, miR-30b-3p, miR-145-5p, and miR-146a-5p) targeting EGFR in GBM microvascular proliferation was one of the reasons for the lack of expression of EGFR in GBM microvascular proliferation. These findings implicated that miRNAs, such as miR-506, miR-133b, miR-145, and miR-146a, that target PDGFRB or EGFR, might be potential therapeutic agents for GBM. A new generation of targeted therapeutic agents against both EGFR and PDGFRB might be developed in the future.

Nishijima N, Seike M, Soeno C, et al.
miR-200/ZEB axis regulates sensitivity to nintedanib in non-small cell lung cancer cells.
Int J Oncol. 2016; 48(3):937-44 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Nintedanib (BIBF1120) is a multi-targeted angiokinase inhibitor and has been evaluated in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients in clinical studies. In the present study, we evaluated the antitumor effects of nintedanib in 16 NSCLC cell lines and tried to identify microRNA (miRNA) associated with sensitivity to nintedanib. No correlations between FGFR, PDGFR and VEGFR family activation and sensitivity to nintedanib were found. The difference in miRNA expression profiles between 5 nintedanib-sensitive and 5 nintedanib-resistant cell lines was evaluated by miRNA array and quantitative RT-PCR analysis (qRT-PCR). Expression of miR-200b, miR-200a and miR-141 belonging to the miR-200 family which contributes to epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), was significantly lower in 5 nintedanib-resistant than in 5 nintedanib-sensitive cell lines. We examined the protein expression of EMT markers in these 10 NSCLC cell lines. E-cadherin expression was lower, and vimentin and ZEB1 expression were higher in 5 nintedanib-resistant cell lines. PC-1 was the most sensitive of the NSCLC cell lines to nintedanib. We established nintedanib-resistant PC-1 cells (PC-1R) by the stepwise method. PC-1R cells also showed decreased expression of miR-200b, miR-141 and miR-429 and increased expression of ZEB1 and ZEB2. We confirmed that induction of miR-200b or miR-141 enhanced sensitivity to nintedanib in nintedanib-resistant A549 and PC1-R cells. In addition, we evaluated the response to gefitinib in combination with nintedanib after TGF-β1 exposure of A549 cells. Nintedanib was able to reverse TGF-β1-induced EMT and resistance to gefitinib caused by miR-200b and miR-141 upregulation and ZEB1 downregulation. These results suggested that the miR-200/ZEB axis might be predictive biomarkers for sensitivity to nintedanib in NSCLC cells. Furthermore, nintedanib combined with gefitinib might be a novel therapeutic strategy for NSCLC cells with EMT phenotype and resistance to gefitinib.

Paximadis P, Najy AJ, Snyder M, Kim HR
The interaction between androgen receptor and PDGF-D in the radiation response of prostate carcinoma.
Prostate. 2016; 76(6):534-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To determine the functional relationship between androgen receptor (AR) and PDGF D as it relates to the radiation response of PTEN-null prostate cancer (PCa) cells and the effect of enzalutamide on these interactions.
METHODS AND MATERIALS: Using murine PTEN-null prostate epithelial cell line and human prostate carcinoma LNCaP (PTEN-mutant) models, nuclear and cytosolic AR levels were determined by immunoblot analysis and the transcriptional activity of nuclear AR was assessed by RT-PCR analysis of its target genes with or without irradiation. Cell survival was evaluated by clonogenic assay or sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay upon irradiation in the absence or presence of the AR antagonist enzalutamide.
RESULTS: PTEN loss resulted in upregulation of AR expression in a PDGF-D dependent manner and irradiation selectively increased the nuclear AR protein level and its activity in a murine cell model. When the functional significance of AR in cell survival was tested, treatment with enzalutamide resulted in radiosensitization of human LNCaP cells. Similarly to the murine model, PDGF-D overexpression increased the nuclear AR level and its transcriptional activity in LNCaP cells. PDGF-D over-expression was associated with radioresistance and enzalutamide treatment effectively reversed PDGF-D-mediated radioresistance in LNCaP cells.
CONCLUSIONS: We have demonstrated that AR, a target of the PTEN and PDGF D-downstream signaling program, contributes to radiation resistance in human PCa cells. In addition, this study suggests that anti-androgens such as enzalutamide may serve as radiation sensitizers for the treatment of PCa patients, particularly so in patients with loss of PTEN or overexpression of PDGF-D.

Ishibashi T, Yaguchi A, Terada K, et al.
Ph-like ALL-related novel fusion kinase ATF7IP-PDGFRB exhibits high sensitivity to tyrosine kinase inhibitors in murine cells.
Exp Hematol. 2016; 44(3):177-88.e5 [PubMed] Related Publications
ATF7IP-PDGFRB is a novel PDGFRB-related fusion gene identified in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) with a signature similar to that of Ph1 ALL, so-called Ph-like ALL. When we introduced ATF7IP-PDGFRB, murine Ba/F3 cells acquired the ability to proliferate in an interleukin (IL)-3-independent manner. On the contrary, the expression of wild-type PDGFRB is not sufficient to acquire the ability for IL-3-independent proliferation in Ba/F3 cells. The introduction of ATF7IP-PDGFRB also induces a typical gene expression profile for Ph1-ALL in Ba/F3 cells. A series of biochemical and cell biological experiments revealed the constitutive activation of ATF7IP-PDGFRB as well as downstream signaling molecules, including AKT and MAPK. Although the phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor led to cell death in both cells into which ATF7IP-PDGFRB had been introduced and IL-3-maintained Mock cells, MEK inhibitor selectively led to cell death into which ATF7IP-PDGFRB had been introduced. The introduction of tyrosine to phenylalanine mutations at binding sites of adaptor molecules important in the MAPK pathway located in the PDGFRB portion abolished ATF7IP-PDGFRB-mediated cell transformation, suggesting that MAPK-mediated signals are critical in ATF7IP-PDGFRB-mediated cell transformation. On treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors, ATF7IP-PDGFRB-expressing, but not Mock, Ba/F3 cells underwent rapid apoptosis accompanied by reduced phosphorylation of MAPK. Importantly, the sensitivity of ATF7IP-PDGFRB-expressing Ba/F3 cells to imatinib is significantly higher than that of BCR-ABL1-transformed Ba/F3 cells, as assessed by the IC50. Taken together, ATF7IP-PDGFRB has transforming potential via the constitutive activation of MAPK and participates in the pathogenesis of Ph-like ALL. Our observations suggest the therapeutic importance of tyrosine kinase inhibitors and possibly MEK inhibitor for a subset of BCP-ALL harboring PDGFRB-related fusion kinases.

Flavahan WA, Drier Y, Liau BB, et al.
Insulator dysfunction and oncogene activation in IDH mutant gliomas.
Nature. 2016; 529(7584):110-4 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Gain-of-function IDH mutations are initiating events that define major clinical and prognostic classes of gliomas. Mutant IDH protein produces a new onco-metabolite, 2-hydroxyglutarate, which interferes with iron-dependent hydroxylases, including the TET family of 5'-methylcytosine hydroxylases. TET enzymes catalyse a key step in the removal of DNA methylation. IDH mutant gliomas thus manifest a CpG island methylator phenotype (G-CIMP), although the functional importance of this altered epigenetic state remains unclear. Here we show that human IDH mutant gliomas exhibit hypermethylation at cohesin and CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF)-binding sites, compromising binding of this methylation-sensitive insulator protein. Reduced CTCF binding is associated with loss of insulation between topological domains and aberrant gene activation. We specifically demonstrate that loss of CTCF at a domain boundary permits a constitutive enhancer to interact aberrantly with the receptor tyrosine kinase gene PDGFRA, a prominent glioma oncogene. Treatment of IDH mutant gliomaspheres with a demethylating agent partially restores insulator function and downregulates PDGFRA. Conversely, CRISPR-mediated disruption of the CTCF motif in IDH wild-type gliomaspheres upregulates PDGFRA and increases proliferation. Our study suggests that IDH mutations promote gliomagenesis by disrupting chromosomal topology and allowing aberrant regulatory interactions that induce oncogene expression.

Giachino C, Boulay JL, Ivanek R, et al.
A Tumor Suppressor Function for Notch Signaling in Forebrain Tumor Subtypes.
Cancer Cell. 2015; 28(6):730-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
In the brain, Notch signaling maintains normal neural stem cells, but also brain cancer stem cells, indicating an oncogenic role. Here, we identify an unexpected tumor suppressor function for Notch in forebrain tumor subtypes. Genetic inactivation of RBP-Jκ, a key Notch mediator, or Notch1 and Notch2 receptors accelerates PDGF-driven glioma growth in mice. Conversely, genetic activation of the Notch pathway reduces glioma growth and increases survival. In humans, high Notch activity strongly correlates with distinct glioma subtypes, increased patient survival, and lower tumor grade. Additionally, simultaneous inactivation of RBP-Jκ and p53 induces primitive neuroectodermal-like tumors in mice. Hence, Notch signaling cooperates with p53 to restrict cell proliferation and tumor growth in mouse models of human brain tumors.

Wei Y, To KK, Au-Yeung SC
Synergistic cytotoxicity from combination of imatinib and platinum-based anticancer drugs specifically in Bcr-Abl positive leukemia cells.
J Pharmacol Sci. 2015; 129(4):210-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Imatinib, a multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, exhibits potent anticancer activity against leukemia harboring the Bcr-Abl oncogene and some solid tumors overexpressing c-kit and PDGFR. However, its clinical efficacy is severely compromised by the emergence of resistance primarily due to acquired mutations in the Bcr-Abl kinase domain. In this study, we showed that combination of imatinib with platinum (Pt)-based anticancer agents, including cisplatin and oxaliplatin, exhibited synergistic cytotoxic effect specifically in Bcr-Abl+ human chronic myeloid leukemia cell line K562 but not in Bcr-Abl- RPMI8226 cells. Importantly, the synergistic effect was also found to circumvent imatinib resistance in an imatinib-selected resistant subline K562 ima1.0. The combination treatment increased apoptosis and DNA damage. Mechanistic study revealed that increased inhibition of Bcr-Abl and downstream ERK phosphorylation by the drug combination may contribute to the synergistic effect.

Brenca M, Rossi S, Polano M, et al.
Transcriptome sequencing identifies ETV6-NTRK3 as a gene fusion involved in GIST.
J Pathol. 2016; 238(4):543-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract. The vast majority of GISTs are driven by oncogenic activation of KIT, PDGFRA or, less commonly, BRAF. Loss of succinate dehydrogenase complex activity has been identified in subsets of KIT/PDGFRA/BRAF-mutation negative tumours, yet a significant fraction of GISTs are devoid of any of such alterations. To address the pathobiology of these 'quadruple-negative' GISTs, we sought to explore the possible involvement of fusion genes. To this end we performed transcriptome sequencing on five KIT/PDGFRA/BRAF-mutation negative, SDH-proficient tumours. Intriguingly, the analysis unveiled the presence of an ETV6-NTRK3 gene fusion. The screening by FISH of 26 additional cases, including KIT/PDGFRA-mutated GISTs, failed to detect other ETV6 rearrangements beside the index case. This was a 'quadruple-negative' GIST located in the rectum, an uncommon primary site for GIST development (∼4% of all GISTs). The fusion transcript identified encompasses exon 4 of ETV6 and exon 14 of NTRK3 and therefore differs from the canonical ETV6-NTRK3 chimera of infantile fibrosarcomas. However, it retains the ability to induce IRS1 phosphorylation, activate the IGF1R downstream signalling pathway and to be targeted by IGF1R and ALK inhibitors. Thus, the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion might identify a subset of GISTs with peculiar clinicopathological characteristics which could be eligible for such therapies. Copyright © 2015 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Daudigeos-Dubus E, Le Dret L, Lanvers-Kaminsky C, et al.
Regorafenib: Antitumor Activity upon Mono and Combination Therapy in Preclinical Pediatric Malignancy Models.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(11):e0142612 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The multikinase inhibitor regorafenib (BAY 73-4506) exerts both anti-angiogenic and anti-tumorigenic activity in adult solid malignancies mainly advanced colorectal cancer and gastrointestinal stromal tumors. We intended to explore preclinically the potential of regorafenib against solid pediatric malignancies alone and in combination with anticancer agents to guide the pediatric development plan. In vitro effects on cell proliferation were screened against 33 solid tumor cell lines of the Innovative Therapies for Children with Cancer (ITCC) panel covering five pediatric solid malignancies. Regorafenib inhibited cell proliferation with a mean half maximal growth inhibition of 12.5 μmol/L (range 0.7 μmol/L to 28 μmol/L). In vivo, regorafenib was evaluated alone at 10 or 30 mg/kg/d or in combination with radiation, irinotecan or the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor refametinib against various tumor types, including patient-derived brain tumor models with an amplified platelet-derived growth factor receptor A (PDGFRA) gene. Regorafenib alone significantly inhibited tumor growth in all xenografts derived from nervous system and connective tissue tumors. Enhanced effects were observed when regorafenib was combined with irradiation and irinotecan against PDGFRA amplified IGRG93 glioma and IGRM57 medulloblastoma respectively, resulting in 100% tumor regressions. Antitumor activity was associated with decreased tumor vascularization, inhibition of PDGFR signaling, and induction of apoptotic cell death. Our work demonstrates that regorafenib exhibits significant antitumor activity in a wide spectrum of preclinical pediatric models through inhibition of angiogenesis and induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, radio- and chemosensitizing effects were observed with DNA damaging agents in PDGFR amplified tumors.

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