EXO1

Gene Summary

Gene:EXO1; exonuclease 1
Aliases: HEX1, hExoI
Location:1q43
Summary:This gene encodes a protein with 5' to 3' exonuclease activity as well as an RNase H activity. It is similar to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein Exo1 which interacts with Msh2 and which is involved in mismatch repair and recombination. Alternative splicing of this gene results in three transcript variants encoding two different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:exonuclease 1
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 17 August, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
Show (20)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 17 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 17 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: EXO1 (cancer-related)

Michailidou K, Beesley J, Lindstrom S, et al.
Genome-wide association analysis of more than 120,000 individuals identifies 15 new susceptibility loci for breast cancer.
Nat Genet. 2015; 47(4):373-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and large-scale replication studies have identified common variants in 79 loci associated with breast cancer, explaining ∼14% of the familial risk of the disease. To identify new susceptibility loci, we performed a meta-analysis of 11 GWAS, comprising 15,748 breast cancer cases and 18,084 controls together with 46,785 cases and 42,892 controls from 41 studies genotyped on a 211,155-marker custom array (iCOGS). Analyses were restricted to women of European ancestry. We generated genotypes for more than 11 million SNPs by imputation using the 1000 Genomes Project reference panel, and we identified 15 new loci associated with breast cancer at P < 5 × 10(-8). Combining association analysis with ChIP-seq chromatin binding data in mammary cell lines and ChIA-PET chromatin interaction data from ENCODE, we identified likely target genes in two regions: SETBP1 at 18q12.3 and RNF115 and PDZK1 at 1q21.1. One association appears to be driven by an amino acid substitution encoded in EXO1.

Sokolenko AP, Preobrazhenskaya EV, Aleksakhina SN, et al.
Candidate gene analysis of BRCA1/2 mutation-negative high-risk Russian breast cancer patients.
Cancer Lett. 2015; 359(2):259-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
Twenty one DNA repair genes were analyzed in a group of 95 BC patients, who displayed clinical features of hereditary disease predisposition but turned out to be negative for mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 entire coding region as well as for founder disease-predisposing alleles in CHEK2, NBN/NBS1 and ATM genes. Full-length sequencing of CHEK2 and NBN/NBS1 failed to identify non-founder mutations. The analysis of TP53 revealed a woman carrying the R282W allele; further testing of additional 108 BC patients characterized by a very young age at onset (35 years or earlier) detected one more carrier of the TP53 germ-line defect. In addition, this study confirmed non-random occurrence of PALB2 truncating mutations in Russian hereditary BC patients. None of the studied cases carried germ-line defects in recently discovered hereditary BC genes, BRIP1, FANCC, MRE11A and RAD51C. The analysis of genes with yet unproven BC-predisposing significance (BARD1, BRD7, CHEK1, DDB2, ERCC1, EXO1, FANCG, PARP1, PARP2, RAD51, RNF8, WRN) identified single women carrying a protein-truncating allele, WRN R1406X. DNA sequencing of another set of 95 hereditary BC cases failed to reveal additional WRN heterozygous genotypes. Since WRN is functionally similar to the known BC-predisposing gene, BLM, it deserves to be analyzed in future hereditary BC studies. Furthermore, this investigation revealed a number of rare missense germ-line variants, which are classified as probably protein-damaging by online in silico tools and therefore may require further consideration.

Yong KJ, Milenic DE, Baidoo KE, Brechbiel MW
Impact of α-targeted radiation therapy on gene expression in a pre-clinical model for disseminated peritoneal disease when combined with paclitaxel.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(9):e108511 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
To better understand the molecular basis of the enhanced cell killing effected by the combined modality of paclitaxel and ²¹²Pb-trastuzumab (Pac/²¹²Pb-trastuzumab), gene expression in LS-174T i.p. xenografts was investigated 24 h after treatment. Employing a real time quantitative PCR array (qRT-PCR array), 84 DNA damage response genes were quantified. Differentially expressed genes following therapy with Pac/²¹²Pb-trastuzumab included those involved in apoptosis (BRCA1, CIDEA, GADD45α, GADD45γ, GML, IP6K3, PCBP4, PPP1R15A, RAD21, and p73), cell cycle (BRCA1, CHK1, CHK2, GADD45α, GML, GTSE1, NBN, PCBP4, PPP1R15A, RAD9A, and SESN1), and damaged DNA repair (ATRX, BTG2, EXO1, FEN1, IGHMBP2, OGG1, MSH2, MUTYH, NBN, PRKDC, RAD21, and p73). This report demonstrates that the increased stressful growth arrest conditions induced by the Pac/²¹²Pb-trastuzumab treatment suppresses cell proliferation through the regulation of genes which are involved in apoptosis and damaged DNA repair including single and double strand DNA breaks. Furthermore, the study demonstrates that ²¹²Pb-trastuzumab potentiation of cell killing efficacy results from the perturbation of genes related to the mitotic spindle checkpoint and BASC (BRCA1-associated genome surveillance complex), suggesting cross-talk between DNA damage repair and the spindle damage response.

Johanneson B, Chen D, Enroth S, et al.
Systematic validation of hypothesis-driven candidate genes for cervical cancer in a genome-wide association study.
Carcinogenesis. 2014; 35(9):2084-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
A large number of genetic associations with cervical cancer have been reported in hypothesis-driven candidate gene studies, but most studies have not included an independent replication or the results have been inconsistent between studies. In order to independently validate these associations, we reexamined 58 candidate gene/regions previously reported to be associated with cervical cancer using the gene-based Adaptive Rank Truncated Product test in a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 1034 cervical cancer patients and 3948 controls from the Swedish population. Of the 58 gene/regions, 8 had a nominal P value < 0.05 [tumor necrosis factor (TNF), P = 5.0 × 10(-4); DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box helicase 1 [DDX1], P = 2.2 × 10(-3); exonuclease 1 [EXO1], P = 4.7 × 10(-3); excision repair cross-complementing rodent repair deficiency, complementation group 1 [ERCC1], P = 0.020; transmembrane channel-like 6 and 8 genes [TMC6-TMC8], P = 0.023; secreted phosphoprotein 1 [SPP1], P = 0.028; v-erb-b2 avian erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2 [ERBB2], P = 0.033 and chloride channel, voltage-sensitive 7 [CLCN7], P = 0.047). After correction for multiple testing, only TNF remained statistically significant (P = 0.028). Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms that are in nearly perfect linkage disequilibrium (rs2857602 and rs2844484) contributed most to the association with TNF. However, they are not independent from the previously reported associations within the MHC region. The very low number of previously reported associations with cervical cancer that replicate in the Swedish population underscore the need to apply more stringent criteria when reporting associations, including the prerequisite of replicating the association as part of the original study.

Bregenhorn S, Jiricny J
Biochemical characterization of a cancer-associated E109K missense variant of human exonuclease 1.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2014; 42(11):7096-103 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mutations in the mismatch repair (MMR) genes MSH2, MSH6, MLH1 and PMS2 are associated with Lynch Syndrome (LS), a familial predisposition to early-onset cancer of the colon and other organs. Because not all LS families carry mutations in these four genes, the search for cancer-associated mutations was extended to genes encoding other members of the mismatch repairosome. This effort identified mutations in EXO1, which encodes the sole exonuclease implicated in MMR. One of these mutations, E109K, was reported to abrogate the catalytic activity of the enzyme, yet, in the crystal structure of the EXO1/DNA complex, this glutamate is far away from both DNA and the catalytic site of the enzyme. In an attempt to elucidate the reason underlying the putative loss of function of this variant, we expressed it in Escherichia coli, and tested its activity in a series of biochemical assays. We now report that, contrary to earlier reports, and unlike the catalytic site mutant D173A, the EXO1 E109K variant resembled the wild-type (wt) enzyme on all tested substrates. In the light of our findings, we attempt here to reinterpret the results of the phenotypic characterization of a knock-in mouse carrying the E109K mutation and cells derived from it.

Zhou J, Wang Y, Wang Y, et al.
FOXM1 modulates cisplatin sensitivity by regulating EXO1 in ovarian cancer.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(5):e96989 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cisplatin is commonly used in ovarian cancer chemotherapy, however, chemoresistance to cisplatin remains a great clinical challenge. Oncogenic transcriptional factor FOXM1 has been reported to be overexpressed in ovarian cancer. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential role of FOXM1 in ovarian cancers with chemoresistance to cisplatin. Our results indicate that FOXM1 is upregulated in chemoresistant ovarian cancer samples, and defends ovarian cancer cells against cytotoxicity of cisplatin. FOXM1 facilitates DNA repair through regulating direct transcriptional target EXO1 to protect ovarian cancer cells from cisplatin-mediated apoptosis. Attenuating FOXM1 and EXO1 expression by small interfering RNA, augments the chemotherapy efficacy against ovarian cancer. Our findings indicate that targeting FOXM1 and its target gene EXO1 could improve cisplatin effect in ovarian cancer, confirming their role in modulating cisplatin sensitivity.

Duan F, Song C, Dai L, et al.
The significance of Exo1 K589E polymorphism on cancer susceptibility: evidence based on a meta-analysis.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(5):e96764 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The exonuclease1 (Exo1) gene is a key component of mismatch repair (MMR) by resecting the damaged strand, which is the only exonuclease involved in the human MMR system. The gene product is a member of the RAD2 nuclease family and functions in DNA replication, repair and recombination. However, whether Exo1 is required to activate MMR-dependent DNA damage response (DDR) remains unknown, the conclusions of the Exo1 polymorphisms on cancer susceptibility studies were not consistent. We carried out a meta-analysis of 7 case-control studies to clarify the association between the Exo1 K589E polymorphism and cancer risk. Overall,a significant association of the Exo1 K589E polymorphism with cancer risk in all genetic models (Lys vs Glu: OR = 1.51, 95%CI:1.39-1.99, P<0.01; Glu/Lys vs Glu/Glu: OR = 1.43, 95%CI:1.28-1.60, P<0.01; Lys/Lys vs Glu/Glu: OR = 2.45, 95%CI:1.90-3.17, P<0.01; Lys/Lys+Glu/Lys vs Glu/Glu: OR = 1.53, 95%CI:1.38-1.71, P<0.01; Glu/Glu vs Glu/Lys+Lys/Lys: OR =  2.27, 95%CI:1.79-2.89, P<0.01). In the stratified analysis by ethnicity, significantly increased risk was observed in Asian population (Lys vs Glu: OR = 1.53, 95%CI:1.39-1.69, P<0.01; Glu/Lys vs Glu/Glu: OR = 1.50, 95%CI:1.34-1.69, P<0.01; Lys/Lys vs Glu/Glu: OR = 2.48, 95%CI:1.84-3.34, P<0.01; Lys/Lys+Glu/Lys vs Glu/Glu: OR = 1.58, 95%CI:1.41-1.78, P<0.01; Glu/Glu vs Glu/Lys+Lys/Lys: OR = 2.18, 95%CI:1.62-2.93, P<0.01). Subgroup analysis based on smoking suggested Exo1 K589E polymorphism conferred significant risk among smokers (Lys/Lys+Glu/Lys vs Glu/Glu: OR = 2.16, 95%CI:1.77-2.63, P<0.01), but not in non-smokers (Lys/Lys+Glu/Lys vs Glu/Glu: OR = 0.89, 95%CI:0.64-1.24, P = 0.50). In conclusion, Exo1 K589E Lys allele may be used as a novel biomarker for cancer susceptibility, particularly in smokers.

Vymetalkova VP, Slyskova J, Korenkova V, et al.
Molecular characteristics of mismatch repair genes in sporadic colorectal tumors in Czech patients.
BMC Med Genet. 2014; 15:17 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Mismatch repair (MMR) genes are known to be frequently altered in colorectal cancer (CRC). Both genetics and epigenetics modifications seems to be relevant in this phenomenon, however it is still not clear how these two aspects are interconnected. The present study aimed at characterizing of epigenetic and gene expression profiles of MMR genes in sporadic CRC patients from the Czech Republic, a country with one of the highest incidences of this cancer all over Europe.
METHODS: Expression levels and CpG promoter methylation status of all MMR genes were evaluated in DNA from tumor and adjacent mucosal samples of 53 incident CRC patients.
RESULTS: We have found significantly increased transcription levels in EXO1 gene in tumor tissues (P = 0.05) and significant over-expression of MSH3 gene in colon tumors when compared to adjacent mucosal tissues (P = 0.02). Interestingly, almost all MMR genes were differently expressed when localization of tumors was compared. In particular, colon tumors showed an up-regulation of EXO1, MSH2, MSH3, MSH6, and PMS2 genes in comparison to rectal tumors (P = 0.02). Expression levels of all MMR genes positively correlated between each other. The promoter methylation of MLH1 gene was observed in 9% of CRC tissues only.
CONCLUSIONS: In our study, we have observed different pattern of MMR genes expression according to tumor localization. However, a lack of association between methylation in MMR genes and their corresponding expressions was noticed in this study, the relationship between these two aspects is worthy to be analyzed in larger population studies and in pre-malignant stages.

Desai A, Webb B, Gerson SL
CD133+ cells contribute to radioresistance via altered regulation of DNA repair genes in human lung cancer cells.
Radiother Oncol. 2014; 110(3):538-45 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Radioresistance in human tumors has been linked in part to a subset of cells termed cancer stem cells (CSCs). The prominin 1 (CD133) cell surface protein is proposed to be a marker enriching for CSCs. We explore the importance of DNA repair in contributing to radioresistance in CD133+ lung cancer cells.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A549 and H1299 lung cancer cell lines were used. Sorted CD133+ cells were exposed to either single 4 Gy or 8 Gy doses and clonogenic survival measured. ϒ-H2AX immunofluorescence and quantitative real time PCR was performed on sorted CD133+ cells both in the absence of IR and after two single 4 Gy doses. Lentiviral shRNA was used to silence repair genes.
RESULTS: A549 but not H1299 cells expand their CD133+ population after single 4 Gy exposure, and isolated A549 CD133+ cells demonstrate IR resistance. This resistance corresponded with enhanced repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) and upregulated expression of DSB repair genes in A549 cells. Prior IR exposure of two single 4 Gy doses resulted in acquired DNA repair upregulation and improved repair proficiency in both A549 and H1299. Finally Exo1 and Rad51 silencing in A549 cells abrogated the CD133+ IR expansion phenotype and induced IR sensitivity in sorted CD133+ cells.
CONCLUSIONS: CD133 identifies a population of cells within specific tumor types containing altered expression of DNA repair genes that are inducible upon exposure to chemotherapy. This altered gene expression contributes to enhanced DSB resolution and the radioresistance phenotype of these cells. We also identify DNA repair genes which may serve as promising therapeutic targets to confer radiosensitivity to CSCs.

Tang H, Wei P, Duell EJ, et al.
Axonal guidance signaling pathway interacting with smoking in modifying the risk of pancreatic cancer: a gene- and pathway-based interaction analysis of GWAS data.
Carcinogenesis. 2014; 35(5):1039-45 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cigarette smoking is the best established modifiable risk factor for pancreatic cancer. Genetic factors that underlie smoking-related pancreatic cancer have previously not been examined at the genome-wide level. Taking advantage of the existing Genome-wide association study (GWAS) genotype and risk factor data from the Pancreatic Cancer Case Control Consortium, we conducted a discovery study in 2028 cases and 2109 controls to examine gene-smoking interactions at pathway/gene/single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) level. Using the likelihood ratio test nested in logistic regression models and ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA), we examined 172 KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathways, 3 manually curated gene sets, 3 nicotine dependency gene ontology pathways, 17 912 genes and 468 114 SNPs. None of the individual pathway/gene/SNP showed significant interaction with smoking after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Six KEGG pathways showed nominal interactions (P < 0.05) with smoking, and the top two are the pancreatic secretion and salivary secretion pathways (major contributing genes: RAB8A, PLCB and CTRB1). Nine genes, i.e. ZBED2, EXO1, PSG2, SLC36A1, CLSTN1, MTHFSD, FAT2, IL10RB and ATXN2 had P interaction < 0.0005. Five intergenic region SNPs and two SNPs of the EVC and KCNIP4 genes had P interaction < 0.00003. In IPA analysis of genes with nominal interactions with smoking, axonal guidance signaling $$\left(P=2.12\times 1{0}^{-7}\right)$$ and α-adrenergic signaling $$\left(P=2.52\times 1{0}^{-5}\right)$$ genes were significantly overrepresented canonical pathways. Genes contributing to the axon guidance signaling pathway included the SLIT/ROBO signaling genes that were frequently altered in pancreatic cancer. These observations need to be confirmed in additional data set. Once confirmed, it will open a new avenue to unveiling the etiology of smoking-associated pancreatic cancer.

Nassiri M, Kooshyar MM, Roudbar Z, et al.
Genes and SNPs associated with non-hereditary and hereditary colorectal cancer.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2013; 14(10):5609-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in both men and women in the world and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths. The incidence of colorectal cancer has increased in Iran in the past three decades and is now considered as a serious problem for our society. This cancer has two types hereditary and non-hereditary, 80% of cases being the latter. Considering that the relationship between SNPs with diseases is a concern, many researchers believed that they offer valuable markers for identifying genes responsible for susceptibility to common diseases. In some cases, they are direct causes of human disease. One SNP can increase risk of cancer, but when considering the rate of overlap and frequency of DNA repair pathways, it might be expected that SNP alone cannot affect the final result of cancer, although several SNPs together can exert a significant influence. Therefore identification of these SNPs is very important. The most important loci which include mutations are: MLH1, MSH2, PMS2, APC, MUTYH, SMAD7, STK11, XRCC3, DNMT1, MTHFR, Exo1, XRCC1 and VDR. Presence of SNPs in these genes decreases or increases risk of colorectal cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this article we reviewed the Genes and SNPs associated with non-hereditary and hereditary of colorectal cancer that recently were reported from candidate gene y, meta-analysis and GWAS studies.
RESULTS: As with other cancers, colorectal cancer is associated with SNPs in gene loci. Generally, by exploring SNPs, it is feasible to predict the risk of developing colorectal cancer and thus establishing proper preventive measures.
CONCLUSIONS: SNPs of genes associated with colorectal cancer can be used as a marker SNP panel as a potential tool for improving cancer diagnosis and treatment planning.

Smith CE, Mendillo ML, Bowen N, et al.
Dominant mutations in S. cerevisiae PMS1 identify the Mlh1-Pms1 endonuclease active site and an exonuclease 1-independent mismatch repair pathway.
PLoS Genet. 2013; 9(10):e1003869 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Lynch syndrome (hereditary nonpolypsis colorectal cancer or HNPCC) is a common cancer predisposition syndrome. Predisposition to cancer in this syndrome results from increased accumulation of mutations due to defective mismatch repair (MMR) caused by a mutation in one of the mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2/scPMS1. To better understand the function of Mlh1-Pms1 in MMR, we used Saccharomyces cerevisiae to identify six pms1 mutations (pms1-G683E, pms1-C817R, pms1-C848S, pms1-H850R, pms1-H703A and pms1-E707A) that were weakly dominant in wild-type cells, which surprisingly caused a strong MMR defect when present on low copy plasmids in an exo1Δ mutant. Molecular modeling showed these mutations caused amino acid substitutions in the metal coordination pocket of the Pms1 endonuclease active site and biochemical studies showed that they inactivated the endonuclease activity. This model of Mlh1-Pms1 suggested that the Mlh1-FERC motif contributes to the endonuclease active site. Consistent with this, the mlh1-E767stp mutation caused both MMR and endonuclease defects similar to those caused by the dominant pms1 mutations whereas mutations affecting the predicted metal coordinating residue Mlh1-C769 had no effect. These studies establish that the Mlh1-Pms1 endonuclease is required for MMR in a previously uncharacterized Exo1-independent MMR pathway.

Muthuswami M, Ramesh V, Banerjee S, et al.
Breast tumors with elevated expression of 1q candidate genes confer poor clinical outcome and sensitivity to Ras/PI3K inhibition.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(10):e77553 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Genomic aberrations are common in cancers and the long arm of chromosome 1 is known for its frequent amplifications in breast cancer. However, the key candidate genes of 1q, and their contribution in breast cancer pathogenesis remain unexplored. We have analyzed the gene expression profiles of 1635 breast tumor samples using meta-analysis based approach and identified clinically significant candidates from chromosome 1q. Seven candidate genes including exonuclease 1 (EXO1) are consistently over expressed in breast tumors, specifically in high grade and aggressive breast tumors with poor clinical outcome. We derived a EXO1 co-expression module from the mRNA profiles of breast tumors which comprises 1q candidate genes and their co-expressed genes. By integrative functional genomics investigation, we identified the involvement of EGFR, RAS, PI3K / AKT, MYC, E2F signaling in the regulation of these selected 1q genes in breast tumors and breast cancer cell lines. Expression of EXO1 module was found as indicative of elevated cell proliferation, genomic instability, activated RAS/AKT/MYC/E2F1 signaling pathways and loss of p53 activity in breast tumors. mRNA-drug connectivity analysis indicates inhibition of RAS/PI3K as a possible targeted therapeutic approach for the patients with activated EXO1 module in breast tumors. Thus, we identified seven 1q candidate genes strongly associated with the poor survival of breast cancer patients and identified the possibility of targeting them with EGFR/RAS/PI3K inhibitors.

de Miranda NF, Peng R, Georgiou K, et al.
DNA repair genes are selectively mutated in diffuse large B cell lymphomas.
J Exp Med. 2013; 210(9):1729-42 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
DNA repair mechanisms are fundamental for B cell development, which relies on the somatic diversification of the immunoglobulin genes by V(D)J recombination, somatic hypermutation, and class switch recombination. Their failure is postulated to promote genomic instability and malignant transformation in B cells. By performing targeted sequencing of 73 key DNA repair genes in 29 B cell lymphoma samples, somatic and germline mutations were identified in various DNA repair pathways, mainly in diffuse large B cell lymphomas (DLBCLs). Mutations in mismatch repair genes (EXO1, MSH2, and MSH6) were associated with microsatellite instability, increased number of somatic insertions/deletions, and altered mutation signatures in tumors. Somatic mutations in nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) genes (DCLRE1C/ARTEMIS, PRKDC/DNA-PKcs, XRCC5/KU80, and XRCC6/KU70) were identified in four DLBCL tumors and cytogenetic analyses revealed that translocations involving the immunoglobulin-heavy chain locus occurred exclusively in NHEJ-mutated samples. The novel mutation targets, CHEK2 and PARP1, were further screened in expanded DLBCL cohorts, and somatic as well as novel and rare germline mutations were identified in 8 and 5% of analyzed tumors, respectively. By correlating defects in a subset of DNA damage response and repair genes with genomic instability events in tumors, we propose that these genes play a role in DLBCL lymphomagenesis.

Aissani B, Wiener H, Zhang K
Multiple hits for the association of uterine fibroids on human chromosome 1q43.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(3):e58399 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Uterine leiomyomas (or fibroids) are the most common tumors in women of reproductive age. Early studies of two familial cancer syndromes, the multiple cutaneous and uterine leiomyomatosis (MCUL1), and the hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC), implicated FH, a gene on chromosome 1q43 encoding the tricarboxylic acid cycle fumarate hydratase enzyme. The role of this metabolic housekeeping gene in tumorigenesis is still a matter of debate and pseudo-hypoxia has been suggested as a pathological mechanism. Inactivating FH mutations have rarely been observed in the nonsyndromic and common form of fibroids; however, loss of heterozygosity across FH appeared as a significant event in the pathogenesis of a subset of these tumors. To assess the role of FH and the linked genes in nonsyndromic uterine fibroids, we explored a two-megabase interval spanning FH in the NIEHS Uterine fibroid study, a cross-sectional study of fibroids in 1152 premenopausal women. Association mapping with a dense set of single nucleotide polymorphisms revealed several peaks of association (p = 10(-2)-8.10(-5)) with the risk and/or growth of fibroids. In particular, genes encoding factors suspected (cytosolic FH) or known (EXO1 - exonuclease 1) to be involved in DNA mismatch repair emerged as candidate susceptibility genes whereas those acting in the autophagy/apoptosis (MAP1LC3C - microtubule-associated protein) or signal transduction (RGS7 - Regulator of G-protein and PLD5- Phospoholipase D) appeared to affect tumor growth. Furthermore, body mass index, a suspected confounder altered significantly but unpredictably the association with the candidate genes in the African and European American populations, suggesting the presence of a major obesity gene in the studied region. With the high potential for occult tumors in common conditions such as fibroids, validation of our data in family-based studies is needed.

Lin PC, Chiu YL, Banerjee S, et al.
Epigenetic repression of miR-31 disrupts androgen receptor homeostasis and contributes to prostate cancer progression.
Cancer Res. 2013; 73(3):1232-44 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Androgen receptor signaling plays a critical role in prostate cancer pathogenesis. Yet, the regulation of androgen receptor signaling remains elusive. Even with stringent androgen deprivation therapy, androgen receptor signaling persists. Here, our data suggest that there is a complex interaction between the expression of the tumor suppressor miRNA, miR-31, and androgen receptor signaling. We examined primary and metastatic prostate cancer and found that miR-31 expression was reduced as a result of promoter hypermethylation, and importantly, the levels of miR-31 expression were inversely correlated with the aggressiveness of the disease. As the expression of androgen receptor and miR-31 was inversely correlated in the cell lines, our study further suggested that miR-31 and androgen receptor could mutually repress each other. Upregulation of miR-31 effectively suppressed androgen receptor expression through multiple mechanisms and inhibited prostate cancer growth in vivo. Notably, we found that miR-31 targeted androgen receptor directly at a site located in the coding region, which was commonly mutated in prostate cancer. In addition, miR-31 suppressed cell-cycle regulators including E2F1, E2F2, EXO1, FOXM1, and MCM2. Together, our findings suggest a novel androgen receptor regulatory mechanism mediated through miR-31 expression. The downregulation of miR-31 may disrupt cellular homeostasis and contribute to the evolution and progression of prostate cancer. We provide implications for epigenetic treatment and support clinical development of detecting miR-31 promoter methylation as a novel biomarker.

Niu N, Schaid DJ, Abo RP, et al.
Genetic association with overall survival of taxane-treated lung cancer patients - a genome-wide association study in human lymphoblastoid cell lines followed by a clinical association study.
BMC Cancer. 2012; 12:422 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Taxane is one of the first line treatments of lung cancer. In order to identify novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that might contribute to taxane response, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for two taxanes, paclitaxel and docetaxel, using 276 lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs), followed by genotyping of top candidate SNPs in 874 lung cancer patient samples treated with paclitaxel.
METHODS: GWAS was performed using 1.3 million SNPs and taxane cytotoxicity IC50 values for 276 LCLs. The association of selected SNPs with overall survival in 76 small or 798 non-small cell lung cancer (SCLC, NSCLC) patients were analyzed by Cox regression model, followed by integrated SNP-microRNA-expression association analysis in LCLs and siRNA screening of candidate genes in SCLC (H196) and NSCLC (A549) cell lines.
RESULTS: 147 and 180 SNPs were associated with paclitaxel or docetaxel IC50s with p-values <10-4 in the LCLs, respectively. Genotyping of 153 candidate SNPs in 874 lung cancer patient samples identified 8 SNPs (p-value < 0.05) associated with either SCLC or NSCLC patient overall survival. Knockdown of PIP4K2A, CCT5, CMBL, EXO1, KMO and OPN3, genes within 200 kb up-/downstream of the 3 SNPs that were associated with SCLC overall survival (rs1778335, rs2662411 and rs7519667), significantly desensitized H196 to paclitaxel. SNPs rs2662411 and rs1778335 were associated with mRNA expression of CMBL or PIP4K2A through microRNA (miRNA) hsa-miR-584 or hsa-miR-1468.
CONCLUSIONS: GWAS in an LCL model system, joined with clinical translational and functional studies, might help us identify genetic variations associated with overall survival of lung cancer patients treated paclitaxel.

Karanja KK, Cox SW, Duxin JP, et al.
DNA2 and EXO1 in replication-coupled, homology-directed repair and in the interplay between HDR and the FA/BRCA network.
Cell Cycle. 2012; 11(21):3983-96 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
During DNA replication, stalled replication forks and DSBs arise when the replication fork encounters ICLs (interstrand crosslinks), covalent protein/DNA intermediates or other discontinuities in the template. Recently, homologous recombination proteins have been shown to function in replication-coupled repair of ICLs in conjunction with the Fanconi anemia (FA) regulatory factors FANCD2-FANCI, and, conversely, the FA gene products have been shown to play roles in stalled replication fork rescue even in the absence of ICLs, suggesting a broader role for the FA network than previously appreciated. Here we show that DNA2 helicase/nuclease participates in resection during replication-coupled repair of ICLs and other replication fork stresses. DNA2 knockdowns are deficient in HDR (homology-directed repair) and the S phase checkpoint and exhibit genome instability and sensitivity to agents that cause replication stress. DNA2 is partially redundant with EXO1 in these roles. DNA2 interacts with FANCD2, and cisplatin induces FANCD2 ubiquitylation even in the absence of DNA2. DNA2 and EXO1 deficiency leads to ICL sensitivity but does not increase ICL sensitivity in the absence of FANCD2. This is the first demonstration of the redundancy of human resection nucleases in the HDR step in replication-coupled repair, and suggests that DNA2 may represent a new mediator of the interplay between HDR and the FA/BRCA pathway.

Lefevre JH, Bonilla C, Colas C, et al.
Role of rare variants in undetermined multiple adenomatous polyposis and early-onset colorectal cancer.
J Hum Genet. 2012; 57(11):709-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
Some 15-20% of multiple adenomatous polyposis have no genetic explanation and 20-30% of colorectal cancer (CRC) cases are thought to be due to inherited multifactorial causes. Accumulation of deleterious effects of low-frequency dominant and independently acting variants may be a partial explanation for such patients. The aim of this study was to type a selection of rare and low-frequency variants (<5%) to elucidate their role in CRC susceptibility. A total of 1181 subjects were included (866 controls; 315 cases). Cases comprised UK (n=184) and French (n=131) patients with MAP (n=187) or early-onset CRC (n=128). Seventy variants in 17 genes were examined in cases and controls. The effect of the variant effect on protein function was investigated in silico. Out of the 70 variants typed, 36 (51%) were tested for association. Twenty-one variants were rare (minor allele frequency (MAF) <1%). Four rare variants were found to have a significantly higher MAF in cases (EXO1-12, MLH1-1, CTNNB1-1 and BRCA2-37, P<0.05) than in controls. Pooling all rare variants with a MAF <0.5% showed an excess risk in cases (odds ratio=3.2; 95% confidence interval=1.1-9.5; P=0.04). Rare variants are important risk factors in CRC and, as such, should be systematically assayed alongside common variation in the search for the genetic basis of complex diseases.

Yang SY, Yang TY, Li YJ, et al.
EGFR exon 19 in-frame deletion and polymorphisms of DNA repair genes in never-smoking female lung adenocarcinoma patients.
Int J Cancer. 2013; 132(2):449-58 [PubMed] Related Publications
We explored potential associations between genetic polymorphisms in genes related to DNA repair and detoxification metabolism and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in a cohort of 410 never-smoking patients with lung adenocarcinoma. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) of EGFR mutation status in association with the genotypes of DNA repair and detoxification metabolism genes were evaluated using logistic regression analysis. We found an association between in-frame deletion in EGFR exon 19 and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1800566C/T located in NQO1 (aOR, 2.2 with 95% CI, 1.0-4.8) in female never-smokers. The SNP rs744154C/G in ERCC4 was also associated with the EGFR exon 19 in-frame deletion both in never-smokers (aOR, 1.7 with 95% CI, 1.0-3.0) and female never-smokers (aOR, 1.9 with 95% CI, 1.0-3.6). Although the association was marginally significant in multivariate logistic regression analysis, the A/A genotype of rs1047840 in EXO1 was associated with a 7.6-fold increase in the occurrence of the EGFR exon 19 in-frame deletion in female never-smokers. Moreover, risk alleles in NQO1, ERCC4 and EXO1 were associated with an increasing aOR of the EGFR exon 19 in-frame deletion both in never-smokers (p = 0.007 for trend) and female never-smokers (p = 0.002 for trend). Our findings suggest that the in-frame deletion in EGFR exon 19 is associated with polymorphisms in DNA repair and detoxification metabolism genes in never-smoking lung adenocarcinoma patients, especially in females.

Song F, Qureshi AA, Zhang J, et al.
Exonuclease 1 (EXO1) gene variation and melanoma risk.
DNA Repair (Amst). 2012; 11(3):304-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: DNA repair pathway genes play an important role in maintaining genomic integrity and protecting against cancer development. This study aimed to identify novel SNPs in the DNA repair-related genes associated with melanoma risk from a genome-wide association study (GWAS).
METHODS: A total of 8422 SNPs from the 165 DNA repair-related genes were extracted from a GWAS of melanoma risk, including 494 cases and 5628 controls from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS). We further replicated the top SNPs in a GWAS of melanoma risk from the MD Anderson Cancer Center (1804 cases and 1026 controls).
RESULTS: A total of 3 SNPs with P value <0.001 were selected for in silico replication. One SNP was replicated: rs3902093 [A] in EXO1 promoter region (P(discovery)=6.6 × 10⁻⁴, P(replication)=0.039, P(joint)=2.5 × 10⁻⁴; OR(joint)=0.80, 95% CI: 0.71, 0.90). This SNP was associated with the expression of the EXO1; carriers of the A allele showed lower expression (P=0.002).
CONCLUSION: Our study found that a promoter region SNP in the editing and processing nucleases gene EXO1 was associated with decreased expression of EXO1 and decreased melanoma risk. Further studies are warranted to validate this association and to investigate the potential mechanisms.

Bayram S, Akkız H, Bekar A, et al.
The significance of Exonuclease 1 K589E polymorphism on hepatocellular carcinoma susceptibility in the Turkish population: a case-control study.
Mol Biol Rep. 2012; 39(5):5943-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
Exonuclease 1 (Exo 1) is an important nuclease involved in mismatch repair system that contributes to maintain genomic stability, to modulate DNA recombination, and to mediate cell cycle arrest. A guanine (G)/adenine (A) common single nucleotide polymorphism at first position of codon 589 in Exo 1 gene determines a glutamic acid (Glu, E) to lysine (Lys, K) (K589E) aminoacidic substitution which may alter cancer risk by influencing the activity of Exo 1 protein. Exo 1 K589E polymorphism has been studied in various cancers, but its association with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has yet to be investigated. To determine the association of the Exo 1 K589E polymorphism with the risk of HCC development in a Turkish population, a hospital-based case-control study was designed consisting of 224 subjects with HCC and 224 cancer-free control subjects matched for age, gender, smoking and alcohol status. The genotype frequency of the Exo 1 K589E polymorphism was determined by using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. Our data shows that the Lys/Lys genotype of the Exo 1 K589E polymorphism is associated with increased risk of HCC development in this Turkish population [odds ratio (OR) = 2.15, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13-4.09, P = 0.02]. Furthermore, according to stratified analysis, a significant association was observed between the homozygote Lys/Lys genotype and HCC risk in the subgroups of male gender (OR = 2.67, 95% CI: 1.27-5.61, P = 0.009) and patients with non-viral-related HCC (OR = 3.14, 95% CI: 1.09-8.99, P = 0.03). Because our results suggest for the first time that the Lys/Lys homozygote genotype of Exo 1 K589E polymorphism may be a genetic susceptibility factor for HCC in the Turkish population, further independent studies are required to validate our findings in a larger series, as well as in patients of different ethnic origins.

Luo X, Hong XS, Xiong XD, et al.
A single nucleotide polymorphism in EXO1 gene is associated with cervical cancer susceptibility in Chinese patients.
Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2012; 22(2):220-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the association of Exonuclease1 (EXO1) genetic polymorphism and the development of cervical carcinoma.
METHODS: This study was conducted with 126 patients diagnosed with cervical cancer and 278 people with no cancer history. The polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism was used to evaluate the K589E and C908G gene polymorphisms. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the association between the genotypes and the risk for cervical cancer.
RESULTS: This is the first study on the role of EXO1 K589E (rs1047840) and EXO1 C908G (rs10802996) polymorphisms in cervical cancer in a Chinese population. Our results indicated that the EXO1 K589G polymorphism were significantly associated with the risk for cervical cancer. Compared with the G allele EXO1 K589E, the A allele increased the risk for cervical cancer (adjusted odds ratio, 1.67; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-2.45). By contrast, we have not found a significant association between the EXO1 C908G polymorphism and cervical cancer risk (P = 0.791).
CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that the SNPs of EXO1 K589E may contribute to cervical cancer carcinogenesis in Chinese populations. A larger population study will need to be carried out to further validate the potential association of EXO1 genetic polymorphism and cervical carcinoma.

Kloosterman WP, Hoogstraat M, Paling O, et al.
Chromothripsis is a common mechanism driving genomic rearrangements in primary and metastatic colorectal cancer.
Genome Biol. 2011; 12(10):R103 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Structural rearrangements form a major class of somatic variation in cancer genomes. Local chromosome shattering, termed chromothripsis, is a mechanism proposed to be the cause of clustered chromosomal rearrangements and was recently described to occur in a small percentage of tumors. The significance of these clusters for tumor development or metastatic spread is largely unclear.
RESULTS: We used genome-wide long mate-pair sequencing and SNP array profiling to reveal that chromothripsis is a widespread phenomenon in primary colorectal cancer and metastases. We find large and small chromothripsis events in nearly every colorectal tumor sample and show that several breakpoints of chromothripsis clusters and isolated rearrangements affect cancer genes, including NOTCH2, EXO1 and MLL3. We complemented the structural variation studies by sequencing the coding regions of a cancer exome in all colorectal tumor samples and found somatic mutations in 24 genes, including APC, KRAS, SMAD4 and PIK3CA. A pairwise comparison of somatic variations in primary and metastatic samples indicated that many chromothripsis clusters, isolated rearrangements and point mutations are exclusively present in either the primary tumor or the metastasis and may affect cancer genes in a lesion-specific manner.
CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that chromothripsis is a prevalent mechanism driving structural rearrangements in colorectal cancer and show that a complex interplay between point mutations, simple copy number changes and chromothripsis events drive colorectal tumor development and metastasis.

Gao Y, Hayes RB, Huang WY, et al.
DNA repair gene polymorphisms and tobacco smoking in the risk for colorectal adenomas.
Carcinogenesis. 2011; 32(6):882-7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
DNA damage is thought to play a critical role in the development of colorectal adenoma. Variation in DNA repair genes may alter their capacity to correct endogenous and exogenous DNA damage. We explored the association between common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DNA repair genes and adenoma risk with a case-control study nested in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. A total of 1338 left sided, advanced colorectal adenoma cases and 1503 matched controls free of left-sided polyps were included in the study. Using DNA extracted from blood, 3144 tag SNPs in 149 DNA repair genes were successfully genotyped. Among Caucasians, 30 SNPs were associated with adenoma risk at P < 0.01, with four SNPs remaining significant after gene-based adjustment for multiple testing. The most significant finding was for a non-synonymous SNP (rs9350) in Exonuclease-1 (EXO1) [odds ratio (OR) = 1.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.11-1.51, P = 0.001)], which was predicted to be damaging using bioinformatics methods. However, the association was limited to smokers with a strong risk for current smokers (OR = 2.15, 95% CI = 1.27-3.65) and an intermediate risk for former smokers (OR = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.14-1.82) and no association for never smokers (OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.76-1.25) (P(interaction) = 0.002). Among the top findings, an SNP (rs17503908) in ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) was inversely related to adenoma risk (OR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.63-0.91). The association was restricted to never smokers (OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.40-0.76) with no increased risk observed among smokers (OR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.70-1.13) (P(interaction) = 0.006). This large comprehensive study, which evaluated all presently known DNA repair genes, suggests that polymorphisms in EXO1 and ATM may be associated with risk for advanced colorectal adenoma with the associations modified by tobacco-smoking status.

Kretschmer C, Sterner-Kock A, Siedentopf F, et al.
Identification of early molecular markers for breast cancer.
Mol Cancer. 2011; 10(1):15 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the mammary gland represents an early, pre-invasive stage in the development of invasive breast carcinoma. Since DCIS is a curable disease, it would be highly desirable to identify molecular markers that allow early detection. Mice transgenic for the WAP-SV40 early genome region were used as a model for DCIS development. Gene expression profiling was carried out on DCIS-bearing mice and control animals. Additionally, a set of human DCIS and invasive mammary tumors were analyzed in a similar fashion. Enhanced expression of these marker genes in human and murine samples was validated by quantitative RT-PCR. Besides, marker gene expression was also validated by immunohistochemistry of human samples. Furthermore in silico analyses using an online microarray database were performed.
RESULTS: In DCIS-mice seven genes were identified that were significantly up-regulated in DCIS: DEPDC1, NUSAP1, EXO1, RRM2, FOXM1, MUC1 and SPP1. A similar up-regulation of homologues of the murine genes was observed in human DCIS samples. Enhanced expression of these genes in DCIS and IDC (invasive ductal carcinoma) was validated by quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry.
CONCLUSIONS: By comparing murine markers for the ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the mammary gland with genes up-regulated in human DCIS-samples we were able to identify a set of genes which might allow early detection of DCIS and invasive carcinomas in the future. The similarities between gene expression in DCIS and invasive carcinomas in our data suggest that the early detection and treatment of DCIS is of utmost relevance for the survival of patients who are at high risk of developing breast carcinomas.

Dong X, Li Y, Hess KR, et al.
DNA mismatch repair gene polymorphisms affect survival in pancreatic cancer.
Oncologist. 2011; 16(1):61-70 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: DNA mismatch repair (MMR) maintains genomic stability and mediates cellular response to DNA damage. We aim to demonstrate whether MMR genetic variants affect overall survival (OS) in pancreatic cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using the Sequenom method in genomic DNA, we retrospectively genotyped 102 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 13 MMR genes from 706 patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma seen at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. Association between genotype and OS was evaluated using multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression models.
RESULTS: At a false discovery rate of 1% (p ≤ .0015), 15 SNPs of EXO1, MLH1, MSH2, MSH3, MSH6, PMS2, PMS2L3, TP73, and TREX1 in patients with localized disease (n = 333) and 6 SNPs of MSH3, MSH6, and TP73 in patients with locally advanced or metastatic disease (n = 373) were significantly associated with OS. In multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression models, SNPs of EXO1, MSH2, MSH3, PMS2L3, and TP73 in patients with localized disease, MSH2, MSH3, MSH6, and TP73 in patients with locally advanced or metastatic disease, and EXO1, MGMT, MSH2, MSH3, MSH6, PMS2L3, and TP73 in all patients remained significant predictors for OS (p ≤ .0015) after adjusting for all clinical predictors and all SNPs with p ≤ .0015 in single-locus analysis. Sixteen haplotypes of EXO1, MLH1, MSH2, MSH3, MSH6, PMS2, PMS2L3, RECQL, TP73, and TREX1 significantly correlated with OS in all patients (p ≤ .001).
CONCLUSION: MMR gene variants may have potential value as prognostic markers for OS in pancreatic cancer patients.

Haghighi MM, Taleghani MY, Mohebbi SR, et al.
Impact of EXO1 polymorphism in susceptibility to colorectal cancer.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers. 2010; 14(5):649-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND AIM: One candidate gene for colorectal cancer (CRC) susceptibility is exonuclease 1 (EXO1). It is a member of RAD2 nuclease family, which plays a major role in mismatch repair, DNA replication, and recombination. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms are shown to be related with cancer incidence. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between the L757P polymorphism at exon 13 of the EXO1 gene and the risk of CRC in Iranian patients.
METHODS: In this case-control study, 90 cases and 98 healthy control samples were analyzed genetically. The EXO1 polymorphism, P757L, was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The obtained polymorphisms were examined for the relationship with CRC risk and also clinicopathological characteristics.
RESULTS: Our findings showed that patients with the Leu/Leu genotype have a reduced risk of CRC (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.192, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.040-0.921) when the Pro/Leu and Pro/Pro genotypes were blended and they were considered as the reference. The Leu/Leu genotype also showed a reduced risk (adjusted OR = 0.168, 95% CI: 0.034-0.816) when the Pro/Pro genotype was a reference; nevertheless, the Pro/Leu genotype did not reveal a significant association with CRC at the same status (adjusted OR = 0.686, 95% CI: 0.367-1.284).
CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide evidence diagnosing that the Leu/Leu genotype of EXO1 showed an inverse association with CRC. In addition, despite other investigations, we could define a significant association between the Leu allele and CRC (p = 0.001).

Ioana M, Angelescu C, Burada F, et al.
MMR gene expression pattern in sporadic colorectal cancer.
J Gastrointestin Liver Dis. 2010; 19(2):155-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Colorectal carcinoma is the second leading cause of death by cancer in Europe as its incidence increases with life span. Continuing research to detect new highly sensitive and specific noninvasive biomarkers is essential. The aim of this study was to compare 9 mismatching repair (MMR) genes activation levels in normal, polyp and malignant tissues in order to detect a MMR gene expression pattern in sporadic colorectal malignant pathology.
METHODS: MMR mRNA levels were evaluated in tumor-normal tissue paired samples and polyps collected from 29 patients undergoing standard surgical procedures with curative intention. Real-Time quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR (qRT PCR) with TaqMan probes specific to ANKRD17, EXO1, MLH1, MLH3, MSH2, MSH3, MSH4, MSH5, MSH6 gene transcripts were used.
RESULTS: The general tendency observed was a lower mRNA level of MMR genes in tumor samples compared with the normal tissue, with the exception of EXO1 gene. The number of patients that showed a higher expression of MMR genes in normal tissue was significantly greater than the number of patients that showed a higher expression inside the tumor (p=0.0024). ANKRD17 mRNA levels were higher in normal tissue than in tumor for 16 cases, by contrast with only 6 cases of higher mRNA levels in tumor.
CONCLUSIONS: ANKRD17 mRNA appears to be the most sensitive target and may have a potential value as an additional marker for the existing multitarget assay panel for colorectal cancer detection.

Bau DT, Wang HC, Liu CS, et al.
Single-nucleotide polymorphism of the Exo1 gene: association with gastric cancer susceptibility and interaction with smoking in Taiwan.
Chin J Physiol. 2009; 52(6):411-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Exonuclease 1 (Exo1) is an important nuclease involved in the mismatch repair system that contributes to the maintenance of genomic stability, modulation of DNA recombination and mediation of cell cycle arrest. Potential polymorphisms in Exo1 may alter cancer risks by influencing the repair activity of Exo1. We hypothesized that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Exo1 might be associated with risks of gastric cancer. In this hospital-based study, the association of Exo1 A-1419G (rs3754093), C-908G (rs10802996), A238G (rs1776177), C498T (rs1635517), K589E (rs1047840), G670E (rs1776148), C723R (rs1635498), L757P (rs9350) and C3114T (rs851797) polymorphisms with gastric cancer risk in a central Taiwanese population was investigated. In total, 179 patients with gastric cancer and 179 age- and gender-matched healthy controls recruited from the China Medical Hospital in central Taiwan were genotyped. A significantly different distribution was found in the frequency of the Exol K589E genotype, but not the other genotypes, between the gastric cancer and control groups. The A allele Exol K589E conferred a significant (P = 0.0094) increased risk of gastric cancer. Gene-environment interactions with smoking were significant for Exo1 K589E polymorphism, which showed that the Exo1 K589E AG/AA genotype in association with smoking conferred an increased risk of 2.07-fold (95% confidence interval = 1.22-3.50) for gastric cancer. Our results provide the first evidence that the A allele of the Exo1 K589E may be associated with the development of gastric cancer and may be a novel and useful marker for primary prevention and anticancer intervention.

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